Adams, M. (1988). Five-year retrospective on stuttering theory, research, and therapy: 1982-1987. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 399-405.

The purpose of this retrospective was to review the theories, research and treatment for stuttering between the years of 1982- 1987. The following theories were reviewed: Starkweather's demands and capacities model, Kent's reduced capacity for temporal regulation, Andrews and associates' internal model of the relationship between motor acts and the various sensory stimuli they produce, Yeudall's three-dimensional, hierarchical concept of the brain and its functioning, and Perkins' involuntary disruption in the flow of speech. Research trends have involved direct physiological, and indirect acoustic, studies of stutterers' speech production abilities and their stuttering. Therapy has involved increased attention to the language abilities of young stutterers during both their evaluation and treatment.

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Adams, MR. (1987). Voice Onsets and Segment Durations of Normal Speakers and Beginning Stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 133-139.

To better explore the possibility of discrepancies between the speech production abilities of stuttering and normal speakers, voice onset times (VOT) and segmental durations were assessed in 5 stuttering and 5 nonstuttering preschoolers. VOTs, initial consonants, and vowel durations were measured. Results demonstrated that the preschoolers who stuttered had slower VOTs and their mean initial consonant and vowel durations were longer.

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Acton, C. (2004). A conversation analytic perspective on stammering: Some reflections and observations. STAMMERING RESEARCH, 1, 249-270. http://www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk

Qualitative research can aid in studying aspects of stuttering that have been given less attention or that have been ignored altogether. Conversation analysis is one type of qualitative research that could increase our knowledge of stuttering. This paper explores literature on interactional, or conversational, aspects of stuttering such as turn-taking, adjacency pairs, and response tokens. More information is needed about natural conversations in order to fully understand communication interactions of and with those who stutter. The conversation analytic perspective is a promising tool to help uncover and understand various behaviors of people who stutter.

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Adams, M.R. (1992). Childhood stuttering under "positive" conditions. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH - LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY 1, 5-6.

Adams gives reasons why children stutter during "positive" conditions. Adams gives his subjective impressions that any number of four patterns may be present in a given case. Parents and clinicians need to look for possible negative factors that might be undermining their young child's fluency. Parents identify positive and negative factors by participating in parental counseling.

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Adams, M. & Webster, L.M. (1989). Case selection strategies with children "at risk" for stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 11-16.

This examines strengths and weaknesses of strategies used to determine if services should be provided to fluency clients. The first to be discussed is the "differential diagnostic approach" in which a clinician uses behavior criteria to differentiate children that may be at risk, normally disfluent, or are already labeled as a "stutterer". The next case selection strategy is the "individualized treatment for all approach" where the issue of the validity of clinical labels or groupings is avoided and some type of intervention is offered to every child. These approaches are compared to view their similarities and differences and the need for studies addressing surrounding issues is discussed.
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Alexander, T. (2006). Our time provides kids their time. JOURNAL OF STUTTERING, ADVOCACY & RESEARCH, 1, 33-35. http://www.journalofstuttering.com/ListofArticles.html.

Founded in 2001, Our Time Theatre Company became an opportunity for young people who stutter to express themselves in their own voices and in their own time. Our Time is a non-profit organization working with children and young adults who stutter (ages 8-19). Rehearsal meeting are weekly and run for a 34-week period and concludes with a professional production of a play written and performed by the young people of Our Time. Many people who stutter allow the fear and shame associated to control their lives. The staff at Our Time wants young people to believe in their power, imagination, and self-worth, and to understand that they can be whatever they want to be, and that stuttering will not hold them back from their dreams!
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Alm, PA. (2004). Stuttering, emotions, and heart rate during anticipatory anxiety: a critical review. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 123-133.

The study in this article focuses on any effects or changes that occur in emotions and heart rate during anticipatory anxiety. Within the study is an overview of the autonomic nervous system and the freezing/fighting response in relation to their effects in a person who stutters. It was noted that a person who stutters would often react in a "freezing moment" during a stressful speech situation in correlation with the feeling of helplessness or loss of control. This study found a reduction in the heart rate of those persons who stuttered when tested. Although heart rate was decreased skin conductance and pulse volume showed similar results for both stutterers and fluent speakers. No conclusive evidence was given to explain the reduction in heart rate when obvious anxiety occurs in speakers who stutter during speech related situations.
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Alm, P.A., & Risberg, J. (2007). Stuttering in adults: the acoustic startle response, tempermental traits, and biological factors. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 40, 1-41.

This article analyzes the relationship of stuttering and a number of factors including acoustic startle, biochemical variables (calcium, magnesium, and prolactin), anxiety, temperament, and neurological lesions (concussion and head injuries). A heightened level of neuromuscular reactivity has been hypothesized in adults. The current study researches this hypothesis and involves 32 adults who developmentally stutter compared to 28 persons without speech problems. Many questionnaires, temperament scales and large test batteries were used as measures in the study. No statistical group difference was shown between the group who stuttered and the controls regarding the startle. However, startle was positively correlated with trait anxiety. There were no significant group differences found regarding the biochemical variables. The group who stuttered had a result of lower calcium levels. Pre-onset events resulting in neurological lesions were also supported by the current study. Overall, the anxiety was found to be primarily caused from the stuttering experiences.
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Ambrose, N. G. (2004). Theoretical perspectives on the cause of stuttering. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCES AND DISORDERS, 31, 80-91.

This article focused on the different etiologies of stuttering. The main etiologies that it discussed were psychology, learning theory, and biology. In the section about psychological causes the article discussed many different individuals and their views about stuttering being psychological. One of these views were Freud's, where he said, "Stuttering is an overt symptom of something else - unconscious, deep-seated neurotic disorder." This article also talked about the idea that stuttering is learned, and once again discussed many people's views dealing with this belief, like Wendell Johnson's diagnosogenic theory. Finally, the article discussed the theory that stuttering is biological, and discussed different views from people and EEGs and MRIs. The article concludes by saying that there is probably something in the brain, but maybe other genetic factors or environmental factors may "trigger" stuttering.
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Ambrose, N., Cox, N., & Yairi, E. (1997). the Genetic Basis of Persistence and Recovery in Stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 40, 567-580.

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the susceptibility to stuttering and genetics. Two questions were investigated: "Is there a sex effect in recovery from stuttering?" and "Is persistence/recovery in stuttering transmitted in families?". Subjects were recruited from the University of Illinois area through referrals and 66 subjects participated. Results of the study confirm that stuttering is familial. Four primary conclusions were derived. There is a greater proportion of females than males that recover from stuttering, persistence and recovery are both familial, there is statistical evidence for both a major locus and polygenic components contributing to both persistent and recovered stuttering, and persistent and recovered stuttering are unlikely to be genetically independent disorders. Overall, data from this study support the hypothesis that persistent and recovered stuttering possess a common genetic etiology.
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Ambrose, N., Paden, E., Watkins, R., & Yairi, E. (2001). What is stuttering? JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 3, 585-597.

This article was written in response to a letter that was written by Professor Wingate (2001). It was recently published in the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. The authors have made several opposing statements in regards to Wingate's argument. The authors feel that Wingate has harshly violated the fundamental measures of accuracy, validity, and internal consistency, as well as reliance on published data. The authors focus on these principles and respond with their own arguments against Wingate's attacks on their report on persistency and natural recovery in children who stutter.
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Ambrose, N.G. & Yairi. E. (1994). The Development of Awareness of Stuttering in Preschool Children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, v19. n4, Dec.

This was a three year study with twenty preschool children who stuttered and twenty age and gender matched, normally fluent children in the Champaign Illinois area. The children were shown a videotape of two puppets: one fluent and one nonfluent. Each child was asked separately to point to the puppet that talks the way you do . The study found that there is some awareness for some children at an early age. They also found that as age increases, awareness also increases.
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Ambrose, N.G., & Yairi, E. (1999). Early childhood stuttering I: Persistence and recovery rates. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH, 24, 1097-1112.

The purpose of this study was to study the characteristics of stuttering during the early childhood. The focus was placed on the likelihood of persistent stuttering and spontaneous recovery from stuttering. The study included 147 preschool children who stuttered. They were periodically assessed for several years since their onset of stuttering. The study indicated a continual decrease in the frequency and severity of stuttering as children aged and as many children progressed to recovery. This study also discussed if a pattern was present in those who recovered and why others didn't recover. The study suggests more research needs to focus on the patterns of recovery.
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Ambrose, N.G., Yairi, E., & Cox, N. (1993). Genetic aspects of early childhood stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 36, 701-706.

This report looks at genetic perspectives of stuttering with emphasis on preschool children, close to stuttering onset, including those children who recover and those who continue to stutter into adulthood. Sixty nine children participated in the study, ages 2.1- 6.3 years. Data was collected on family history and stuttering through interviews, followed by a segregation analysis. Results indicate that more than 2/3 of children who stutter, report that others in their family stutter also. The male to female ratio is higher among subjects with other family members who stutter, and 1:1 for subjects that reported no family members stutter. There were more males who stutter than females, but male and female stutters often have equal numbers of reported family stutterers. The frequency of stuttering was also higher among first degree relatives than among second and third degree relatives.
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Ambrose, N.G., & Yairi, E. (2001). Longitudinal studies of childhood stuttering: Evaluation of critiques. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 4, 867-872.

Ambrose and Yairi wrote this article in response to the attacks made on them by Ingham and Bothe (2001). They state that despite the progress that's been achieved in research methodology and strong consistent evidence for natural recovery, they regret that several professionals have maintained ignorant perspectives on the issue. Ambrose and Yairi provide statements in this article in defense of their previous research in the Illinois Studies. They feel that their willingness to modify their position as evidence develops reflects scientific integrity, and also the belief that a single, brief counseling session was a probable cause of the high rate of recovery, is unreasonable. The authors continue to defend other arguments, such as parental source information, home speech samples, and SLD versus stuttering. They also discuss the use of proximal versus distal variables and genetic factors that affect recovery. The authors firmly believe that there is more than one method and/or measure that is useful for the study of stuttering and that a narrow approach would delay progress.
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Ambrose, N.G., & Yairi, E. (2001). Perspectives on stuttering: Response to Onslow & Packman (2001). JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 3, 595-597.

This article was written by Ambrose and Yairi in response to Onslow and Packman's (2001) article: Ambiguity and algorithms in diagnosing early stuttering: Comments on Ambrose & Yairi (1999). Ambrose and Yairi state that although Onslow and Packman raised valid issues about their data, they may have taken the data and conclusions out of context. Ambrose and Yairi claim the following items in response to the three issues raised by Onslow and Packman: 1) they selected children perceived as stuttering or normally fluent, 2) they did use the weighted SLD measure (along with several others) to examine disfluencies, and 3) they reported, given that people were identified as stuttering, what disfluency behaviors were exhibited.
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Ambrose, N., & Yairi, E. (2002). The Tudor study: data and ethics. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 2, 190-203.

Recent exposure of the Tudor Study that was conducted in 1939 at the University of Iowa with the aim of studying the effects of verbal labeling on the frequency of disfluent children who stutter has raised strong reactions in the general and medical communities. Allegedly, the investigator and her mentor, a past leader in the field, were successful in their attempts to induce stuttering in normally speaking children. The potential clinical implications of such conclusions for the treatment of early childhood stuttering has had effects on the recent developments that suggest direct intervention with preschool children who show signs of stuttering. The purpose of this article is to re-examine the results of the Tudor Study, and to discuss its related broad range of ethical issues.
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Amir, O., & Yairi, E. (2002). The effect of temporal manipulation on the perception of disfluencies as normal or stuttering. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 35, 63-82.

This study compared the temporal features of speech repetitions of normally fluent speakers with people who stutter. The vowel length and the interval between repeated speech units (part-word and whole-word repetitions) are typically shorter in persons who stutter than in fluent speakers. After the vowel length and time interval between speech units were lengthened using computer software, listeners were more likely to perceive the repetitions as normal disfluency. Longer intervals between repetitions (slowing the overall rate of repetitions) may make them sound more like normal disfluency.
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Anderson, J.D. (2007). Phonological neighborhood and word frequency effects in the stuttered disfluencies of children who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH, 50. 229-247.

This fluency study focuses on the stuttering-like disfluencies of preschool children who stutter in relation to neighborhood density/frequency and the affect it may or may not have on the production of stuttering-like disfluencies. A speech sample was taken from each of the 15 subjects and values were gathered from an online source. Results proved that fluency is indeed affected by neighborhood and frequency variables and those variables also influence the children's production of stuttering-like disfluencies
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Anderson J. D., (2008) Age of acquisition and repetition priming effects on picture naming of children who do and do not stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, Vol. 33, Issue 2, 135-155.

Children who stutter, and children who do not stutter, between the ages of 3; 1 and 5; 7 participated in computerized picture naming tasks of words acquired early and late in the English language. The purpose of the study was to examine the phonological and semantic development differences of children who stutter and children who do not stutter when presented with words that are considered early age of acquisition, acquired early in language, and later developing words. Both stuttering and non-stuttering groups took more time to respond to words acquired later in language development and no significant differences were noted between the group's errors. Findings concluded that the use of priming and repetition of words that are acquired later in life helps children to process them faster in both groups.
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Anderson, J. D., & Byrd, C. T. (2008). Phonotactic probability effects in children who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE and HEARING RESEARCH, 51, 851-866.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of phonotactic probability on the susceptibility of words to stuttering in naturalistic speech production. (Phonotactic probability refers to the frequency of sound segments and segment sequences such as blends within a language.) A secondary purpose was to determine if the types of disfluencies produced were affected by phonotactic probability. Nineteen children who stuttered, age 3;0-5;8, participated in the study. Language samples were collected in naturalistic settings. Results indicated phonotactic probability did not significantly influence susceptibility to stuttering, however it did appear to have an effect on the type of stuttering-like disfluencies produced.
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Anderson, J.D., & Conture, E.G. (2000). Language abilities of children who stutter a preliminary study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 283-304.

The purpose of this study was to determine 1) whether children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) score differently on standardized receptive/expressive language and receptive vocabulary tests and 2) whether there is a relationship between differences in receptive/expressive and receptive vocabulary scores and total disfluency frequency for CWS and CWNS. Forty subjects were tested in their homes, participating in informal clinician-child conversation and standardized speech-language tests. Results indicate a significant difference in measures of receptive/expressive language and receptive vocabularies for CWS compared to CWNS. This difference was not correlated with the stuttering frequency of CWS. Findings suggest the imbalance of semantic and syntactic development may contribute to difficulty in establishing normal speech fluency.
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Anderson, J.D., Conture, E.G. (2004). Sentence-structure priming in young children who do and do not stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 47, 552-571.

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between children who stutter and children who do not stutter in speech reaction time and correctness of picture explanation during no-prime and syntactic-prime conditions. The study consisted of 32 children; 16 who stutter, and 16 who do not. The participants were matched on the basis of age (3;3- 5;5) and gender (12 male, 4 female) and had no history of neurological, psychological, speech- language, or intellectual problems. The participants were tested on two occasions, at their homes and at the clinic to obtain conversational speech samples. The subjects were assigned to a stuttering group if he or she exhibited more than three disfluencies per 100 words of conversational speech and if he or she were rated mild or worse on the Stuttering Severity Instrument for Children and Adults, Third Edition (SSI). The procedures included a sentence- structure priming task where children responded to pictures. The study found that both the children who stutter and the children who do not stutter were influenced by the syntactic priming; that the children who stutter showed greater improvement in scores during a syntactic-prime condition; that children who stutter provided less correct responses than children who do not stutter; and that children who exhibit more stuttering-like disfluencies in their conversational speech have slower reaction times during no-prime conditions.
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Anderson, J., Pellowski, M., & Conture, E. (2005). Childhood stuttering and dissociations across linguistic domains. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30, 219-253.

100 preschool children were assessed to examine ' the presence of dissociations in the speech and language skills of nonfluent vs. fluent speakers. Four standardized speech-language measures were administered on two occasions to assess the children's receptive and expressive language, vocabulary, and articulation. An informal parent-child conversational interaction took place to gather a 300-word speech sample for the analysis of stuttering and speech dysfluency. Results of this investigation indicated that some speech-language abilities of children who stutter may not be as well developed as children who do not stutter. A subgroup of children who stutter may exist who exhibit dissociations across speech-language domains. It is likely that these children are more susceptible to breakdowns in speech fluency.
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Anderson, J. D., Wagovich, S. A., & Hall, N. E. (2006). Nonword repetition skills in young children who do and do not stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 177-199.

