This is a threaded discussion page for the International Stuttering Awareness Day Online Conference paper,
Issues of culture and stuttering: A South African Perspective by Harsha Kathard. 


Cross-cultural problems

From: Ed Feuer
Date: 10/3/98
Time: 10:47:03 PM
Remote Name: 207.161.63.115

Comments

What have you found with respect to these two elements: When there are ethnocultural groups with a history
of hostility and one stutters, there is additional impetus for avoidance because of the belief that one does not
want to shame one's group or let down the side. 2. Where there is a mulilingual environment within the
group, there is additional opportunity for word substitution. — Ed Feuer


Re: Cross-cultural problems

From: Harsha Kathard to Ed Feuer
Date: 10/9/98
Time: 6:46:50 AM
Remote Name: 192.96.21.51

Comments

Dear Ed 

Thank you for your questions. 

Question One : Additional impetus for avoidance 

We have not conducted any formal evaluation of this. However, my observations and the observations of
students in the clinical setting have indicated that there may be increased impetus for avoidance for some
individuals who stuuter when they have to communicate with others of different backgrounds. The factors
which seem significant are those related to language used, proficiency in a language and percieved power
imbalances. Some individuals of African backgrounds have reported that they have a greater tendency to
avoid converstaions with people of other cultural backgrounds especially if they arenot proficient in the
language. The percievedpower imbalances between white and black people are sometimes reported. Black
clients feel threathened in such a situation and often results in a tendency to avoid. Their expplanations for
why they avoid relate to feelings of shame and embarrassment of stuttering and having to deal with stresses
of cross cultural communication. Hope that makes sense. Question Two : Additional opportunity for word
substitution Our assessment with clients who are multilingual indicate that they do substitute words from
other languages they speak. It is sometimes done as a natural part of communication to enhance meaning and
sometimes to avoid stuttering. It happens more frequently in situations where the listener shares the same
common language. We have observed that Zulu speakers also substitute Zulu words for English when they
are less proficient in English. 


stammering and writting

From: victor
Date: 10/8/98
Time: 7:26:19 PM
Remote Name: 134.29.31.123

Comments

I will like to know if someones speech can affect their writting? I think my speech does affect my writting.
When I am writting letters like b, d, p and so on, I turn to repeat the straight line before do the curve. I
didn't experiement this writting problem back home (Cameroon). It keeps growing worst as my speech
grows worst. If there is such pattern, what's it call, and can we slow down it's progression.


Re: stammering and writting

From: Harsha to Victor
Date: 10/9/98
Time: 7:05:00 AM
Remote Name: 192.96.21.51

Comments

Dear Victor 

I dont know very much about this> However, speech and writing are motor processes and do have
commonalities. People who stutter do not typically have problems with writing. Yours seems to be
interesting. I once knew someone who would block/ get stuck when speaking and writing. What i would
suggest is that you have an assessment done - do you know a speech therapist or a neurologist/
neuropsychologist to really analyse the problem so that something can be done to help you. May be people
taking part in this conference - who know more about the neuropsychology and stuttering and cluttering may
be able to help 


The African experience

From: Speak Easy Inc.
Date: 10/9/98
Time: 7:27:55 AM
Remote Name: 207.179.135.81

Comments

Congratulations on a fascinating paper! Having read extensively about stuttering as it is perceived in the
Euro/American culture, it is eye-opening to read information about stuttering in other cultures. The cultural
bias, with its own set of rules, must make your jobs far, far more difficult! Thank you for the information.


Re: The African experience

From: Harsha Kathard
Date: 10/14/98
Time: 3:13:37 AM
Remote Name: 192.96.21.51

Comments

Thank you foryour interest and comment- the experience hare is different which makes working here very
challenging


bilingualism X stuttering in children

From: Mara Daher Piccarone
Date: 10/11/98
Time: 6:39:10 AM
Remote Name: 200.230.210.3

Comments

I am a brazilian SLP. In the school I have a child who is bilingual and she is stuttering now. Do you have
some articles to suggest to me. I need to read something specific.I saw two references in your article(
Jordaan and Watson) but I don't know how to get them.Maybe you can suggest me others. Thank you. 


Re: bilingualism X stuttering in children

From: Harsha Kathard
Date: 10/14/98
Time: 3:16:02 AM
Remote Name: 192.96.21.51

Comments

Dear Mara 

Thank you for your question- please send me your addresa and i will make some articles available to you. 

Regards 

harsha


Re: bilingualism X stuttering in children

From: Mara Ligia C. Daher Picarone
Date: 10/14/98
Time: 11:27:15 AM
Remote Name: 200.230.210.3

Comments

Dear Harsha 

Many thanks by your interest. My adress is: Rua Dr. Jočo Tavares 158 apto 33 Zip Code: 18051-320
Sorocaba S.Paulo Brazil


Impact of Culture on Therapy

From: Leah Thompson in Phoenix, AZ
Date: 10/13/98
Time: 10:03:54 AM
Remote Name: 209.141.106.136

Comments

As a student of Speech-language pathology at Arizona State University, I found this article fascinating
because I had never before realized the impact that culture should have on our therapy. I knew of course that
culture affects the way we communicate with others, but I had never realized how much we need to know
about the cultures of those whom we are serving.


Re: Article 7

From: Harsha Kathard
Date: 10/14/98
Time: 3:19:58 AM
Remote Name: 192.96.21.51

Comments

Dear Leah 

thank you for your comment Duringstudent training- i have experimented a little i start the clinical year
without any discussion on cultural issues - ifind that students do not consider them at this point- however,
once the issues are discussed and made concrete there is a whole new dimension added to the therapeutic
process. I am glad that you benefitted - the generaal issues apply in all contexts with all clients. 