The purpose of this study was to describe the phonological working memory skills of young children who stutter (CWS) and compare them to young children who do not stutter (CWNS). The participants (12 CWS and 12 CWNS ages 3-5 years) completed the children's test of nonword repetition (CNRep) and a battery of standardized language tests. Results demonstrated that CWS produced significantly fewer two- and three-syllable nonwords correctly than their CWNS matches. Also, these children produced significantly more phoneme errors than the CWNS at the three-syllable word level. No significant relationships were evident between CNRep and language scores for CWNS. Results of the present study are in concordance with previous studies examining nonword repetition skills in CWS and CWNS.
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Anderson, J.M., Hood, S.B., & Sellers, D.E. (1988). Central auditory processing abilities of adolescent and preadolescent stuttering and nonstuttering children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 199- 214.

Previous research suggests a relationship between auditory processing disorders and stuttering. Central auditory processing abilities of stutterers and nonstutterers were studied. The results indicate no significant differences between the two subject groups on the central auditory processing tasks. However, an exception to one condition was present, left competing on the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. This suggests that the auditory processing abilities of stutterers develop later than their nonstuttering peers.
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Anderson, J.D., Pellowski, M.W., Conture, E.G., & Kelly, E.M. (2003). Temperamental characteristics of young children who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 1221-1233.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether temperamental characteristics of children who stutter are different from those of children who do not stutter. The authors also looked at the relationship between the onset of stuttering and the temperamental characteristics of the children who stutter. Subjects included 62 children between the ages of 3:0 and 5:4. The children were matched by age, gender, and race in a group of children who stutter and a group of children who do not stutter. Standardized speech and language tests were administered to the subjects and the parents completed a Behavioral Style Questionnaire (BSQ) during an in home visit. Later, during a clinic visit, the children and parents participated in an informal conversational interaction, and the children completed a hearing screening. Results of this study indicated that children who stutter scored above the mean in terms of adaptability and rhythmicity but below the mean in terms of distractibility compared to children who do not stutter. Overall, parents judged 3 to 5- year-old children who stutter to be slower in adapting their behavior to change, more persistent during tasks, and more irregular in daily biological functions such as sleep or hunger compared to children who do not stutter. The authors concluded that such temperamental characteristics might influence or contribute to childhood stuttering.
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Andy, O.J., and Bhatnagar, S.C. (1991). Thalamic-induced stuttering (surgical observations). JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 796-800.

This article discusses the relationship of thalamic discharge and disfluencies. It is a single case study of a surgical procedure on a 29 year old man. The electrode was inserted in 2mm increments. Abnormal thalamic discharges were identified at 1.8 cm. However, when advancing the electrode another 2mm, a discharge was activated along with an 8 second interval of repetition disfluencies. The patient was aware of his disfluencies, but he could not control them. The disfluencies were thought to be a result of discharges of the mesothalamus.
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Archibald, L.; DeNil, LF. (1999). The Relationship Between Stuttering Severity and Kinesthetic Acuity for Jaw Movements in Adults Who Stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 24: 1, 25-42.

Based on previous research, this study looked into a deficiency in the processing of oral kinesthetic sensations in adults who stutter. Twelve subjects, ranging from normally fluent speakers to moderately/severe stutterers, were asked to repeatedly make the smallest possible upward movement with their jaw with visual feedback, and then again without the visual feedback. Results showed that all of the subjects made larger movements when there was no visual feedback, but the persons with very mild stuttering had the most significant increase in movement. When looking at the amount of time it took to make the movements, all subjects took longer when there was no visual feedback, but the persons with moderately/severe stuttering took the longest.
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Arends, N., Povel, DJ., Kolk, H. (1988). Stuttering as an intentional phenomenon. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 141-151.

This study examined the relation between stuttering and attention by means of a dual-task paradigm. Eleven stutters and eleven nonstutterers ages 19-34 were chosen as subjects for this study. The study tested two hypotheses. The "overload" hypothesis assumes that the stutterer has some problem in the motor control of speech and the "regression" hypothesis assumes that a stutterer can speak in an automatic mode, but that for some reason and under particular circumstances regressed to the earlier developmentally controlled mode. All of the subjects performed three speech tasks both alone and in combination with a tracking task. The results showed that the number of disfluencies increased with the complexity of the speech task and that the rate of speech depends highly on the nature of the speech task (decreases with complexity). From this study, it was concluded that at least part of the results supported the regression hypothesis indicating that stuttering may arise from the attempts of the stutterer to produce controlled speech. There were other aspects of the study, however, that still need to be accounted for.
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Ardila, A., Bateman, J.R., Nino, C.R., Pulido, E., Rivera, D.B., & Vanegas, C.J. (1994). An epidemiologic study of stuttering. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 27, 37-48.

The general purpose of this study was to obtain epidemiologic data regarding stuttering from a Spanish-speaking population in South America. The specific goals were to determine the frequency of: a) self-reported stuttering, b) possible risk factors of minor central nervous system dysfunction correlated with self-reported stuttering, c) associated disorders, and d) depression symptoms in those who reported self-stuttering. Results indicated that the presence of self- reported stuttering may be associated with minor brain injury or dysfunction, developmental dyslexia, word-finding problems, language disorders, and/or depressive symptoms.
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Arjunan, K., Rousey, C.G., Rousey, C.L. (1986). Successful treatment of stuttering following closed head injury. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 257-261.

The purpose of this case study was to examine the effects of months of treatment after a head injury. The 41 year old man was in a motor vehicle accident and suffered a cerebral concussion and developed a severe stuttering disorder. After 16 weeks of speech therapy consisting of: a slower speaking rate, use of sign language, reading and writing while speaking. The speech therapy encouraged the use of intact functional systems to develop a more fluent speaking ability. It is thought that underdetermined neurological factors contributed to the stuttering. After the 16 weeks of therapy the patient did! achieve a more fluent speaking ability.
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Armson, Joy; Kiefte, Michael; Mason, Jessica; & De Croos, Dayani. (2006) The effect of SpeechEasy on stuttering frequency in laboratory conditions. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, Volume 31, issue 2, 137-152.

The authors of this article investigated the benefits of the SpeechEasy device in monologue, conversation speech as well as oral reading. Research used thus far has been done on other devices such as the DAF and AAF. The study was done in a laboratory setting to examine the role of the SpeechEasy in reducing stuttering in monologue and conversation as there primary interest. The device was presented in two ways: Device only (participants wore devise and the results were documented) and Device Plus (the participants wore the device with instruction to begin with prolongation of vowels). The results were more dramatic if they prolonged their vowels. All participants had a reduction in at least one of the speaking tasks. It is unknown how much impact the behavioral change of vowel prolongation impacted the devices credibility. More research is needed with a larger population to determine its performance. It continues to be a tool available for therapy techniques.
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Armson, J. & Kiefte, M. (2008). The effect of SpeechEasy on stuttering frequency, speech rate, and speech naturalness. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33, 120-134.

This article analyzed the effect of an Altered Auditory Feedback (AAF) device, the SpeechEasy, on the frequency, rate, and naturalness of speech in 31 adults who stutter by comparing both oral reading and monologue speech samples with and without the SpeechEasy. The results of the study showed a 79% reduction in the frequency of stuttering during oral reading and a 61% reduction during monologue speech when the SpeechEasy device was used. Speech rate was increased by 15% during the oral reading task and 8% during the monologue task when using the device. However, although the speech rate increased, the rate of speech was still lower than that of normally fluent speakers. Speech naturalness increased from 5.3 without the use of the SpeechEasy to 3.3 with the SpeechEasy during the oral reading task and from 5.5 to 3.2 during the monologue task, which is only slightly outside of the normal range of 1-3. The overall results show an increase of fluent speech during a clinical setting; however, the use of the SpeechEasy device during daily living situations should be investigated before determining the long-term treatment potential this may have for people who stutter.
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Arndt, J. & Healey, E.C. (2001). Concomitant disorders in school-age children who stutter. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 32, 2, 68-78.

This article focused on determining the number of children who stutter with verified and suspected concomitant phonological and language disorders. Also, the study assessed the type of treatment clinicians tend to use with these children. Survey Responses were obtained from 241 ASHA-certified, school-based SLPs from ten states that were considered to have similar state verification criteria for fluency, articulation/phonology, and language disorders. Results found that of the 467 children who stuttered who were reported on, 205 (44%) had verified concomitant phonological and/or language disorders. This is an important finding for SLPs in the schools because they need to be aware of the strong possibility that school- aged children who stutter might have a phonological and/or language disorder. Based on the findings, most clinicians use a blended approach (treating both disorders simultaneously), when treating these types of children.
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Arnold, H. S., Conture, E. G., & Ohde, R. N. (2005). Phonological neighborhood density in the picture naming of young children who stutter: Preliminary study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30, 125-148.

The purpose of this article was to evaluate what effect naming phonologically dense and sparse words had on speed reaction time and errors of preschool children who stutter (CWS) and preschool children who did not stutter (CWNS). The examiners used two groups of words that differed in phonological density. Phonological density is determined by how many phonological neighbors a word has. Phonological neighbors are words that differ by one phoneme substitution, deletion or addition. The more neighbors a word has the more dense it is considered. Data revealed both groups speech reaction time was slower and less accurate when naming phonologically dense words. Data also revealed no significant difference between CWS and CWNS speed reaction times or number of errors in relation to phonologically density of words.
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Armson, J., Jenson, S., Gallant, D., Kalinowski, J., & Fee., E. (1997). The relationship between degree of audible struggle and judgments of childhood disfluencies as stuttered or not stuttered. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 1, 42- 50.

This study investigated whether degree of audible struggle can be used to categorically distinguish childhood stuttered disfluencies from normal disfluencies. Thirty-one first year graduate students in communication disorders participated. Speech samples were collected from 12 children aged 33-59 months. Results indicated that as the perception of degree of struggle increased, so did the likelihood that the disfluent production would be judged as stuttered. It is suggested that a rating scale for degree of struggle may be a useful clinical tool for diagnosing childhood stuttering.
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Armson, J., & Kalinowski, J. (1994). Interpreting results of the fluent speech paradigm in stuttering research: Difficulties in separating cause from effect. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37, 69-82.

This paper is a review of past research studies and problems encountered in a search for the cause of stuttering. Specifically reviewed are studies that compare fluent speech of stutterers and nonstutterers. The authors provide evidence which suggests that measures of fluent speech of PWS may be influenced by the context of speech samples, treatment history of subjects, stuttering severity of subjects, and developmental history of stuttering. Alternative methods of research are recommended. These methods include comparison of the nonspeech motor function of stutterers and nonstutterers, examination of conditions associated with increase and decrease in stuttering, and study of the stuttering moment.
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Armson, J., & Stuart, A., (1998) Effect of Extended Exposure to Frequency- Altered Feedback on Stuttering During Reading and Monologue. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 41, 479-490.

The fluency program outlined uses frequency altered auditory feedback to decrease stuttering during both monologues and reading tasks. Twelve adults who stutter spoke into a microphone that increased or decreased their speech by one quarter octave before returning it to the individual's headsets. Half of the participants were chosen to receive an upward shift of _ octave and the other half received downward shift. Reading tasks included reading from a set of 22 passages while the monologue tasks allowed the individual to chose a topic that would facilitate continuous monologue from a set of 20 topics. Results indicated that the number of syllables increased and percentage of stuttering decreased while performing the reading tasks, whereas the monologue tasks recorded no notable changes in these same areas.
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Atkins, C. P. (1988). Perceptions of speakers with minimal eye contact: implications for stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 429-436.

The first objective of this study was to determine percentage definitions of "good," "minimal," and "no" eye contact and the second objective was to determine how others perceive speakers with little or no eye contact. One hundred thirty-three college students responded to a 60-item semantic differential seven-point scale, which contained polarized adjective pairs regarding personality traits. Prior to completing the semantic differential scale, students circle percentages that they felt best described the degrees of eye contact. The majority of the respondents judged a speaker with "good" eye contact to look at his/her listener 90-100% of the time. The speaker with no eye contact was perceived by the majority to look 10% or less of the time. Minimal eye contact was judged to look between 10-50% of the time. Speakers with little or no eye contact were judged negatively on 70% of the personality traits presented. The development of effective eye contact needs to be incorporated as a major goal in stuttering therapy because it is important to the manner in which the stutterer is perceived.
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Attanasio, J. S. (1987). A case of late-onset or acquired stuttering in adult life. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 287-290.

A case report is presented of a 36 year old male who reports stuttering onset at age 29 years. The subject reports the stuttering began when he began experiencing marital difficulties. The symptoms progressed gradually and consist of typical stuttering symptoms. There is tension, anxiety, and concern over not being able to talk "normal." There is a possible link between the stuttering and epilepsy which emerged when the subject was 11 years old.
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Attanasio, JS. (1987). The Dodo was Lewis Carroll, You See: Reflections and Speculations. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 107-118.

Lewis Carroll, the pen name of Charles Ludwidge Dodgson, known as the author of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, suffered from 2 cases of communication disorders: hearing loss in his right ear and stuttering. Carroll's own comments on his own speech indicated that he found it to be a problem that interfered with his personal life. The author of this article speculates that much of the nonsense, humor, and whimsy in Carroll's writing reflect what happens when communication breaks down. He also speculates that much of what Carroll wrote was based at least somewhat on his own conscious or unconscious experiences.
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Attanasio, J.S. (1997). Was Moses a person who stuttered? Perhaps not. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 65-68.

This essay argues that Moses was not a person who stuttered, but rather he had an organic or structural communication disorder which affected the intelligibility of his speech and his articulation.
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Attanasio, J.S., Onslow, M., & Packman, A. (1998). Representativeness Reasoning and the Search for the Origins of Stuttering: A Return to Basic Observations. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 4, 265-277.

This article describes the different theories on the distal and proximal causes of stuttering. Distal is defined as the reason for the existence of stuttering (the underlying causes for the problem) whereas proximal causes try to explain why stuttering can occur for an individual on a daily basis. A pattern of representativeness heuristic is defined as a way to help organize the search for the cause of stuttering by suggesting that the cause is seen in it's effects (the effects resemble the causes that produce them). Anxiety as a cause is emphasized as a key factor in representativeness reasoning. Also, models are given as examples to explain that stuttering can be dynamic and have multi- factorial implications on fluency. But, if stuttering appears complex and multi- factorial it does not necessarily mean that its cause is complex and multi- factorial. This heuristic and early stuttering is discussed by explanation of Ortin- Travis' cerebral dominance theory, Johnson's diagnosogenic theory, and Bloodstein's anticipatory struggle theory. Early repetitions are shown to be beneficial in yielding information to formulate theories on stuttering. There is no data available to prove that stuttering is an anticipatory struggle disorder. It is suggested that recall Froeschel's and Bluemel's thoughts on the cause of stuttering and incorporate representativeness heuristic to find the proximal etiologies of the repetitions of early stuttering.
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Au-Yeung, J., Gomez, I. V., Howell, P. (2003). Exchange of disfluency with age from function words to content words in Spanish speakers who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 754-765.

The purpose of this study was to find if the progression of function word disfluency to content word disfluency observed in English speakers who stutter as they age could also be observed in Spanish speakers who stutter. The study involved 46 monolingual speakers divided into five age groups from ages 3 to 68. Findings of this study support that Spanish speakers who stutter also follow a similar course of disfluency change as they develop. Covert repair hypothesis and EXPLAN theories as well as comparative phonological complexity of English are discussed as possible causes for this trend.
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Au-Yeung, J., Howell, P., & Pilgrim, L. (1998). Phonological words and stuttering on function words. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 41, 1019-1030.

The main purpose of this study was to examine the stuttering rate of function words in people who stutter while considering the phonological word as well as the utterance position. Fifty-one subjects participated and were subdivided into three different child groups (young- two to six years; middle- six to nine years; and older- nine to twelve years), teenagers (thirteen to eighteen years), and adults (twenty to forty years). Four separate, yet related, analysis were performed. Analysis 1 examined the effect of word type (content vs. function) on stuttering rate, Analysis 2 examined the effect of utterance position on stuttering rate in content and function words, Analysis 3 examined the specific position within phonological words on the stuttering rate in both content and function words, and Analysis 4 examined the effect of the position of the function word within a phonological word relative to the content word. Results of Analysis 1 showed that younger speakers were more dysfluent on function words than content words, and older speakers were more dysfluent on content words than function words. Results of Analysis 2 showed that the stuttering rate was higher in function words that were at the beginning of the utterance than at other positions. However, the position of content words did not seem to affect the rate of stuttering. Results of Analysis 3 showed that the stuttering rate was higher for phonological word-initial function words than function words in other positions. However, the stuttering rate did not vary with changing position of content words within phonological words. Results of Analysis 4 showed that the percentage of function words that are stuttered is higher in the pre-content word position than in post-content word positions. These authors concluded that stuttering on function words is dependent on word-external factors, whereas stuttering on content words is dependent on word-inherent factors.
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Au-Yeung, J., Howell, P., & Sackin, S. (2000). Internal Structure of content words leading to lifespan differences in phonological difficulty in stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 1- 20.

This article discusses a study that investigated whether stuttering frequency was affected by factors that determine phonological difficulty and the variances across different age groups. The age groups included children, teenagers, and adults. The study evaluated content and function words and took into consideration phonological factors such as late emerging consonants and consonant strings. The results of the study showed that the frequency of stuttering remained high for adults when late emerging consonants and consonant strings were both present and when they occurred in the initial position.
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Bailey W.R., (1982). Managing the environment of the stutter. JOURNAL OF CHILDHOOD COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 6, 26-39.

Bailey and Bailey explain that many factors have been linked to the disruption of fluency in children. Lack of language facility or oral-motor coordination may contribute, also the structure and harmony in the child's environment can play a significant role in acquiring fluency. This article presents suggestions for parents and teachers of young children who are having difficulties managing fluency. The authors list two general guidelines for helping with childhood fluency. 1. Direct intervention and modeling procedures will promote fluent speech, 2. The child's environment will promote fluent speech The authors give guidelines for parents and teachers to remember when working with a child who is showing some fluency breakdowns. Create and environment which is rich in encouragement and respect, be a good listener, get down to eye level when talking with the child, insure the child has had enough rest, and eliminate time pressures as frequently as possible.
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Bajaj, A. (2007). Working memory involvement in stuttering: Exploring the evidence and research implications. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32, (3), 218-238.

Empirical evidence that supports the correlation between working memory and stuttering, along with the link between the two, are the main topics of discussion within this article. The intention of this articles content is to look into the research dealing with verbal working memory, where phonological storage, phonological retrieval and the execution of speech have been examined more intensely than in stuttering research. An outline of Bradley's (2003) model, with research and support on short-term memory along with the similarities that link verbal working memory to stuttering are proposed. Overall, working memory is crucial to the process of phonological encoding within our speech and language and imperative to higher level cognition.
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Bajaj, A., Hodson, B., & Schommer-Aikins, M. (2004). Performance on phonological and grammatical awareness metalinguistic tasks by children who stutter and their fluent peers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 63-77.

The purpose of this study is to look at metalinguistic skills, including phonological awareness and grammatical awareness, of children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Twenty-three CWS and 23 CWNS participated in the study. The results indicated that CWS do not have deviant phonological awareness skills when compared to their peers who do not stutter. On the grammar judgment task the CWS had scores that were significantly lower that CWNS. However, this could be due to the co-morbid disorders present in 8 of the CWS. This study indicates that CWS do not have metalinguistic skills below that of their peers.
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Bajaj, A., Hodson, B., & Westby, C. (2005). Communication ability conceptions among children who stutter and their fluent peers: A qualitative exploration. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 30(1), 41-64

The current study employed qualitative methods to study the criteria used by 23 male children with stuttering (CWS) and their fluently speaking peers in describing meatalinguistic behaviors which were positive and negative and the participants' self- appraisals as communicators. Verbally-descriptive data form participants was collected by conducting interviews which were then analyzed and transcribed. On transcription thematic categories were identified which formed the bases for group comparisons. The outcome of the study provides evidence that for CWS, good and bad talkers endowed or were lacking principally in fluent, articulate, grammatical, or otherwise vocally proficient behaviors. In contrast CWNS made use of diverse criteria to attend adequately to speaker's speech-language forms and pragmatic behaviors in positive descriptions and gave slight precedence to pragmatic behaviors in negative descriptions. In conclusion it is evident form this study that early conception of communicative abilities among CWS depend upon their stuttering experiences and differ form those communicative abilities of their age matched peers.
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Baker, K, Brutten, G. J. & McQuain, J. (1995). A preliminary assessment of the validity of three instrument-based measures for speech rate determination. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(1), 63-76.

The validity of three instrument-based measures with regard to a potential for implementation in automated procedures for speech rate determination is assessed. Correctional analysis reveals that automated counts of stressed syllables are strongly predictive of live and transcription-based syllable counts. Subsequent studies demonstrate that the number of pauses represent a separate unique dimension. Finally, automated stressed-syllable counts are most promising for clinical applications targeting speech rate modification.
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Bakker, K. (1995). Two supplemental scoring procedures for diagnostic evaluations with the Speech Situations Checklist. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20 (2), 117-126.

The purpose of this article was to expand the traditional use of the Speech Situations Checklist with two new scoring procedures. Analyzing a client's response may help in assessing the nature of stutterer's speech concerns. Therefore, implementing the analysis can provide the client with a systematic hierarchy of speech situations. The article contains several tables which show the results of stutterer's responses to the Speech Situation Checklist.
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Bakker, K. (1996) Cluttering: Current scientific status and emerging research and clinical needs. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21 (3/4), 359-365.

This article attempts to give the best possible answers to questions on how the identifying characteristics and associated symptomatologies of cluttering need to be measured. It discusses the issue of whether or not cluttering exists in its own right, whether or not it is a result exclusively of coexisting perceptuomotor and cognitive anomalies, or a result of both factors.
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Barasch, CT., Guitar, B., McCauley, RJ., Absher, RG. (2000). Disfluency and time perception. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 43, 1429-1439.

This study compared the ability of stuttering and nonstuttering adults to estimate protensity and to distinguish the relative lengths of short tones. They also examined whether there is a correlation between a person's degree of disfluency and the ability to measure protensity or judge the relative length of short tones. Twenty stuttering adult subjects and twenty nonstuttering adult subjects were given the Duration Pattern Sequence Test. A negative correlation was found between degree of disfluency and ability to determine the relative lengths of short tones. A positive correlation was found between degree of disfluency and length of protensity estimates.
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Belknap, H., Finn, P., Ingham, R.J., & Sato, W. (2001). The modification of speech naturalness during rhythmic stimulation treatment of stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 4, 841-852.

The research article focused on a study in which the authors investigated the modification of speech naturalness during stuttering treatment. This particular study is a replication of a study done by Ingham and Onslow (1985). The only difference between the two being that the latter addressed the effect of using speech- naturalness-rating feedback to increase as well as decrease the speech-naturalness ratings of specific listeners. The study used three people who stutter: two female adolescents and one adult male. The data was collected by having the participants sit in sound-treated rooms, wear headphones, and speak on topics of their choice. Each participant completed ten 5-minute trials while using a metronome stimulus. Two listeners sat outside the rooms and rated speech- naturalness. Results for two of the participants showed that when stuttering is reduced to near-zero levels during rhythmic stimulation, it's possible to shape the person's speech into relatively natural sounding speech. However, these results were not found in the adult male.
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Bergmann, G. (1986). Studies in stuttering as a prosodic disturbance. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 29, 290-300.

The study described in this article includes two elements regarding the ability of people who stutter (PWS) to produce prosodic features in their speech. The first component studied the ability of the subjects to place appropriate accent and stress patterns when answering questions. Based on the tasks administered, PWS were able to produce appropriate intonation patterns when compared to fluent speakers. The second component of the study examined the relation between stuttered words and stressed or unstressed syllables. Because stuttered words were found significantly more often on stressed syllables, results imply stuttering to be a disturbance in prosody due to motor difficulty.
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Berkowitz, M., Cook, H., & Haughey, M.J. (1994). A non-traditional fluency program developed for the public school setting. LANGUAGE, SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 25, 94-99.

This fluency program focuses on changing student and parental attitudes about stuttering and helping the students gain control over their speech. Student groups met once a week for 1.5 hours and parent groups met one evening a month. The program evolved through many phases with attitudinal issues being addressed before trying to change behaviors. Results indicated improvements in situational avoidance, attitude indicators of significance of stuttering, and indicators of perception of severity. Improvements were also made in frequency, duration, and physical concomitants of stuttering.
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Berstein Ratner, N. (1992). Measurable outcomes of instructions to modify normal parent-child verbal interactions: Implications for indirect stuttering therapy. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 14-20.

This study looked at the differential effects of instructions to slow maternal speech rate, or to slow and simplify maternal speech when conversing with normally fluent children. Twenty normally fluent children and their mothers participated in the study. The instructions to simply slow parental speech rate resulted not only in decreased speech rate, but also in significantly shorter and simpler utterances. No significant differences were found between the effects of the two sets of instructions. Also, the children's speech rate and language complexity did not parallel the maternal adjustments. These findings do not support the use of indirect therapy in parental counseling.
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Bernstein Ratner, N. (1995). Language complexity and stuttering in children. TOPICS IN LANGUAGE DISORDERS, 15 (3), 32-47.

The purpose of this article is to explore the connection between stuttering moments and language formulation. Both clinical and experimental research is reviewed. This research investigates the impact of syntax, lexicon, and conversational demands as they relate to stuttering moments. The frequency and location of the stuttering moments within an utterance is also explored in these studies. Although the relationship between language and stuttering is not yet clearly understood, there are implications for assessment and therapy planning which the author discusses in the article.
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Bernstein Ratner, N., & Silverman, S. (2000). Parental conceptions of children's communication development at stuttering onset. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 43, 1252-1263.

This study focuses on the concept that there has been clinical speculation that parents of young children who stutter have expectations of their children's communication abilities that are not well matched to the children's actual skills. They took 15 subjects who were close to the onset of stuttering symptoms and analyzed their language ability and 15 age, sex, and SES-matched fluent children. Parents completed two parent-report measures of the children's communication development. Results indicated generally depressed performance on all child speech and language measures by the children who stutter. Parent report was closely attuned to child performance for the stuttering children; parents of nonstuttering children were accurate in their predictions of children's communicative performance. Implications for clinical advisement to parents of stuttering children are discussed.
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Betz, I.R., Blood, G.W., & Blood, I.M. (2008). University students' perceptions of pre-school and kindergarten children who stutter. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 41, 259-273.

This study assessed university students' perceptions of a hypothetical child aged three through six to determine if stuttering decreased the students' perceptions of the child. Participants read short paragraphs of hypothetical demographic information for a child. Some of the paragraphs contained demographic information that the child stuttered and some did not. Participants rated how various adjectives applied to the child on a semantic differential scale containing the anchor points _ very much,' _ quite a bit,' _ slightly,' and _ neutral.' The results indicated that the participants rated the hypothetical children who stuttered more negatively.
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Beverung, J., Jensen, P., Markel, N. (1986). Evidence of conversational disrhythmia in stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 183-200.

The study was conducted to investigate if people who stutter have different non-verbal communication styles, frequency of eye contact, difference in body movement, and turn taking, in comparison to people who do not stutter. The examiners hypothesized that more than dysfluencies are involved in the stuttering disorder. The subjects were nine people who stutter and a control group that consisted personal friends to the person who stutters. The subjects completed a word association task, in which, the subjects were to repeat words from a list during video recordings. The video recordings were analyzed and provided that people who stutter maintain less eye contact, experience more body movement, and are one second quicker to respond in reference to latency.
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Black, J. A. (1987). A comparative study of the perception of freedom-in-leisure between stuttering and nonstuttering individuals. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 239-248.

This study tested the hypothesis that stutterers have less freedom in leisure than non- stutterers. The subjects of the study were stuttering and non-stuttering members of the National Stuttering Project. Results indicated no significant difference in level of perceived freedom in leisure, but that stuttering members perceived barriers to freedom in leisure.
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Blair, C., & Smith, A. (1986). EMG recording in human lip muscles: Can single muscles be isolated? JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH. 29, 256-266.

Electromyography (EMG) is a way to record the electrical activity of muscles. This article looks at the possibility of individual perioral lip muscles being isolated through the use of EMG and if the ability to do so is important. Overall, the possibility of isolation is low. Also, this article implies that EMG studies are not appropriate because the structural makeup of the lip is too complicated and the muscle fibers do not have homogeneous mechanical action.
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Blanchet, P. (2006). Using delayed auditory feedback to treat fluency and speech rate in individuals with Parkinson's disease: Specific clinical considerations. JOURNAL OF STUTTERING, ADVOCACY, AND RESEARCH, 1(3), 94-101.

This article follows-up a previous article, also done by Blanchet and Hoffman (2006). The use of delayed auditory feedback (DAF) devices allows the client to prolong each syllable or word. Research pertaining to the use of DAF for speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited. However, the limited research implies that DAF may be used to improve effective rate control, along with improvements on speech intensity, pitch, and sometimes intelligibility (if the appropriate delay interval is found). To facilitate optimal improvements/effectiveness, clinicians should provide instruction, model correct DAF usage, and provide feedback. The author discusses strengths and weaknesses when a client with PD decides to use a DAF. For a client with PD, his/her speech rate may increase due to the limited neuromuscular capabilities; intelligibility maybe compromised. The "first word dilemma" or the inability to initiate phonation for the PD client may also be compromised. The clinician should be thoroughly involved with the client with PD when introducing DAF.
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Blanchet, P. (2006) Treating fluency and speech rate disorders in individuals with Parkinson's Disease: The use of delayed auditory feedback. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY AND RESEARCH, Vol. 1, Issue 2. http://www.journalofstuttering.com/ListofArticles.html

This article reviews literature examining the effect of using delayed auditory feedback (DAF) to treat speech rate and fluency disorders related to Parkinson's Disease. This effect was most dramatic in those who experienced hypokinetic dysarthria, where slowing speech rate alone produced significant improvements in intelligibility. With proper education, modeling and feedback from the clinician, results indicate that DAF could useful for slowing speech rate in people with Parkinson's Disease, which resulted in fewer disfluencies in their speech production and increased intelligibility.
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Blomgren, M. & Goberman, A.M. (2008) Revisiting speech rate and utterance length manipulations in stuttering speakers. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS. 41(2), 159-178.

22 stuttering speakers and 22 non-stuttering speakers were included in this study to measure the stuttering frequency over different speech tasks. Measured were spontaneous speech tasks and four controlled speaking tasks. Length of utterances and speech rate stability were measured during the controlled speaking tasks. Non-stuttering speakers showed no dysfluencies throughout the study and stuttering speakerē_s results were similar for the spontaneous and controlled speaking tasks.
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Blomgren, M., Nagarajan, SS., Lee, JN., Li, T., & Alvord, L. (2003). Preliminary results of a functional MRI study of brain activation patterns in stuttering and nonstuttering speakers during a lexical access task. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 337-356.

'The purpose of this study was to use functional MRI (fMRI) measures to compare brain activation patterns of normally fluent speakers and those of PWS, with regard to lexical access tasks. A total of sixteen adults, aging from 19 to 38, participated in this study. Of the sixteen, seven were people who stuttered. All participants took part in a lexical access task during the fMRI. The task consisted of word descriptions (nouns and verbs), presented through headphones. The participants were instructed to "think" of the word being described. The fMRI measures were done to compare the activation patterns while the participants were "thinking" of the word. Results indicated large activation variances within the two groups. The participants in the stuttering group displayed increased right hemisphere activation in right Broca's and Wernicke's areas, as compared to the nonstuttering group. 'However, between-group comparisons yielded no significant differences.
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Blomgren, M., Smith, A.B., & Wolk, L. (2000). The frequency of simultaneous disfluency and phonological errors in children: a preliminary investigation. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 269-281.

The co-occurrence of stuttering and phonological disorders in seven English specking children was studied. Speech samples were collected and analyzed. All occurrences of stuttering were identified and coded as to whether a phonological error was present. Results indicate the frequency of disfluency on syllables with phonological errors was similar to those utterances produced without errors. However, the frequency of dysfluency on initial consonant clusters with phonological errors was higher than on initial consonant clusters without phonological errors.
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Blomgren, M., Roy, N., Callister, T., & Merrill, R.M. (2005). Intensive stuttering modification therapy: A multidimensional assessment of treatment outcomes. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 48, 509-522.

This article focuses on adults who participated in the Successful Stuttering Management Program (SSMP) during a 3-week intensive period to assess stuttering before, immediately after, and 6 months after treatment. Nineteen individuals who stutter (15 males and 4 females) and were enrolled in two sessions of the SSMP volunteered for this study. Data on the individuals was collected through audio and video using speech samples during an oral reading task and through spontaneous speech as well as inventories and questionnaires resulting in very high reliability coefficients (p<.0001) in both tasks. However, results show that the SSMP was ineffective in reducing core behaviors, such as stuttering frequency and severity.
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Blood, G.W. (1993) Treatment efficacy in adults who stutter: Review and recommendations. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 303- 318.

The author of this article discusses the question, "Does stuttering therapy work?" He looks at three predictive factors for therapy success; client variables, clinician variables, and treatment variables. Some client variables include; motivation, expectations, locus of control, gender, intelligence, anxiety, education, social class, and previous therapy experiences. Clinician variables include; age, experience, empathy, expectations, knowledge, and locus of control among others. The length of therapy, degree of cognitive restructuring, and the issue of process versus outcome are all treatment variables which are discussed. Finally the author discusses the need for a standardized set of outcome measures.
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Blood, G. W., et al. (1994). Subjective anxiety measurements and cortisol responses in adults with stutter, JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37 (4), 761-768.