Regards Harsha


bi/multilingual therapy

From: Tammy and Darci
Date: 10/19/98
Time: 4:10:25 PM
Remote Name: 134.29.30.43

Comments

When working with an individual who is bi/multilingual and who also stutters in both/all languages, should
therapy focus on one language, or should all languages be addressed? If therapy is focused on one language,
can it be assumed that the techniques learned will carry over to other languages?


Re: bi/multilingual therapy

From: Jaan Pill
Date: 10/21/98
Time: 10:07:59 PM
Remote Name: 207.34.226.192

Comments

I do not have a direct answer to the previous question. I would like to just refer to my own experience.
English is my third language. Swedish was my second language. Estonian was my first. 

I live in Toronto where I work as a school teacher. I had treatment in Edmonton, Alberta, in English, and
did very well as a result. I have done a lot of work applying what I have learned over the past 11 years. 

In 1990 I went to Estonia and delivered some lectures, in Estonian, on Western approaches to stuttering
treatment. I found I had to speak much more slowly in Estonian, in order to apply my fluency skills. Also, I
had to deal with the fact that my vocabulary in Estonian is limited as compared to English. Also, I had
learned the fluency skills in English, when I attended the Institute for Stuttering Treatment and Research in
Edmonton. In my case there was no automatic crossover from English to Estonian. 

If I wanted to be as proficient in applying my fluency skills in Estonian as I am in applying them in English,
I think that the key (in my case) would be (a) to increase my vocabulary and general command of the
language in Estonian, and (b) practice applying all of the fluency skills in Estonian, instead of in English. I
am reminded of research indicating that young children who stutter also have problems dealing with
language, at a lingusitics level. I can appreciate the difficulty that young children experience in this regard,
having encountered related problems as an adult speaking in Estonian with a limited vocabulary and a less
than complete grasp of syntax and grammar when it comes to speaking in Estonian on any but the most
rudimentary topics. 

When I gave the series of lectures in Estonia, in 1990, I spent several weeks practising my fluency skills,
and doing transfers of fluency skills, all in Estonian. That helped. I also got a self-help colleague from
Estonia, Andres Loorand, to help me translate technical terms related to speech-language pathology from
English into Estonian. That was a great help. The trip led to the formation (after my departure) of the
Estonian Association for People Who Stutter. I much enjoyed the trip and I hope that some time I might have
time to improve my Estonian further and travel in those parts again. 

Jaan Pill, Chair, Outreach Working Group, International Fluency Association


Re: Correction re: Outreach Working Group

From: Jaan Pill
Date: 10/21/98
Time: 10:15:44 PM
Remote Name: 207.34.226.192

Comments

By mistake, I listed myself in the previous message as Chair, Outreach Working Group, International
Fluency Association. I meant to say Chair, Outreach Working Group, International Stuttering
Association. 

I have been involved in volunteer work on behalf of IFA in the past, and now am involved in work on
behalf of ISA. I see IFA, ISA, and ELSA as all part of an informal, untitled, unnamed international
network of people who stutter, speech professionals, and researchers all working toward the same goals.

The recent online ISAD conference, and related ISAD events in Canada, have really brought home for me
how much stronger and how much more extensive the entire international network has grown in recent
years. There are so many more people pitching in as volunteers ina ll of this work. That's really exciting
and energizing to see. The work that we are all doing together really matters, and really makes a
difference. 

Jaan Pill


Re: Correction re: Outreach Working Group

From: Harsha
Date: 10/22/98
Time: 2:13:33 AM
Remote Name: 192.96.21.51

Comments

No problem I have found this to be an enriching experience and have made a lot of contact with people who
have the same interests. Regards 

Harsha 


Re: bi/multilingual therapy

From: Harsha Kathard
Date: 10/22/98
Time: 2:10:36 AM
Remote Name: 192.96.21.51

Comments

Dear Jaan 

Thank you - it wasmost interesting to hear about your experiences- if there isone thing that i have learned-
people who stuuter are individuals and therefore their stuttering must be considered in the context of their
lives- yours is a prime example. what i did find interesting and something that i have notedin mu clinic - is
that the development of vocabulary and linguistic skill is really important when working with fluency skills
in a second language. In this context many learn their skills in their second or thrdlanguage and find that
application to the first language fairly manageable. Congratulations on your efforts n improving the support
for people who stutter. Regards 

Harsha


Re: bi/multilingual therapy

From: Jaan Pill
Date: 10/22/98
Time: 8:44:50 AM
Remote Name: 207.81.165.22

Comments

Harsha, 

It's interesting about language and linguistics factors. I've found it interesting that the literature.g., Woody
Starkweather's Demands and Capacities model) addresses these factors for young children who stutter in
their own language. Smith (in print) has been exploring this area in some detail. I find it fascinating. It's
been a great conference. 

Jaan 



Re: bi/multilingual therapy

From: Harsha Kathard
Date: 10/22/98
Time: 2:02:16 AM
Remote Name: 192.96.21.51

Comments

Dear Tammy and darcy 

Thank you for your question. It is very difficult to make a general statement that would apply to all clients -
these decisions must be made with consideration of the clinicians' and clients languages. The issues that
must be considered relate to language proficiency and preference. We have found that whilst stuttering is
assessed in both/ all languages , the primary focus is on one language - however, there is much discussion
about the application of skills in other languages. Clients have reported that they have attempted to allpy
skills in all languages witha fair deal of success. I feel that agoal of therapy must be to apply skills in
thelanguag/s that the client uses. Assessing and treating in both languages allows the clinician to understand
the application and sociocultural issues better thereby enhancing amore complete understanding of the client.
If you work with a client who uses a language that you are not familiar with, then have some one who does
speak the language assist you. the preparation of resource material is particularly useful. I hope this is
useful. 

Regards Harsha