This study measures anxiety by self-report and salivary cortisol levels. The authors attempt to use cortisol, a hormone, to measure autonomic anxiety levels. The results of the study of 11 males who stutter and 11 males who do not stutter show an increase of a different proportion in cortisol levels in the stuttering group than in the non-stuttering group. The authors conclude that the anticipation of stress triggers this physiological hormonal response in PWS. The relationship between the self-report and cortisol levels reveals that there was no correlation between cortisol response and the subjects behavior in either group. The authors conclude that subjective anxiety and communicative apprehension do not relate to hormonal response.
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Blood, G. W. (1995). A behavioral-cognitive therapy program for adults who stutter: Computers and counseling. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 28, 165-180.

The treatment program presented addresses three components of stuttering: the speech behavior, the feelings and the thoughts. The speech is monitored using a computer-assisted biofeedback program called CAFET, which measures airflow noninvasively. Feelings and thoughts are addressed and reshaped using Blood's POWER2 relapse management program. An outline of this treatment program and the results (based on single subject multiple baseline across subjects design on four adult males) are provided and discussed. Establishment and maintenance of improved fluency is documented up to 12 months post treatment.
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Blood, G. (1995). POWER2: Relapse management with adolescents who stutter. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN THE SCHOOLS, 26, 169-179.

This article presents a study which assessed the effectiveness of the POWER2 relapse management program. Designed for adolescents, the POWER is a board game that facilitates discussion about coping with interpersonal conflict, social pressure, and coping with negative emotional states in a fun, nonthreatening way. The study included three phases; intensive speech therapy, supportive counseling and relapse management, and a 6 and 12 month follow-up. The results showed a reduction in stuttering to within normal levels, a reduction in negative feelings, and an inward shift of locus of control. The follow-up indicated that the positive changes persisted one year past treatment. The authors suggest that counseling adolescents who stutter about changing speech behavior, negative emotions, and maladaptive attitudes can result in lasting fluency beyond therapy.
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Blood, G. & Blood, I. (1989). Laterality preferences in adult female and male stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 1-10.

This study was to determine the ear preferences for groups of stuttering and non-stuttering males and females on a dichotic word task. Subjects responded to a 36-item word test. The study found stutterers' ear advantages were not as strong as the non-stutterers, non-stutterers had a higher right ear preference, severe female stutterers showed more left ear responses than mild stutterers, and there was no significant difference found between male and female stutterers.
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Blood, GW., & Blood, IM. (1989). Multiple data analyses of dichotic listening advantages of stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 97-107.

This study focuses on the data analysis of dichotic listening tasks in relation to cerebral dominance and stuttering disorders. Previous research has been conflicting as to whether or not differences exist between stutterers and nonstutterers. These conflicts may have occurred from a number of different variables including severity of stuttering, age and sex of the subjects and type of stimuli. This study is concerned with the variable of data analysis. The authors used five data analysis methods to analyze the results obtained from twenty subjects who were given the Dichotic Listening Test. The subjects were asked to listen to the syllables being presented and point to the correct one on the card in front of them. Results showed that only one of the five analyses showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups. This suggests that depending on the type of analysis used, the number and percentage of left and right dominant people may vary. The results of this study can serve as a caution to experimenters if they use only group data and rely heavily on statistical information.
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Blood, GW & Blood, M. (2004). Bullying in adolescents who stutter: Communicative competence and self-esteem. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 31, 69- 79.

Bullying can result in serious and negative long-term outcomes. This study looks at (a) the relationship between social and communication skills in adolescents, (b) the negative effects of bullying and (c) the possible relationship between bullying and stuttering. First, Blood and Blood look at past studies which have shown that adolescents who either perceive themselves as "different " or are thought of as "being different " by others because of a lack or absence of using social and communication skills with peers may be more likely to be bullied. These past studies have also shown that children who are bullied may develop long-term psychosocial and physical health problems. They also have trouble sleeping, low self-esteem, show signs of depressions, a loss of confidence and greater social isolation among other things. It has also been noted adolescents who stutter are three times as likely to be bullied. This study done by Blood and Blood shows similar results. The current study shows that adolescents who stutter are at a greater risk for being bullied. Another important finding is that bullying does have negative effects on an adolescent's self-esteem. In the current study, the numbers are higher for this than in past studies. One other important finding from this study is that there is a relationship between an adolescent's communicative competence and their risk of being bullied.
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Blood, G., W., Blood, I., M., Maloney, K., Meyer, C., Qualls, C., D. (2007). Anxiety levels in adolescents who stutter. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 40, 452-469.

Living with a disability can have a negative influence on individuals. This study was conducted in order to examine physiological and emotional anxiety in people who stutter in order to assist clinicians and researchers in treatment planning and techniques used in schools and clinics. Thirty-six students who stutter were included in the study. Upon data collection and analysis it was found that significant levels of anxiety between those who do stutter and those who do not were evident, however, both within normal limits. No significant differences were noted on the self- esteem scale and no significant differences were found between ethnic groups, socioeconomic class, gender and anxiety levels. Significantly higher levels of anxiety were noted in adolescents who stutter with co-occurring disorders compared to adolescents who stutter with no co-occurring disorders.
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Blood, GW., Blood, IM., & Hood SB. (1987). The Development of Ear Preferences in Stuttering and Nonstuttering Children: A Longitudinal Study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 119-131.

This study examined changes in young male stuttering and nonstuttering children ages 7-9 over a 3-year period. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed between stutterers and nonstutterers over a small period of time and to determine if a relationship existed between the child's fluency and changes in ear preference over time. Results suggested that stuttering and nonstuttering children present a significant right ear advantage in the initial, second, and third time of testing. This study supports the notion that stuttering and nonstuttering children present similar developmental trends for dichotic ear preferences.
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Blood, G.W., Blood, I.M., McCarthy, J., Tellis, G. & Gabel, R. (2001). An analysis of Verbal Response Patterns of Charles Van Riper During Stuttering Modification Therapy. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26:2, 129-147.

The introduction to this article focuses on the counseling aspect of fluency disorders. This article explains many authors beliefs, but the one belief that is shared by them is that the one factor of influencing the effectiveness of counseling in fluency therapy is the clinician and client relationship. The present study discussed is one by Charles Van Riper. The purpose of the study was to examine the quantity and type of verbal responses during demonstration therapy sessions videotaped from beginning to end. The method used was 7 commercially available Charles Van Riper: Therapy in Action videotapes were used. These videos included Van Ripers therapy program, and was conducted on an 18 year old male university student. These videos were evaluated by 10 trained raters. The verbal response patterns were analyzed in accordance to the Hill Counselor Verbal Response Category System (1993), which involves 9 categories of counsel or verbal response behavior (Approval, Providing Information, Direct Guidance, Closed Question, Open Question, Paraphrase, Interpretation, Confrontation, and Disclosure). The findings were: (1) When the client, compared Van Riper, produced a greater percentage of verbal responses during all therapy sessions. (2) Van Riper consistently spoke more often than the client during interaction in therapy. (3) The highest response patterns while conducting therapy were those of Van Riper (Direct Guidance, Providing Information. and Close Question). (4) Close Question, Paraphrasing, and Providing Information were what Van Riper primarily used for verbal response patterns. (5) Paraphrasing was mainly used during the diagnostic session. The discussion discusses how the observations of verbal response skills used by Van Riper during his therapy stages support his therapy approach. Examples of the categories from the Manual for Hill Counselor Verbal Response Category System-taken from Van Riper's transcripts are provided at the end of the study.
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Blood, G., Blood, I., Newton, K. (1986). Simultaneous and staggered dichotic word and digit tests with stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 201-216.

The purpose of the study was to focus on dichotic digit stimuli in comparison to people who stutter and people who do not stutter. The article was an ongoing study which investigates the relationship between auditory functioning and stuttering. Nine people who stutter from Ohio and Indiana were matched with a person, of the same age, who does not stutter. The subjects were assessed using four dichotic listening tests: Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW) Test, Staggered Digit Simultaneous (SDS) Test, Staggered Digit Offset (SDO) Test, and Staggered Paired Digit (SPD! ) Test. The results indicated that there were differences between the control group and experimental groups within these tests: SDS, SDO, and SPD. The results for the Staggered Spondaic Word Test were the same for both groups.
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Blood, G. W., Blood, I. M., Tellis, G., & Gabel, R. (2001). Communication apprehension and self-perceived communication competence in adolescents who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26, 161-178.

This study examined the communication apprehension and self-perceived competence of thirty-nine adolescents who stuttered and thirty-nine adolescents who did not stutter. The study utilized two standard communication measures: the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and the Self-Perceived Communication Competence (SPCC). Results of the study suggested that adolescents who stutter have greater apprehension of communication than those who do not stutter, especially during group discussions and interpersonal conversations. Adolescents who stutter also exhibit poorer self-perceived communication competence than their normally fluent peers, particularly during group discussions, interpersonal conversations, and when talking with strangers. The article also discussed the need to specifically address communication apprehension in stuttering therapy sessions.
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Blood, G. W., Blood, I. M., Tellis, G. M., & Gabel, R. M. (2003). A preliminary study of self-esteem, stigma, and disclosure in adolescents who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 143-159.

This study examined the self-esteem, perceived stigma, and disclosure practices of 48 adolescents who stutter divided into two age groups: younger (13, 14, and 15 years) and older (16, 17, and 18 years) adolescents. Results revealed that 41 of the participants scored within one standard deviation from the mean on a standardized measure of self-esteem, indicative of positive self-esteem. Results also showed that stuttering did not present a stigmatizing condition for the majority of adolescents who stutter. The younger adolescents perceived stuttering as a more negative and stigmatizing condition than older adolescents.
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Blodgett, EG., & Cooper, EB. (1988). Talking about it and doing it: metalinguistic capacity and prosodic control in three to seven year olds. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 283-290.

This study was conducted to assess the ability of 3 to 7 year old children in using adjectives metaphorically. The area of metalinguistic ability is important because speech-language pathologists often make therapeutic use of metaphoric adjective with children. The results of the study indicate that children may be able to talk about prosodic aspects of speech patterns and yet unable to change them. When therapy is used with very young disfluent children, there might be a need to teach the language of fluency.
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Bloodstein, O. (1988). Verification of stuttering in a suspected malingerer. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 83-88.

This article reviews a legal case regarding robbery. The suspect claimed to be innocent because he is a person who stutters. He said he would not be able to fluently speak the words that the robber spoke at the crime scene. The Brooklyn College Speech and Hearing Center was contacted and asked to complete various tasks to determine if the suspect was a malingering stutterer. The suspect underwent repeated oral reading tasks, interview questions, and binaural masking. Analysis of the suspects words stuttered in oral reading revealed the adaptation, consistency and adjacency effects. The suspects stuttering almost completely disappeared under white noise and decreased with clinician feedback. Ultimately, the suspect was found to be a true adult stutterer.
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Bloodstein, O. (1992). Response to Hamre: Part I. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17 (1-2) 29-32.

The purpose of the article is to provide a background of support for the continuity and diagnosogenic hypotheses. Descriptive parallels are given to show, how in many ways, stuttering is not always clearly distinct from normally disfluent characteristics. As a result, Bloodstein argues that there is need for preventive counseling with parent's whose children are on the fringe of stuttering.
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Bloodstein, O. (1992). Response to Hamre: Part II. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 1 & 2, 85-86.

This is a commentary by Oliver Bloodstein in response to Curt Hamre's article Stuttering Prevention II: Progression which is contained in this same issue. Bloodstein explains why he thinks that Hamre's portrayal of the continuity hypothesis as on extension of Johnson's diagnosogenic theory is invalid. Bloodstein also clarifies a quote of his that Hamre used in his article.
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Bloodstein, O. (1993). Communication attitudes of school-age stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18 (4), 403-406.

A letter to the editor concerning the report by Vanryckeghem and Brutten (1992) whose findings did not support Bloodstein's (1987) contention that malattitudes toward speech generally are not formed before high school age. Bloodstein clarified his results in the 1987 article. More specifically, he meant that because their attitudes and reactions contrast so sharply with those of other stutterers, what he terms as Phase II Stutterers will usually show little concern about their speech difficulty.
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Bloodstein, O. (2001). Incipient and Developed Stuttering as Two Distinct Disorders: Resolving a Dilemma. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26:1, 67-73.

Bloodstein discusses various characteristics and beliefs of stuttering. Some of his terms and definitions are: Transient stuttering, which is the difficulty a child may have in producing a word or phrase. Persistent stuttering, which is a child or an adult reaction to continual difficulty in producing words. Bloodstein also gave examples of ephemeral interest in stuttering, such as: talking until it dawns on the stutterer that he is fluently speaking, which results in consistent stuttering; hypnotized to believe they no longer stutter; visited with a SLP, until the stutterer realized the profession of the listener, then stuttered continuously thereafter; some people stutter on "p" words, and even have trouble with words such as "photo" "Philip". Genetic factors addressed were: those most susceptible to stuttering are identical twins and those children who has a first degree relative that stutters. Incipient stuttering and persistent form of stuttering were also discussed. Evidence of genetic contributions to stuttering doesn't conflict with the knowledge of the conditions under which stuttering varies. It is believed it may lye more motorically, or motor controlled speech.
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Bloodstein, O. (2006). Some empirical observations about early stuttering: A possible link to language development. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 39, (3), 185-191.

Early stuttering, also known as incipient stuttering, is detected very early on in a child, as early as preschool age. There is a collection of observations within this article that clinicians should take into consideration when identifying stuttering in young children. They include: early stuttering occurs regularly on the first word of a syntactic structure; incipient stuttering frequently involves function words; incipient stuttering does not emerge from the influence of word-related factors; early stuttering consists of whole- word repetitions; incipient stutterers seldom stutter on one-word utterances; stuttering is reported at 18 months old or later; syntax is acquired at 2-5 years old, around the same time as stuttering is reported; spontaneous recovery occurs with early detection of stuttering early on; boys who stutter outnumber girls among incipient stutterers. Each observation within the article is described in detail relating to incipient stuttering how it affects children at such a young age.
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Blomgren, M., Robb, M., & Chen, Y. (1998). A note on vowel centralization in stuttering and nonstuttering individuals. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 41, 1042-1051.

The purpose of this study was to obtain more information concerning the steady state formant frequency characteristics of people who stutter. In particular, formant centralization in the fluent vowel productions of individuals who stutter was examined. Fifteen adult men participated and were divided into three groups: the first group consisted of five untreated stuttering individuals, the second group consisted of five treated stuttering individuals, and the third group consisted of five nonstuttering individuals who made up the experimental control group. A series of consonant + vowel + /t/ syllables were used as the speech sample and acoustic analysis was performed. Calculation of vocal tract vowel space was obtained through three measures: the relative spacing between formants one and two, the area within the F1/F2 triangle, and the average Euclidean distance of each vowel from a predetermined central location. Acoustic differences were noticed between the groups. The untreated stuttering individuals tended to use a neutral vocal tract posture during fluent CV/t/ productions, creating significantly greater vowel centralization.
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Boehmler, RM & Boehmler, SI. (1989) The cause of stuttering: What's the question? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 447-450.

The many studies to determine the cause of stuttering have shown only inconclusive results. The stuttering category may be to broad to result in finding one cause. In therapy for stuttering, many differentiations are made between different stuttering behaviors. Separation of lingual and motor execution, and separation within categories (such as three types of elemental repetitions,) are common when diagnosing and treating an individual. The authors believe the key to determining the cause of stuttering lies in appropriately asking the correct research questions. Seeking the cause for individual behavioral elements of stuttering, rather than finding a single cause for a broad range of stuttering behaviors, may lead to an answer.
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Borden, G., Kim, D., & Spiegler, K. (1987). Acoustics of stop consonant-vowel relationships during fluent and stuttered utterances. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 175-184.

Acoustic duration measures were made on the stop-gap, voice onset time (VOT), and vowel portions of the utterance [tu] in the context '425' as spoken ten times or more by five normal speakers, four mild stutterers, and four severe stutterers. The present study was undertaken in order to analyze these absolute and relative acoustic properties in the speech of adult stutterers. Tape recordings provided a sample of 187 instances of the CV /tu/ framed between the words 'four' and 'five', as in '3425' and '4253'. The evaluations were made by two speech-language pathologists and by the use of the Stuttering Severity Index and the reading and conversational parts of the Stuttering Interview. The fluent utterances of the severe stutterers were significantly longer than those of normal speakers on stop-gap and vowel durations but not on voice onset times. Normal speakers and mild stutterers showed an inverse relationship between stop-gap and VOT measures across speakers, but severe stutterers did not maintain this relationship for either fluent or stuttered tokens, nor did a mild stutterer suspected of covert stuttering. Abnormal gap to VOT ratios may serve to detect covert stuttering. The subject's consonant/vowel ratios were not significantly different from normal even though two of them were at least twice a slow as the normal speakers.
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Bosshardt, H. (1990). Subvocalization and reading rate differences between stuttering and nonstuttering children and adults. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 33, 776-785.

The author of this study examined the oral reading and silent reading rates of children and adults to determine whether stutterers' subvocalize more slowly than nonstutterers and therefore require more time for production of fluent speech. The subjects included 59 children (27 stutterers and 32 nonstutterers) and 39 adults (18 stutterers and 21 nonstutterers). The task included reading, either silently or orally, an article and noun from a computer screen and then pressing a button to make the words disappear. The results indicate that the stutterers presentation times for both and silent productions were significantly longer than the nonstutterers' presentation times.
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Bosshart, H.G. (1993). Differences between stutterers' and nonstutterers' short-term recall and recognition performance. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 36, 286-293.

The present study was done in a attempt to determine the relationship between overt and subvocal speech rates of stutterers and nonstutterers and their effects on short term memory. It has already been shown that for nonstuttering speakers, the duration of speech is the same vocally and subvocally. It was hypothesized that PWS have slower subvocalic rates and consequently, their short term memory (STM) would be impaired in tasks that require silent rehearsal. The results indicated that PWS did show a short-term reproduction performance inferior to that of nonstuttering speakers. The results were interpreted to mean that nonstuttering speakers encode syllables more distinctly and form more associations, images and language mediators. No differences were interpreted to mean that stutterers and nonstutterers use differing coding strategies.
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Bosshardt, Hans-Georg (2002) Effects of concurrent cognitive processing on the fluency of word repetition: comparison between persons who do and do not stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 27, 93-114

This study examined how silent reading and word memorization effects the fluency of concurrently repeated words. Fourteen adults who stutter and 16 adults with normal fluency were matched for age, education, sex, forward and backward memory span, and vocabulary. Results indicate that a person who stutters has greater disfluencies on the presented task. The fluent speakers showed little significant changes in fluency on the same tasks.
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Bosshardt, H., Ballmer, W., & Nil, L. F. de. (2002). Effects of category and rhyme decisions on sentence production. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 5, 844-857.

The aim of this experiment was to investigate differences between people who stutter and people who do not stutter during the production of sentences in a single task versus two dual-task conditions. Participants were required to form a sentence containing 2 unrelated nouns. In dual-task conditions, rhyme and category decisions were used as secondary tasks. The results for 14 adults who stutter and 16 adults who do not stutter indicated that both groups reduced the average number of correct rhyme and category decisions when this task was performed concurrently with sentence generation and production. Overall, the results support the view that the organization of the speech- production system of people who stutter makes it more vulnerable to interference from concurrent attention-demanding semantic tasks.
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Bosshardt, H., & Fransen, H. 1996. Online Sentence Processing in Adults Who Stutter and Adults Who do not Stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 39, 4 785-797

This purpose of this study was to , 1) determine if people who stutter encode phonological and semantic information more slowly than people who do not stutter during a silent reading task, and 2) observe how syntactic complexity of a sentence effects the speed of encoding. Subjects were 14 adult stutterers and 14 adult non- stutterers. Silent reading tasks were self paced and included target words the subjects were to monitor. Analysis of the results indicates that although the two groups did not differ in speed of word identification, people who stutter access semantic meaning more slowly.
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Bosshardt, H., and Nandyal, I. (1988). Reading rates of stutterers and nonstutterers during silent and oral Reading. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 407-420.

This study investigated the differences between the reading rates of stutterers and nonstutterers during both silent and oral reading of fluently spoken words. The stutterer group consisted of 10 adults that reported onset of stutter during childhood and rated as being mild to severe during reading by a speech pathologist. The nonstutterer group consisted of 14 adults. Half the stutterer group had completed their high-school education, and the other half had completed a primary school education. All the nonstutterers completed high school. All subjects were told that they had to silently and orally read two lists of words as quickly as possible. The test words appeared on a monitor one at a time and after the subjects read a word, they had to press a key for the next word to appear on the screen. Oral readings were audiotaped and response time between word read and striking the key for the next presentation was also registered. Results of this study show that in oral reading trials, the stutterers required more time for both silent and oral reading. Oral reading times decreased over trials in both groups as a practice effect.
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Bothe, A. (2002). Speech modification approaches to stuttering treatment in schools. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 23, 181-185.

Speech modification approaches to treatment are based on a known fluency condition and have a main purpose to teach the client to speak in a manner that will not include stuttering. The focus of this paper is on four approaches to speech modification. The most common of these is variations on prolonged speech in which the client uses variations of prolonged speech, smooth speech, easy speech or similar approaches. The controlled length approach has the child practice fluent speaking at a linguistically simplified level with gradual increases in length and complexity. Also included is the response-contingent program which is based on the clinician pointing out incorrect and correct responses. The final approach is a mixed one combining elements from various approaches. The article also provides information to aid the clinician in identifying and dealing with challenges he/she may face.
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Bothe, A. K. (2003). Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: V. The art of clinical Practice and the future of clinical research. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 247-258.

The author of this article states that clinical practice and evidence-based treatment can coincide with each other and provide structure for future research in stuttering. Evidence- based treatment and the art of clinical setting are similar in that they both combine clinical research, clinician expertise, and client goals and desires to provide clients with the most effective and efficient treatment. These three components lead to future clinical research in stuttering. Evidence-based research will help clinicians choose the most effective treatment for their client. For clinician expertise, future research could examine clinicians' decision-making process and the relationship among client variables, desired outcomes, and treatment approaches. For client preference, future research could focus on carefully designed surveys to find clients' goal for therapy (attitude, speech).
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Bothe, A. K. (2003). Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: V. the art of clinical practice and the future of clinical research. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 247-258.

This article describes the similarities between evidence-based practice and the art of clinical practice. It also explains how evidence-base practice provides structure for future research in stuttering and finally, it discusses the importance of evidence-based research to stuttering intervention. Evidence-based practice combines several elements including asking a client specific clinical question that will best achieve a desired outcome, focusing on identifying and evaluating published research as a basis for clinical decisions, combining information from research with clinical experience, and finally collecting information about whether these treatments are helping clients meet their goals. Bothe (2003) describes the art of clinical practice as, "the clinicians ability to balance, multiple, constantly changing sources of information in a dynamic, client centered attempt to help individuals and their loved ones." There is very little difference between the art of clinical practice and evidence-based practice they both include elements that provide the client with effective treatment. Evidence-based practice can be useful for treatment in stuttering by examining research that has already been done in this area. Some research has more support than others and these are the treatments that should be used more frequently. Evidence-based practice means basing clinical decisions on research evidence along with the clinician's experiences and the client! 's preferences.
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Bothe, A.K. (2008). Identification of children's stuttered and nonstuttered speech by highly experienced judges: Binary judgments and comparisons with disfluency-types definitions. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 51, 867-878.

Research was conducted to determine the interjudge and intrajudge agreement of children's specific stuttering behaviors between eleven (interjudgment) and eight (intarjudgment) highly experienced clinicians. These clinicians were asked to judge 20 similar children, who were described as stutters by their parents, between the ages of 3 and 8 years old. The clinicians were provided necessary materials (i.e. written response forms, and 2 ‡ minute speech samples for each child). The clinicians were asked to listen to the audiotapes in 5 second intervals and simply determine if stuttering or no stuttering occurred. Two months after the clinicians returned the materials, they were asked judge the same samples for a second time (eight clinicians agreed to the second trial). Results indicated an average of 88.3% interjudge agreement between all judges and an average between 81.7% and 96.3% intrajudge agreement. Research results will be able to determine and direct future clinician training for research.
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Bothe, A., K., Davidow, J., H., Bramlett, R., E., Ingham, R., J. (2006). Stuttering treatment research 1970-2005: I. Systematic review incorporating trail quality assessment of behavioral, cognitive, and related approaches. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 15, 321-341.

This journal article involves the findings of a systematic review. Specifically, the purpose of the systematic review was to find a much needed bank of published literature on treatment for developmental stuttering of preschoolers, school-age children, adolescents and adults. Criteria for the review consisted of 162 English articles published between 1970 and 2005. Data bases included Medline, Web of Science, PsychINFO and ComDisDome. Searches included the terms 1) stuttering, 2) fluency, 3) therapy, 4) treatment and 5) management. All analyses were descriptive and of trial quality focusing on the number of criteria met in the methodological and outcome criterion. Results of the systematic review showed that specific evidence acquired clearly found that many treatment types currently being used are ineffective and do not meet specific goals and therefore should not be recognized as viable options for stuttering therapy.
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Bothe, A. K., Davidow, J. H., Bramlett, R. E., Franic, D. M., & Ingham, R. J. (2006). Stuttering treatment research 1970-2005: II. Systematic review incorporating trial quality assessment of pharmacological approaches. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH- LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 15, 342-352.

This article provides an updated review of the research on pharmacological treatments for stuttering. Thirty-one articles were analyzed based on 5 methodological criteria and 4 outcomes criteria which were described in part I of this series review. Out of the 31 articles reviewed, there were not any with results that didn't have any complicating factors. Only one article showed evidence of a less than 5% reduction of stuttering frequency and another 4 articles that were reviewed noted stuttering characteristics that decreased in half. Overall, this review determined that there were not any pharmacological approaches that significantly decreased frequency of stuttering, reduced the amount of person's stuttering in half, or improved any personal aspects such as social, emotional or cognitive.
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Bothe, A. K., Finn, P., & Bramlett, R. E. (2007). Pseudoscience and the SpeechEasy: Reply to Kalinowski, Saltuklaroglu, Stuart, and Gruntupalli (2007). AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 16, 77-83.

This article is a letter to the editor, written in response to a letter written in 2007 by Kalinowski, Saltuklaroglu, Stuart, and Gruntupalli. The 2007 letter suggested that Finn et al.'s discussion of the Speech Easy in their 2005 article was biased. In this current letter Finn et al. address the comments made in the 2007 letter by Kalinowski et al. The current letter presents information regarding the effectiveness of the SpeechEasy device in alleviating stuttering behavior. The authors of this letter do not believe that the information presented by the makers of the SpeechEasy device is sufficient to support the effectiveness of the device.
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Bothe, A. K., Franic, D. M., Ingham, R. J., and Davidow, D. H. (2008). Pharmacological approaches to stuttering treatment: Reply to Meline and Harn. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 17, 98-101.

The purpose of this article was to address several issues that Meline and Harn (2008) raised in regards to Bothe et. al's 2006 article about pharmacological drug usage in the treatment of stuttering from the years 1970-2005. Bothe et al. systematically address each one of Meline and Harn's (2008) critiques and either agrees or disagrees with each comment.
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Bothe, A.K., & Ingham, R.J. (2001). Recovery from early stuttering: Additional issues within the Onslow and Packman-Yairi and Ambrose (1999) exchange. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 4, 862-867.

This article was written in response to the 1999 exchange between Onslow and Packman-Yairi and Ambrose. The purpose of this letter was to discuss three remaining interrelated issues that Bothe and Ingham felt deserved more attention if the points of disagreement are to be resolved. The three issues are determining the presence and effects of treatment, identification of proximal variables within the Illinois Studies, and using SLDs instead of measures of stuttering. Bothe's and Ingham's response to each of these is as follows: 1) repeated sampling in the children's natural environments might have made it possible to determine whether introduction of treatment, passage of time, both, or neither could be associated with changes in children's stuttering, 2) the overlooked role of potentially important proximal variables is also relevant to claims that recovery or persistent stuttering may be inherited, and 3) SLDs are not necessarily stutterings, and no thresholds can be established, in either direction. The problem facing researchers is how the interaction among these factors influences the disorder's variability, including its persistence and recovery.
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Boutsen, F. (1995). A comparative study of stress timing of stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20 (2), 145- 155.

This author contends that the varying results of earlier studies comparing fluent speech of stutterers and nonstutterers are the result of methodological differences. This study assessed the affects of two such differences by comparing the consonant duration and voice onset time (VOT) in stressed and unstressed utterances of these two groups while varying the levels of rhythm and phonetic context. It also described the relationship between consonant duration (through stopgap measures) and VOT. Twelve adult stutterers and 12 nonstutterers were presented 20 separate syllable sequences and were instructed to stress specific words with the guidance of metronomic beeps. Results found that the VOT of the stutters was protracted during both stressed and unstressed conditions. This supports earlier findings that there are physio-acoustic differences in the fluent speech of the two groups. A systematic relationship between stopgap and VOT was found only in the nonstutterers. This suggests that persons who stutter have "subtle difficulties in controlling and stabilizing the temporal coordinations between supraglottal and laryngeal structures"(p. 151).
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Boutsen, F., Brutten, G., Watts, C. (2000). Timing and Intensity Variability in the Metronomic Speech of Stuttering and Nonstuttering Speakers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH, 43, 513-520.

This fluency program focuses on the model that speech is rhythmically structured in time. A study including 8 adults who stutter and 8 fluent speakers was conducted to measure timing and intensity under metronomic conditions. The participants were asked to read 20 sentences in which certain syllables were repeated 9 times. Participants were given a practice session as well as auditory and visual cues before reading the sentences. The intensity variation between the beginning consonant and successive vowels was computed, and the variation of successive syllable onsets. The results indicate little variation between timing in PWS and fluent speakers, but there was discrepancy between the timing of syllables. In PWS the timing was more variable than in fluent speakers.
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Bramlett, R.E., Bothe, A.K., & Franic, D.M. (2006). Using preference based measures to assess quality of life in stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 49, 381-394.

This study investigated the use of preference-based measures in the assessment of the quality of life in stuttering. The participants, 75 adults with no history of stuttering, completed a structured, scripted interview. In the interview, the researchers gathered background information, familiarized the participants with the anchor health states (perfect health and death), and played videotapes of people who stutter. The participants were then presented with cards representing four health states (your health, mild stuttering, moderate stuttering, and severe stuttering) from best to worst. Participants also rated the four health states using a rating scale, standard gamble, and time trade-off preference. The researchers compared the rating methods and calculated the utility values for each health state. It was concluded that standard utility measurements used to assess the quality of life in fluency disorders are consistent with published measurements used with other disorders (e.g. vision impairments). In addition, the researchers conclude that standard utility measurement techniques may be beneficial in stuttering treatment and research.
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Bray, M. , Kehle, T. J. , Lawless, K. A. & Theodore, L. A. (2003). The relationship of self-efficacy and depression to stuttering. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 12(4), 425-431.

This article discussed a study which looked at the relationship between self- efficacy in verbal fluency and academics and depression. Twenty-one adolescents were involved in the study and were given the Self-Efficacy Scaling for Adolescents Who Stutter (SEA), the Self-Efficacy for Academic Tasks (SEAT), and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS). Their scores on these assessments were compared to matched fluent speakers. The results found that self-efficacy for speaking was the only factor that had a significant difference between the adolescents who stutter and the fluent speakers.
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Brisk, D.J., Healey, E.C., & Hux, K.A. (1997). Clinicians' training and confidence associated with treating school-age children who stutter: A national survey. LANGUAGE, SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 28(2), 164-176.

A national survey was conducted to update information pertaining to the treatment of school age children who stutter. Speech- Language Pathologists' training, confidence, attitudes, and perceptions of stuttering were examined. The results indicate that SLP's have a more positive outlook in treating school age stutterers. However, it was indicated that university programs need to continue offering courses and experience with stuttering to instill greater confidence in SLP's.
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Brocklehurst, P.N. (2008 Spring). A review of evidence for the covert repair hypothesis of stuttering. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCES & DISORDERS, 35: 25-43.

This article focuses on CRH-covert repair hypothesis which is based on monitoring and self-repair of linguistic errors in normal speech. This review examines evidence to support or disagree with the ideas of CRH. The review is broken down into sections dealing with specifics: Is the phonological encoding in adults who stutter abnormally slow? Do symptoms of stuttering result from covertly repairing errors of phonological encoding? And does language monitoring function normally in a person who stutters? Concluding this review, the evidence does not strongly support CRH, though it does suggest that error repair plays a role in symptoms of stuttering.
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Broscolo, B & Rescorla, L (2002) Fluency of School-Aged Children With a History of Specific Expressive Language Impairment: An Exploratory Study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11, 41-49

This study elicits narratives from 22 pairs of 9-year-old children and analyzes for fluency characteristics. Eleven of the children had a history of specific expressive language impairment (HSLI-E) and the other half had histories of normal language development. The results indicate that the children with HSLI-E as a group produce more disfluencies then their typically developing peers.
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Brown, C.J., Zimmerman, G.N., Linville, R.N., and Hegmann, J.P. (1990). Variations in self-paced behaviors in stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 33, 317-323.

The subjects who participated in this study, 10 stutterers and 10 nonstutterers, were asked to perform three different self-paced rhythmic tasks: finger tapping, jaw opening and closing, and repetition of "ah". Each task was performed at three different rates. Results indicated that the subjects who stuttered performed the tasks at a slower rate than the nonstutterers and with less variability.
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Brown, S.L. & Colcord, R.D. (1987). Perceptual comparisons of adolescent stutterers' and nonstutterers' fluent speech. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 419-427.

This study examined the differences between the fluent speech of stutterers and of nonstutterers. It was determined that perceptual differences can be identified in the areas of segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech. Those areas identified as perceptual cues were voice quality, imprecise articulation, choppy speech, tension, rapid rate, inappropriate/reduced intonation, monotone, and hard glottal attacks/hard articulatory contact. It was suggested in the conclusion of this study that the characteristics of an adult stutterer's fluent speech are present in adolescence. The conclusion further stated that emphasis should be placed on the production of speech which is acoustically and physiologically similar to a nonstutterer's speech pattern as well as the reduction or elimination of stuttering behaviors.
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Brundage, S.B. (2007). Virtual reality augmentation for functional assessment and treatment of stuttering. TOPICS IN LANGUAGE DISORDERS, 27, 254-271.

This article focuses on the application of virtual reality techniques in the assessment and treatment of individuals who stutter. Within this article, the uses of virtual reality are described as well as recent research findings. Results of the studies reveal that virtual reality programs and naturalistic speaking situations appear to have similar effects on individuals who stutter. Thus, resulting in similar attitudes and behaviors. One advantage to virtual reality programs is that the clinician is able to modify the various aspects of the program to meet the needs of specific clients.
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Brundage, S.B., Bothe, A.K., Lengeling, A.N., & Evans, J.J. (2006). Comparing judgments of stuttering made by students, clinicians, and highly experienced judges. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 271-283.

The reliability of stuttering judgments made by students, practicing clinicians, and experienced judges was examined in this study. The participants, including 41 students and 31 practicing clinicians, watched a videotape containing 216 speech samples of adults who stutter. Each 5 second long sample was judged as stuttered or not stuttered. The researchers calculated intrajudge and interjudge reliability for the clinicians and student participant groups. The results were then compared to the data from an experienced judge group, collected in a previous study using the same procedures. Mean intrajudge and interjudge reliability was found to be similar across groups (approximately 84%-89%). However, when compared to the experienced judges, the students and clinicians under-identified more than half of the speech samples as stuttered. The researchers propose that under-identification may be because the clinicians and students are fearful of labeling normal disfluencies as stuttered speech. These findings evidence the need for more intensive training in the identification of fluency disorders for students and practicing clinicians.
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Brundage, S., Graap, K., Gibbons, K., Ferrer, M., & Brooks, J. (2006). Frequency of stuttering during challenging and supportive virtual reality job interviews. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 325-339.

One of the biggest challenges a speech language pathologist must address in the treatment of stuttering is generalization of the client's fluency from the clinical setting to the real world. A virtual reality environment (VRE) is a computer simulation which represents the environment and speaking situations that people who stutter may encounter. This article describes the experiences of 20 people who stutter participating in a VRE trial, specifically a challenging interview environment and a supportive interview environment. The findings suggest that the VRE is perceived similarly to the real world. For this reason the VRE could possibly serve as a valid tool for speech language pathologists to measure the generalization achieved by the person who stutters.
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Brundage, S. & Ratner, N. (1989). Measurement of stuttering frequency in children's speech. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 5, 351-358.

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between three different indicators of utterance length and the frequency of stuttering in children's speech. The measurements were mean length of utterance in morphemes, syllables and words. Eight children who were disfluent were analyzed from a spontaneous speech sample. Mean length-of-utterances and disfluencies were compared. The study found increases in utterance length is correlated with stuttering. They also found increasing the length of short utterances in word increments is more likely to impair fluency of output than is increasing utterance length by adding syllables or morphemes. The study did not find a correlation between the amount of disfluent words and the amount of disfluent syllables or morphemes. The authors state a better indicator of disfluency prediction is the utterance length and not the morpheme or syllable length.
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Brutten, G. J., & Dunham, S. L. (1989). The communication attitude test. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 5, 371-377.

The purpose of this study was to develop and assess an instrument that would assess the communication attitudes of grade school children. The study was designed to evaluate the communication beliefs of children whose speech is considered "normal". Those scores will be used to compare attitudes with children who stutter and those with other speech disorders. The test developed was the Communication Attitude Test (C.A.T.). It was administered to 518 children grades 2-8 whose speech was considered to be normal. The student's average C.A.T. score indicated that most children have few if any negative attitudes toward their speech. There was also a correlation between the decrease in scores and the increase in age among the students. The study suggests that addition evaluation of the C.A.T. should be completed, but that the information presented in this study is of significance to the reliability of the C.A.T.
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Brutten, GJ., & Miller, R. (1988). The disfluencies of normally fluent black first graders. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 291-299.

Rarely has race of the subjects sampled been addressed in research studies. This study was designed to investigate if nonstuttering black children differ in the amount of disfluency that they exhibit, if black children differ in the frequency with which they emit different types of fluency failures, and if there is an interaction between the sex of black children and the types of disfluency that they are likely to display. The results indicate that the disfluency types of black children are similar to past research.
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Brutten, G.J., Trotter, A.C. (1986). A dual-task investigation of young stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11 (4), 275-284.

The purpose of this study was to compare the capacity of children who do and who do not stutter under dual-task circumstances that differed in demand level. Subjects included 40 students: 20 right handed children who stuttered and 20 right handed children who did not stutter. The subjects were asked to tap a button as quickly as possible with either their right or left hand in a single-task control condition where they remained silent, in three increasingly demanding dual-task conditions where they tapped and spoke concurrently, and in a dual-task condition where they tapped and vocalized a sound concurrently. Results indicated that there was no significant difference between the group by hand, group by condition or group by hand or condition. The children who stuttered did perform slower than the children who did not stutter.
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Brutten, G.J. and Vanryckeghem, M. (1993). The development of stuttering: A reply to Bloodstein. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18 (4), 407-410.

A letter to the editor concerning Bloodstein's (1993) letter to the editor. The authors felt that Bloodstein's developmental phases are based on data that show relatively low co-relationship between age and features and, thus, a notable amount of unaccounted variance. They felt that they would be better off if they used a behavioral model in which the observed variations in age and features among stuttering children was seen as a function of difference in their experience history rather than as a somewhat atypical aspect of an underlying developmental process.
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Byrd, C. T., Conture, E. G., & Ohde, R. N. (2007). Phonological priming in young children who stutter: Holistic versus incremental processing. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 16, 43-53.

Holistic processing is the act of processing speech at the syllable level. Incremental processing is processing the individual sounds in words, from the beginning to the end of the word. A picture-naming priming model was used to compare these two methods of processing phonology of children who stutter and children who do not stutter. Speech recognition time was measured while the children named pictures during holistic, incremental, and neutral priming conditions. The results indicated that children who stutter are delayed in the ability to shift from holistic to incremental processing. It is thought that this delay may play a factor in their inability to consistently produce fluent speech.
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Burger R. & Wijnen, F. (1999). Phonological encoding and word stress in stuttering and nonstuttering subjects. JOUNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDRS, 24, 91-106.

The main focus of this study was to collect more data to support a previous study done by Wijen and Boers (1994) hypothesizing that stuttering is related to difficulty in phonological encoding and word stress. A problem with the previous study was small subject size, so this study tested a larger selection of stutterers and nonstutterers. Researchers looked at the priming effect, the difference in reaction time, between heterogeneous and homogeneous conditions. That is, response words that are phonologically related and words that are not phonologically related. Subjects uttered one response words from a set of five as fast as they could upon visual presentation of a related cue word. The previous study indicated that the stress-bearing part of a syllable is delayed due to difficulty encoding. However, the results of the recent study indicated that although nonstutterers responded faster than stutterers, the expected interaction of group, primetype, and condition was not apparent.
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Burley, P., & Morley, R. (1987). Self-monitoring processes in stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 71-78.

This study uses the Self-Monitoring Scale created by Snyder. The scale was administered to 26 adult stutterers and 26 adult non-stutterers. The study tried to determine if stutterers differed significantly in their level of self-monitoring compared to normally fluent speakers. The authors indicated that stutterers are usually thought of as low self-monitoring speakers. The outcomes of this study support this idea. Analysis of the self-monitoring scale indicated that the stutterers received a low score on the scale for self-monitoring in speech as opposed to the high self-monitoring score achieved by the normally fluent speakers.
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Burley, P.M. & Rinaldi, W. (1986) Effects of sex of listener and of stutterer on ratings of stuttering speakers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 329-333.

This study addresses how the sex of the person who stutters may affect the listener's attitude toward them. A rating scale was used to assess the fluent speaker's attitudes toward people who stutter in such areas as intelligibility and decisiveness. The fluent speakers listened to two recordings of a person who stuttered. One was a man and one was a woman. The people who stuttered read the same weather forecast and their stuttering was in the same severity rating. Although there was no significant interaction between the sex of the person who stuttered and the sex of the subject, men rated the people who stuttered lower than the females rated the people who stuttered.
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Bushey, T & Martin, R (1988) Stuttering in Children's Literature. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 19, 235-250

The Authors review 20 works of children's fiction in which a character stutters. All books used were published before 1960 with all but three published after 1969. The books were assessed on the following topics (a) Symptomalogy of stuttering, (b) conditions under which stuttering increases or decreases, (c) personality characteristics of the stuttering, (d) cause of stuttering, (e) and clinical treatment of stuttering. Some of the included books are Don't worry, dear, The Legend of the Veery Bird, Creole, Why Are People Different? A Book About Prejudice, Seal Secret, The Puma, Mirror of Her Own, and The Immediate Gift.
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Byrd, K. & Cooper, E. (1989). Apraxic speech characteristics in stuttering, developmentally apraxic, and normal speaking children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14(3), 215-229.

The focus of this study is looking at the similarities and differences of scores between three groups of children on an apraxia screening measurement. This research analyzes the scores obtained by three groups of children, ages 4-9, on the screening test for Developmental Apraxia of Speech (STDAS). The three groups were comprised of children who speak normally, children who stutter, and children who have developmental apraxia of speech. The results of this study indicate that the groups had some significant performance differences. The apraxic group and the disfluent group significantly differed on only one subtest, articulation. These results indicate that there may be more similarities between apraxia and stuttering. These results may provide insight into both a cause and the recovery pattern of some stutterers.
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Byrd, K., & Cooper, EB. (1989). Expressive and receptive language skills in stuttering children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 121-126.

It has been noted that one of the characteristics of children who stutter is delayed language. It is unknown whether or not this delay is the result of the etiology of the stuttering, the adaptation to the stuttering or both. The purpose of this study was to identify any language delay in the child subjects that stuttered. The subjects were given the TACL-R to test receptive language, the TOLD-P to test expressive language, and the FAD-C to test fluency. The results showed significant differences in the chronological ages and age equivalent scores on the expressive language test. These results could be used to support the hypothesis that the expressive language delays observed in children who stutter could be the result of the child using simple verbalizations as a way of coping with the stuttering.
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Caizuso, A.J., et al. (1994). Adults who stutter: Responses to cognitive stress. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37(4), 746-754.

This study investigates the effects of speech and cognitive stress on the articulatory coordination abilities of adults who stutter. Two groups were assessed, 9 people who stuttered, and 9 people who did not stutter. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressures, dysfluencies, errors, speech rate, and response latency as well as word duration, vowel duration, and formant center frequency. The results of the study indicated that cognitive stress results in greater temporal disruptions and more dysfluencies for stutterers. Cardiovascular evidence indicates PWS experience increases in blood pressure at the same rate as those who do not stutter. The authors believe their findings support the theory of stuttering as a disorder of timing.
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Carlo, E.J. & Watson, J.B. (2003). Disfluencies of 3-and 5-year old Spanish-speaking children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 37-53.

This study investigated the effects of gender and age on speech disfluencies in normally fluent speaking Spanish-speaking children. The study also focused on the differences in the frequency of disfluencies in boys compared to girls, younger compared to older age, and in terms of gender/age interaction. The study included 32 monolingual, Spanish- speaking children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old. All students attended the Head Start program in Puerto Rico. Data was gathered through a spontaneous speech sample from a 30-minute interaction with each child. The 500 ' 800 syllable sample was analyzed for disfluencies. Results revealed that the total number of speech disfluencies per 100 syllables was 3-8.99 for 87.5% of the boys and for 75% of the girls. The same mean number of disfluencies was found for 80% of the younger children and for 82.4% of the older children. High variability was found for different types of disfluencies. Discussion followed about the insignificant decrease of the frequency of speech disfluencies with an increase in age.
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Cannito, M. P., Vogel, D., Deal, J. L., & Watson, B. C. (1995). Response to Ham (1995): Dysfluency and disordered speech motor control. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(1). 80-85.

The authors are appreciative of Ham's positive review of Treating Disordered Speech Motor Control: For Clinicians by Clinicians. They continue by defending the areas of which Ham makes specific criticisms. In addition, the authors hope that this book will stimulate continued research, as well as scholarly activity in the areas of dysfluency and motor disturbances of speech.
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Carpenter, M., & Sommers, R. K. (1987). Unisensory and bisnesory perceptual and memory processing in stuttering adults and normal speakers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 291-304.

This study compared the performance of adult stutterers to the performance of normal speakers in unisensory and bisensory perceptual and memory tasks. The senses tested were manual, oral, and auditory. Unisensory results indicated that there was no significant difference between the group of stutterers and the group of non-stutterers. The stutterers performed more poorly on the bisensory tasks in which the examiners requested words than did the non-stutterers.
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Caruso, AJ, Conture, EG., & Colton, RH. (1988). Selected temporal parameters of coordination associated with stuttering children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 57-82.

The purpose of the study was to objectively investigate selected temporal aspects of coordination within and among the three major components of the speech production system during instances of young stutters' stuttering and to compare these events to those exhibited during normally fluent children's' instances of speech fluency. The study focused on five children who stutter and five normally fluent children's speech productions. Measurements of onsets, offsets, and durations of respiratory and laryngeal movements and supralaryngeal muscle activity permitted objective assessments of coordination within a particular component of the speech production system and between different components of the speech production system. Results indicated that during stuttering events, the relative sequence of movement and muscle activity onsets is generally similar to that of normally fluent children's fluent utterances and in some cases even to those of normally fluent adult speakers.
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Caruso, A., Ritt, C., & Sommers, R. (2002). Interactions between fluency and phonological disorders: Case study. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 29, 146-153.

The study investigated the possible interaction between disordered phonology and stuttering in a case study of a preschool boy's speech production. Results of the study indicated that words containing speech sounds that the child consistently misarticulated had a greater probability of being produced disfluently as compared to words that contained sounds that the child inconsistently misarticulated. When controlling for the number of fluent and stuttered words, feature deviation scores were highest for words that were adjacent to stuttered words. This finding suggests that the occurrence of a disfluency contaminates or exacerbated phonological production in adjacent, fluent words.
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Choudhury, N., & Benasich, A. (2003). A family aggregation study: The influence of family history and other risk factors on language development. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 261-272.

One hundred thirty-six infants from one hundred twelve families were studied to determine if specific language impairment (SLI) were related to the family's history of SLI. The study also focused on the gender ratios within the families. This study involved two groups. The FH+ group (SLI) consisted of forty-two infants from thirty- seven families. At least one member of their family had been diagnosed with SLI. The FH- group (comparison) consisted of ninety-four infants from seventy-five families. No members of this group had any reported history of SLI, dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, or autism. Results indicated that yes, SLI is found to aggregate in families and that children from the FH+ group performed lower on language comprehension and expression tests at age three compared to the FH- group. They study also found that males are often more affected by SLI. These findings are in agreement with previous studies on this topic.
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Christensen, J. & Sacco, P. (1989). Association of hair and eye color with handedness and stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 37-45.

This article examines the relationship among handedness, hair and eye color, and stuttering to test the possible relation of pigmentation to stuttering. 199 questionnaires were given to stutterers in order to determine hair and eye color and handedness. The stutterers were found to be more non-right-handed, disfluency severity was greater in those with blond hair and blue eyes, and females were more severe stutterers than males. The role of hypopigmentation in maldevelopment in neural cell assemblies is also discussed.
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Coakley, J. (2006). My journey with stuttering. JOURNAL OF STUTTERING, ADVOCACY & RESEARCH, 1, 90-93.URL: http://www.journalofstuttering.com/1- 2/Coakley.2006.JSTAR.1.90-93.pdf

John Coakley has been a PWS for 32 years. As an infant he suffered a grand mal seizure and battled with dyslexia throughout his adolescence. Mr. Coakley began speech therapy when he was five or six, usually participating in group sessions. He noticed that therapy never focused on the emotional side of stuttering. In fifth grade, he enrolled in the Geneseo program, which focused on intensive daily therapy for 8 hours a day. Therapy focused speaking at different speeds or 'gears', which proved to be effective when used diligently. Mr. Coakley entered the program for a second time during college. The program was more rigorous, but helped him to realize this was no the avenue he wanted to take toward stuttering. It helped him put his old thoughts about stuttering behind him and rely instead on skills he had been using on his own for years, which proved to be effective for him. These skills came easier to him; he no longer felt embarrassed about stuttering and worried less about other's reactions to his speech.
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Colcord, R., & Gregory, H. (1987). Perceptual analysis of stuttering and nonstuttering children's fluent speech productions. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 185-195.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate listeners' abilities to perceptually discriminate stuttering and nonstuttering children's fluent speech productions in both a paired- and single-stimulus paradigm. Identical fluent sentences from nine stuttering children and nine nonstuttering children matched individually for sex and age were analyzed perceptually in both a paired- and single-stimulus paradigm by 12 sophisticated listeners. Individual subject analysis revealed that only one-half or fewer of the stutterers could be discerned in either paradigm. In the remaining cases, either no discrimination could be made or a nonstutterer was incorrectly! identified as a stutterer. When averaged for subject group comparison, these findings indicate that listeners could not discriminate between the two groups. Explanations for why stuttering is harder to distinguish in children's speech that for adults are the difference due to learning that interrupts children's speech as well as various artifacts introduced into adult stutterers' fluent speech as a result of tong- term exposure to therapy.
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Coleman, C. E., Yaruss, S. J., & Hammer, D. (2007, July). Clinical research involving preschoolers who stutter: Real-world applications of evidence-based practice. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 38, 283-289.

The authors further explain the main points from a previous study and treatment program in a response to a Letter to the Editor from Dr. Ingham. The main points include a clear definition of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) from the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA), reasons behind the replicable procedure, natural recovery, reasons for not withholding therapy, why the study was referred to as a preliminary study, and the difference between efficacy studies and effectiveness studies.
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Columbus, PJ. (1992). Don't call me Billy Budd. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS,17, 205-209.

This article discusses a psychoanalytically view of stuttering. The author of this article suggests that the portrayal of people who stutter from the Lacanian psychoanalytical viewpoint perpetuates a negative stereotype that stigmatize people who stutter.
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Conture, E., Colton, R., & Gleason, J. (1988). Selected temporal aspects of coordination during fluent speech of young stutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 640-653.

The study selected aspects of the temporal parameter of stutterers' perceptually fluent speech productions. They were assessed to minimize the possibility that any temporal abnormalities were merely a reaction to or a part of the stuttering act. A comparison of the onsets, offsets, and durations of respiratory, articulatory, and laryngeal behavior during the perceptually fluent speech production of preschool and early elementary school-age children who stutter and peers who were normally fluent were conducted. The findings conclude that there were no apparent differences during perceptually fluent speech between young stutterers and their normally fluent peers in terms of the selected temporal measures of speech production.
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Conture, E.G., Colton, R.H., & Gleason, J.R. (1990). Letters to the editor. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 33, 404-406.

This is a reply to DiSimoni's comments by Conture and his colleagues. Conture, et al. felt that DiSimoni had concerns regarding their study which include: overlooking the possibility that "incoordination" does not cause stuttering, inappropriate speculations that young stutterers'' disruptions in speech production may be "subtle" and/or "brief", and the distinction between "scientific truth" and "theory" may be blurred. Comments regarding these points are made.
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Conture, E.G., and Guitar, B.E. (1993) Evaluating efficacy of treatment of stuttering: School-age children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 253-287.

The focus of this article is on the progress and problems in evaluating efficacy in the treatment of young school-age children. The unique characteristics and nature of the elementary school-aged stutterer, current treatment approaches, measurement, reliability, and validity are discussed with an emphasis on the need for future research. Also discussed is the need for further knowledge in the evaluation of long-term treatment outcomes in terms of speech naturalness, attitude changes, and the child's own perceptions of their speech.
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Conture, E.G., & Kelly, E.M. (1991). Young stutterers' nonspeech behaviors during stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 1041-1056.

The purpose of this study was to compare nonspeech behaviors of stutterers' to nonstutterers'. There were 10 subjects for the study, 30 people who stuttered and 30 nonstutterers. Each of the children interacted for about 30 minutes with his/her mother in spontaneous conversation. Both the mother and the child were viewed on a video camera. The movements were categorized as follows: (a) actions of the upper face (b) actions with up/down actions of the lower face (c) actions associated with the lower face horizontal action (d) action of the lower face oblique action (e) actions of the lower face orbital action (f) miscellaneous (g) head and eyeball movements (h) actions with upper body, hands, and arms. The results indicated that there is no absolute difference between children who stutter and nonstutterers in terms of the number and types of disfluencies. Children who stutter exhibit more nonspeech behaviors during stuttering than nonstutterers. However, there is a large overlap between the two groups in regard to the type of behavior exhibited.
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Conture, E., & Melnick, K. (2000). Relationship of length and grammatical complexity to the systematic and nonsystematic speech errors and stuttering of children who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 21-45.

This article describes the results of a study that evaluated the relationship between the length and grammatical complexity of utterances and the systematic and nonsystematic speech errors and stuttering of children who stutter. The subjects of the study included 10 boys with a mean age of 50.6 months who stuttered and exhibited disordered phonology. The subjects were audiotaped and video taped during a 30-minute conversation period with their mothers. Their utterances were analyzed and the results indicated that stuttered utterances were more complex and longer than nonstuttered utterances. No differences were found in the systematic and nonsystematic errors for stuttered and nonstuttered utterances in relation to utterance length and complexity.
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Conture, E. G., Rothenberg, M., & Molitor, R. D. (1986). Electroglottographic observations of young stutterers' fluency. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH. 29, 384-393.

This study consisted of 16 children, 8 stuttering children and 8 age and sex matched nonstuttering peers. Each child produced a sample of 32 CVC test words. Each response from the child was recorded by means of an EGG recording unit. The results of the study illustrate that there is a significant difference of abduction measure patterns in between-group and in group when looking at CV-VC transitions. Therefore, the findings show that normally fluent children exhibit significantly more typical laryngeal adjustments during CV and VC transitions than stuttering youngsters.
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Conture, EG. & Zebrowski, PM. (1992). Can childhood speech disfluencies be mutable to the influences of speech-language pathologists, but immutable to the influences of parents? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 1 & 2, 121-130.

This is a commentary by Edward Conture and Patricia Zebrowski in response to Curt Hamre's articles Stuttering Prevention I: Primacy of identification and Stuttering Prevention II: Progression which are contained in this same issue. The authors of this article criticize Hamre for citing only studies that support his theories and go on to cite several studies that do not support his theories. The authors also express concern that Hamre wants to disprove current theories such as the diagnosogenic theory but is unable to come up with viable and testable alternatives. A final concern was that Hamre regarded parents as experts on stuttering and discredits the knowledge of speech language pathologists.
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Cooper, C.S. (1991). Using collaborative/consultative service delivery models for fluency intervention and carryover. LANGUAGE SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 22, 152-153.

This article describes a classroom collaborative service model for therapy of stuttering. The speech language pathologist went into a variety of settings (library, playground, lunchroom, classrooms) for therapy. This enables the clinician to serve as a consultant to others in the school system. In addition, it gave awareness and placed new importance on the role of the speech language pathologist in the school system.
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Cooper, E. (1986). Joseph G. Sheehan's contributions: An eagle soars. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 175-182.

This was a paper that had been presented at the 1984 ASHA convention in San Francisco. The paper focuses on what type of person and clinician Dr. Sheehan was. The author stresses that Dr. Sheehan's "approach-avoidance theory" was not his only contribution to fluency disorders. The author also agrees with many of Dr. Sheehan's views, such as, the importance of client-clinician relationship, the insignificance of the amount of stuttering, the thought that parents do not cause stuttering but instead they are the primary factor of the child's spontaneous recovery, the importance of early intervention, the need for realistic stuttering goals, the knowledge that there is no "quick fix," and how needed continued support for adults who stutter is. Dr. Sheehan has inspired the author to become very involved in support groups for people who stutter and to continue research on the spontaneous recovery of stuttering. The author relates the phrase "eagles don't flock" to Dr. Sheehan because he was such an independent, strong man who made many contributions to the area of fluency disorders.
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Cooper, E.B. (1986). Treatment of disfluency: Future trends. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 317- 327.

The future holds many exciting changes for the treatment of stuttering. It is encouraging to know that in the future there may be more assessments for children and commercially available treatment materials. Therapy goals in the future may focus on developing the client's feeling of fluency control. Treatments may become more long-term and less intensive rather that short and intensive in order to reduce the possibility of relapse that people often experience. In the future, it is also important to be able to differentiate between people who will be able to conquer their stutter and those who will have to live with it for the rest of their lives.
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Cooper, E.B. (1987). The chronic perseverative stuttering syndrome; incurable stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 381-387.

This paper defines chronic perseverative stuttering, identifies chronic perseverative stuttering syndrome, discusses the goal of treatment in adults and teenagers with chronic perseverative stuttering, and discusses the role of self-help groups which have been established world wide.
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Cooper, E.B. (1993). Red herrings, dead horses, straw men, and blind alleys: escaping the stuttering conundrum. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18 (4), 375-388.

Response to Curt Hamre's (1992) statements pertaining to Cooper and Cooper (1991) fluency disorders prevention program and to other issues raised as a result of the Forum. The past 30 years of cooper's thinking regarding fluency disorders is reviewed. Also included is the author's definition of stuttering and the etiology of stuttering syndromes - divided into developmental stuttering, remedial stuttering, and chronic preservation stuttering.
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Cooper, EB. (1999). Review of Stuttering: A Short History of a Curious Disorder, by ME. Wingate. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 24: 1, 73-76.

Cooper states his opinions about the book Stuttering: A Short History of a Curious Disorder, by Marcel Wingate. According to him the first few chapters about the history of the disorder were written well. The last few chapters though, are not written as well. Cooper felt that Wingate picked apart present day theories on stuttering, but did not give suggestions on how he would make these theories more acceptable.
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Cooper, E. B., & Cooper, C. S. (1995). Treating fluency disordered adolescents. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 28, 125-142.

This article discusses three stuttering syndromes: developmental, remedial, and chronic perseverative stuttering. The treatment procedure suggested is based on Cooper's Personalized Fluency Control Therapy- Revised. Therefore, the main goal of treatment is a feeling of fluency control rather than actual fluency. The article concludes by using this therapy approach in a case history.
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Cooper, E. B., & Coopers, C. S. (1996). Clinician attitudes towards stuttering: Two decades of change. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21(2), 119-136.

This is a repeat study on the attitudes of SLP's (speech language pathologists) regarding stuttering etiology, early intervention, treatment efficacy, stutter's personality, various therapy techniques, teachers, and parents among others. The study covers an 18 year span which questioned 674 SLP's in the first survey (1973-1983) and 1,198 SLP's (1983-1991) in the second. The CATS (Clinician Attitude Toward Stuttering) questionnaire consisting of 50 statements was used. Four universal attitudes were noted over two decades: 1) Parent counseling is critical, 2) teachers are not to handle stuttering, 3) do not avoid counseling parents, and 4) clinicians are more comfortable with articulation than stuttering disorders.
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Cooper, E. & De Nil, L. (1999). Is stuttering a speech disorder? ASHA, 2, 10-11.

Professor Eugene B. Cooper, of the University of Alabama's Department of Communication Disorders, feels stuttering is far too complex, baring intricate aspects that do not allow it to be simply labeled as a speech disorder. Cooper feels focusing on only the "speech" aspects of the disorder will not allow us to gain progress in understanding all facets of stuttering itself. Professor Luc De Nil, of the Department of Speech-Language Pathology at the University of Toronto, provides the reader with a different angle of interpretation. De Nil agrees that stuttering is indeed a speech disorder, although he feels that many various underlying aspects affect the level of stuttering such as the stutterer's own reactions emotionally and socially. This can also hold true for almost any disorder affecting humans. De Nil believes we need to focus of the science of stuttering, the study of the motor disruption which is the one true common characteristic of stuttering. This will allow us to better understand the core of the disorder.
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Corcoran, J. & Stewart, M. (1998). Stories of Stuttering: A Qualitative Analysis of Interview Narratives. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 4, 247-264.

The article explains the experiences that adults who stutter endure. Eight adults who stutter ( 5 men, 3 women, ages 25-50) were interviewed up to 90 minutes initially, then returned for a 60 minute interview to confirm the findings from the initial interview. Questions for the interviews were created from the interviewer's personal, academic, and clinical experiences as well as writings from related research on the topic. Results showed that adults who stutter experience a sense of suffering when they are dysfluent. Participants explained the reason for this was due to blocking and obstruction of speech. These entailed 4 key elements: 1) helplessness, 2) shame, 3) fear, and 4) avoidance.
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Cordes, A. K. (1995). Stuttering includes both within-word and between-word disfluencies. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38(2). 382-386.

The author argues against the philosophy which says that all within-word disfluencies are stuttering and disfluencies occurring between-words are not stuttering. She proposes a definition of stuttering be logically consistent with empirical information and clinical experience.
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Cordes, A. K. (1996). Letters to the editor: Disfluency types and stuttering measurement: a necessary connection. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 39, 404-405.

Cordes responds to Yairi's Letter to the Editor regarding disfluency measurements by noting their agreement in the main premise that describing all within-word disfluencies as nonstuttering is an indefensible practice. The point of disagreement noted by Cordes is in Yairi's statement that judgments of disfluency types, especially monosyllabic word repetitions, may still enhance the validity of stuttering measurement. Because no studies have demonstrated a link between the occurrence of a disfluency and the occurrence of stuttering, Cordes does not condone Yairi's suggestion of considering whole word repetitions as an occurrence of stuttering but suggests that the speaker's and observer's perceptions of a production be more closely considered. Cordes closes by addressing Yairi's concern regarding the semantics by saying that "These people will not be helped by further layers of terminology. . . they might be helped, on the other hand, by the development of a system that can reliably and validly describe, measure, and reduce their stuttering."
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Cordes, A. K. (2000). Individual and consensus judgments of disfluency types in the speech of persons who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH, 43(4), 951- 964.

Research indicates that there is very poor reliability when individuals attempt to identify different disfluency types. The judging, involves significant differences among the stuttered speech in various disfluency based characterizations. This study required 30 judges to identify all of the types of disfluencies present in a 5-s recorded speech stimuli, each individually (Individual condition) and then in a partnership (Consensus condition). Intrajudge and interjudge agreement of occurrences, from Individual conditions, were significantly lower than those agreements measured in Consensus conditions. However, both of the intrapair and interpair agreement of occurrences were less than 50%. This research also indicated that the types of disfluency, based on three stuttering definitions, were not heavily related to whether speech included or did not include stuttering. In accordance with previous data, The findings of this study, and previous data, recommend one use caution when using types of disfluency to depict or illustrate "stuttered speech".
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Cordes, A.K., & Ingham, R.J. (1994). The reliability of observational data: II. Issues in the identification and measurement of stuttering events. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37, 279-294.

The authors of this paper review studies of inter-rater reliability in the measurement of stuttering. They conclude that there is virtually no evidence that observers show adequate agreement on counts of stuttering events. One problem identified is that current definitions of stuttering are inadequate for differentiating between stuttered and nonstuttered speech behaviors, or between stuttered and normally disfluency speech. Also, there are no standardized procedures for measuring stuttering events or for training judges to count or measure stuttering behaviors. More promising methods of judgment were discussed and included interval-based methods, categorization-based methods, and physiological or neurophysiological measures.
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Cordes, A.K., & Ingham, R.J. (1994). Time interval measurement of stuttering: Effects of interval duration. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37(4), 779-788.

This study looked at observer judgments of stuttering based on interval duration. Two groups of judges were used with varying degrees of experience working with PWS. Longer intervals tended to be judged as stuttered while more confusion arose on the shorter intervals. There was no important, clear evidence of important differences between experienced and inexperienced judges, except that experienced showed better agreement for shorter intervals.
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Cordes, A.K., & Ingham, R.J., (1990). Judgments of stuttered and nonstuttered intervals by recognized authorities in stuttering research. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38(1), 33-41.

This study focuses on the reliability and validity of observer counts of occasions, or "moments" of stuttering. Most stuttering measurements rely almost exclusively on observer judgments of individual stuttering events. The study shows that the judges clearly disagreed widely about the absolute amount of stuttering in speech samples they viewed. It was also noted that a high degree of disagreement occurred between clinics. This study shows there is a need for amore standardized assessment of stuttering behavior.
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Cordes, A., & Ingham, R. 1996. Time-Interval Measurement of Stuttering: Establishment and Modifying Judgment Accuracy. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 39, 2 298-310

This study investigated student's accuracy and interjudge agreement for time interval judgments of stuttering. The study also hoped to determine if student's might generalize improved accuracy after training. Subjects were 10 undergrad students with no previous experience with stuttering. Results indicate that training does increase judgment accuracy of familiar as well as non-familiar speakers, and that a slight increase in interjudge and intrajudge agreement exists post-training.
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Cordes, A. & Ingham, R. (1999). Effects of Time-Interval Judgement Training on Real-Time Measurement of Stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 42, 4, 862-879

This article addresses issues regarding treatment decisions for young children who stutter, which were presented in a paper by Curlee and Yairi (1997). Issues consisted of distin- guishing between disfluency and stuttering, general approaches to treatment, desirable outcomes for children who stutter, and the effects of delaying treatment. The authors of this article offer differing insight to the Curlee and Yairi paper, suggesting the Curlee and Yairi paper questionable, but still a thought-provoking "reality check."
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Cordes, A.K., Ingham, R.J., Frank, P., & Costello Ingham, J. (1992). Time-interval analysis of interjudge and intrajudge agreement for stuttering event judgments. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 483-494.

The study investigated a measurement methodology based on time-interval analysis of stuttering event judgments. Inter and intrajudge interval-by-interval agreement, and agreement for total numbers of intervals containing stuttering event judgments, were calculated for each judge group. The results revealed that agreement was superior for the experienced judges and in the linger interval lengths.
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Craig, A. (1996). Long-term effects of intensive treatment for a client with both a cluttering and stuttering disorder. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21 (3/4), 329-335.

This study presents results of a single-subject case study. The results indicate that a person who clutters and stutters can be successfully treated by an intensive behavioral strategy that stresses airflow techniques, slowed speech rate, and cognitive changes during carry-over activities. After successful completion of an intensive program, stuttering was greatly reduced, and gains were maintained after 10 months. Consequently the cluttering symptoms after treatment were minimal.
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Craig, A. (1998). Relapse following treatment for stuttering: A critical review and correlative data. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 1-30.

This article first includes a literature review, summarizing previous research which investigated relapse following treatment in children and adults. The article also includes data concerning long-term predictors of relapse in adult groups. The author discusses various definitions of relapse and long-term fluency. The author includes three important lessons regarding treatment and relapse: treatment should include self monitoring strategies, issues of attitude and feelings should be addressed in therapy, and relapse should not be looked upon as disastrous or final. A single factor causing relapse has not been found and the author stresses that long-term fluency depends upon a combination of variables.
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Craig, A. (2006). The role of anxiety in stuttering. BULGARIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 1, 10-18.

This article reviews the relationship between anxiety and stuttering. From the early 20th century, research has found anxiety to play an important etiological part in the development of stuttering. Current research also suggests anxiety plays a large role in stuttering. Prior to the physical and mental act of stuttering, a stutterers anxiety level with rise. Also PWS, who live with this disorder through childhood to adolescence and into adulthood, risk developing social anxiety as they learn to cope with their stuttering
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Craig, A.R., & Calver, R. (1991). Following up on treated stutterers: Studies of perceptions of fluency and job status. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 279-284.

The current study consisted of four separate studies. They included: a self-report on speech progress, job promotion and career change, employers' perceptions of stutterers' speech before and after treatment, and perceptions of relapse. Results of study I showed that 96% were satisfied with their speech immediately following therapy, and 42% were satisfied 12-18 months following the completion of therapy. At the time of the study, 90% considered their fluency to be either good or adequate, while 10% considered their fluency to be marginal or dysflueny. Study II indicated that 40% had changed jobs following therapy, and the majority considered the change an upgrade in job status. Study III showed that employers had few negative comments and many positive comments regarding their employees' speech after therapy was completed. Results of the final study, study IV, showed that although 73% believed they had relapsed, most could regain fluency by using strategies they had learned while in therapy.
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Craig, A., Hancock, K., Chang, E., Mcready, C., Shepley, A., McCaul, A., Costello, D., Harding, S., Kehren, R., Masel, C., & Reilly, K. 1996. A Controlled Clinical Trial for Stuttering in Persons Aged 9 to 14 Years. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 39, 4 808- 826

This study investigated comparisons between three treatment programs, intensive smooth speech, intensive electomyography feedback, and home based smooth speech, to a no-treatment control comprised of children who stuttered on program waiting lists. This study included 97 children who stuttered aged 9-14, split evenly across the three treatment programs with the no-treatment control group of approximately the same number of subjects as any one of the treatment programs. Results found that the control groups stuttering did not change as expected. The results also indicate that all three treatment programs were effective and that none were significantly more so than any others.
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Craig, A., Hancock, K., Tran, Y., Craig, M., & Peters, K. (2002). Epidemiology of stuttering in the community across the entire life span. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 45, 1097-1105

This journal article describes a randomized and stratified study on the prevalence of stuttering in New South Wales, Australia. A total of 4,689 families were interviewed including 12,131 individuals in the study. The families were contacted via telephone and asked to participate in the survey. They were called on a later date and asked a series of questions on the topic of stuttering to find out if anyone in the family stuttered or ever had stuttered. Questions pertaining to the characteristics of their stuttering and whether or not they had ever sought treatment were also asked. Results from the study revealed prevalence, gender ratios, and estimated risk of stuttering. It attempts to estimate the prevalence of stuttering across an entire lifespan. The information derived from this study can be beneficial for treatment facilities designed for people who stutter.
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Craig, A., Hancock, K., Tran, Y., & Craig, M. (2003). Anxiety levels in people who stutter: A randomized population study. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 1197- 1207.

The purpose of this study was to examine levels of trait anxiety in people who stutter, using a randomly selected sample of subjects from a heterogeneous group of people. Subjects came from 4,689 households (12,131 people) and were all at least 15 years old. The results were compared to norms for trait anxiety of people who do not stutter. Information was collected through phone interviews. Participants who were people who stutter were assessed for anxiety levels and a 5-minute speech sample was tape recorded during the conversation. Results revealed that people who stutter and were in a therapy program exhibited significantly more trait anxiety than did people who did not stutter. These results suggest that clinicians should be aware that such clients may be at risk for having higher levels of trait anxiety and such issues should be addressed early in therapy.
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Cray, A., Enderby, P., & Hayhow, R. (2002). Stammering and therapy views of people who stammer. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 1-17.

Interviewing has become generally accepted as a satisfactory way of exploring people's beliefs, and expectations. It has been used in health services to determine the effectiveness of treatment. Those who stammer face this communication problem daily which often leads them to seek intervention. One long standing problem in serving those who stammer is the debate among professionals on the desired outcome of stammering therapy. Due to the incidence of stammering, obtaining an adequate sample is difficult. Thus a postal questionnaire was done. The questionnaire sought the views of adults who stammer on four subjects; the effects of stammering on their lives, the therapy approaches that they have found helpful and unhelpful, the value of other remedies that people have tried, and their ideas of speech and language therapy and the future. The questionnaire indicated that stammering had the greatest effects on people's lives in the areas of school life and occupation. Speech therapy had been helpful for many, but no specifics were given. Unhelpful therapy was defined as experiencing dissatisfaction due to needs not being met. In the future people hope to see therapy include three things; help in controlling stammering and in developing coping strategies, they hope to see timely and effective intervention for children and ongoing help and group work for adults, and that therapy goals be decided together, clearly defined, appropriate to individual needs, reasonable, and measurable.
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Crichton-Smith, I. (2002). Communicating in the real world: Accounts from people who stammer. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 333-352.

The researchers in this article investigated the communicative experiences and coping strategies of 14 adults who stammer. Subjects ranged in age from 26 to 86. They were divided into two groups; those who had received some type of speech and language therapy and some had not. The subjects were made aware of the study and participated in a semi-structured personal interview. Each subject was encouraged to discuss childhood, adolescence, employment, relationships, and speech and ! language therapy. These topics were categorized to fit three situations to which the data was figured. The categories were the lived experience of stammering, communication management, and situational management of stammering. The results showed a variety of individuals' experiences of stammering, and that both groups experience similar feelings at different points in their lives. The information derived from this study could be useful to speech- language therapists to help understand the feelings of people who stutter in various situations.
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Cross, D. E., (1987). Comparison of reaction time and accuracy measures of laterality for stutterers and normal speakers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 271-286.

This study compared ear advantage through reaction time and accuracy in a dichotic listening task between stutterers and non-stutterers. A mean right ear advantage was observed for both groups. There was no group difference in ear difference score for accuracy, but there was a group difference for reaction time. The data do not support the theory that a majority of adult stutterers are different from non-stutterers in hemispheric processing.
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Cross, D.E. & Olson, P.L. (1987). Articulatory-laryngeal interaction in stutterers and normal speakers: effects of a bite-block on rapid voice initiation. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 407-418.

This study investigated the effect a bite-block would have on the vocal reaction time (VRT) of stutterers and normal speakers. All vocal initiations were from the jaw closed position. The use of the bite-block decreased the VRT in all normal speakers. The use of a bite-block had varying effects on the stutterers' VRT. The mean of the group of stutterers was an increased VRT. However, four of the stutterers had a decreased VRT while six had an increased VRT. This outcome points to the individuality involved with stuttering. Proposed reasons for the disparity among those in the stuttering group were individual sensitivity to the sensory disruption a bite- block introduces to the reflexes, the bite-block may fit differently in each individual's mouth depending on specific oral structures, and the degree of biting force used by the individual.
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Cross, D. E. & Olson, P. (1987). Interaction between jaw kinematics and voice onset for stutterers and nonstutterers in a VRT task. JOURNAL FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12(5), 367-380.

This study examined the relationship between jaw movement and vocal onset for stuttering and nonstuttering subjects during a VRT task. Ten male subjects identified as stutterers and ten males subjects identified as non-stutterers participated in the study. The subjects were required to sustain the vowel /^/ in response to the presentation of a tone. Results indicated that non-stutterers and stutterers did not exhibit a significant difference in relation to jaw reaction time, voice reaction time or jaw kinematics. When results were analyzed within the group, the data found that four of the ten stuttering individuals exhibited longer voice and jaw reaction times in relation to the remaining individuals in the stuttering group and the non-stuttering group. These results indicate that slow reaction times may be a result of timing issues between the respiratory system and articulatory behaviors.
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Crowe, T.A., & Robinson, T.L. (1993). In stuttering: Do we have an ounce to give? AMERICAN SPEECH AND HEARING ASSOCIATION, p. 53-54.

This article discusses how stuttering is actually a syndrome and would best be treated through ego-counseling. As SLP's know, a PWS develops defense mechanisms in response to their disfluencies. The process of ego-counseling addresses the possibility of those defense mechanisms being linked to repressed needs. In order to provide better primary prevention for stuttering, SLP's need to do two things. First, SLP's need to become better counselors, possibly through more coursework at the graduate level. Secondly, SLP's need to continue aggressive and comprehensive epidemiological studies of the disorder as a syndrome, discovering at risk populations, etc.
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Cuadrado, EM., & Weber-Fox, CM. (2003). Atypical syntactic processing in individuals who stutter: evidence from event-related brain potentials and behavioral measures. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 960-976.

This study supports the hypothesis that the neural mechanisms in individuals who stutter (IWS) operate differently in comparison to nonstutterers (NS) on various language tasks. Nine IWS were matched to nine NS by factors such as, age, gender, and level of education. Each individual was fitted with an electrode cap and was presented with sentences of varying complexity, one word at a time through a computer program, as well as an offline task. They were then asked to answer yes or no to whether the sentence was a "good English sentence." The results indicated that both the IWS and the NS displayed normal levels of language and visual working memory on the task. However, behavioral and neurophysical distinctions were noted on the offline task. The study suggests that the neural mechanism in IWS processes syntactic information differently than NS.
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Cullinan, S. A. (2006). A preliminary examination of SSMP participants' retrospective self-ratings of changes in attitude, communicative abilities, and self-acceptance. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY AND RESEARCH, 1, 42-63. from http://www.journalofstuttering.com/ListofArticles.html.

This study examined PWS responses to a survey of those who took part in the Successful Stuttering Management Program. The survey asked questions related to the participants' feelings towards stuttering, the use of stuttering techniques, and whether or not they felt as though a relapse had occurred. Responses to the survey indicated that changes related to attitude had affected the participants' lives the most and the techniques that were taught during the program such as prolongations were still being utilized by the participants. The participants also acknowledged that they were utilizing maintenance habits once the program ended. The amount of relapse that occurred was only considered to be minimal and no downward trend in speech was indicated. Overall, surveys can be a useful method for assessing the effectiveness of a treatment program.
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Cullinan, Walter L. (1988). Consistency measures revisited. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 1-9.

The study focuses on the stuttering consistency measures suggested 25 years ago. The measures are reexamined and new data are provided. The results indicated that the use of the weighted percentage measure while testing significance of individual subject consistency performance in the manner suggested for the maximum difference or normal deviated measures may be the most acceptable procedure.
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Curlee, R. F. (1992). Comments on stuttering prevention I. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17 (1-2) 57-61.

The article provides an overview of Hamre's position on stuttering prevention and identification. The article points to the lack of empirical data to either support-or-refute Hamre's premises in a definitive way. The author states that the arguments will continue about Hamre's position until conclusive longitudinal studies can be conducted on a large number of children who stutter.
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Curlee, RF. (1992). To treat or to prevent: Are those the issues? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 1 & 2, 107-112.

This is a commentary by Richard Curlee in response to Curt Hamre's article Stuttering Prevention II: Progression which is contained in this same issue. Curlee informs the reader that Hamre interrogated and rejected several long-standing beliefs about stuttering on the grounds that there is insufficient empirical evidence to support them and in turn offered alternatives of the same caliber. Curlee suggests that at this point that until there are better studies done on the treatment and prevention of stuttering in children, the clinician must continue to rely on personal experience and intuition to decide whether or not a child has a good chance for remission of his/her stuttering or if it is likely to persist or worsen.
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Curlee, R. F. (1993) Evaluating treatment efficacy for adults: Assessment of stuttering disability. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 319-331.

This article proposes a strategy for evaluating treatment efficacy of the adult stutterer through assessment of the client's stuttering disability. This author describes stuttering as a behavioral event which can be modified or eliminated through therapy. Guidelines for evaluating the adult stutterer are suggested, including some optional measures of stuttering severity and speech naturalness to determine the degree to which the disabling effects decrease during the course of therapy. The author also discusses the need for systematic studies to identify the specific therapy procedures that contribute to successful outcomes and those variables which are responsible for failures.
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Curlee, R. F. (1993). The early history of the behavior modification of stuttering: From laboratory to clinic. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 13-25.

Curlee focuses on the advancement of behavioral modification therapies during the 1960's and 1970's. The therapies discussed include the differential response contingent stimulation, successive approximation procedures, and conditioning of replacement behavior. Curlee states that all of these therapies have been modified through time and only a few have remained in the true form of operant theory.
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Curlee, R.F. (1996). Cluttering: Data in search of understanding. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21 (3/4), 367-371.

The need for continued research in the area of cluttering is stressed in this article. It suggests the need for more information on the etiology of cluttering, its epidemiology, and how it emerges and develops during childhood. Research limitations must be corrected if the methods of science are to be used successfully to advance the understanding of this complex communication disability.
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Curlee, R.F. & Yairi, E. (1997). Early intervention with early childhood stuttering: A critical examination of the data. AMERICAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 6, 8-18.

Data pertaining to the incidence and prevalence as well as the efficacy of early identification and treatment of childhood stuttering were examined. There seems to be a general acceptance of the incidence and prevalence estimates despite the weaknesses in data collection. The data discussing early identification and treatment indicates there is a controversy over whether or not every stuttering child should be treated between the ages of 2 and 5 and within 1 to 2 years after onset. It was also noted that parents may choose to delay treatment if the data discussing the percentages of children who do and do not stop stuttering within the first year or two of onset were discussed to them.
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Curlee, Richard & Ehud Yairi. (1998). Treatment of early childhood stuttering : advances and research needs. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY, 7, 20-26.

This article is a response to critiques written by other professionals on a previous study done by the Curlee and Yairi. They reexamine the areas of disagreement and clarify some of their previous statements. The first area Curlee and Yairi discuss is the subject of incidence and prevalence. The next focus of their article is on epidemiology and clinical practice. In their previous article, Yairi and Curlee state, "clinical intervention decisions should be based on scientifically coined research--research that describes the nature and evolution of childhood stuttering and evaluates the efficacy of early treatment intervention" (Curlee&Yairi, 21). They further explain their reasoning for this position and also include opinions from other professionals. The authors defend their position regarding recommending treatment for stuttering. They claim that they never advocated withholding treatment from any patient, however state they do agree with the principle of waiting to initiate treatment for a short period of time. That is an area that has received much criticism from other professionals. The article also has information about distinguishing between disfluency and stuttering, and distinguishing among general approaches to treatment, desirable outcomes for children who stutter, effects of delaying treatment, and treatment research and methodology.
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Daly, DA. (1987). Use of the Home VCR to Facilitate Transfer of Fluency. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 103-106.

It is not uncommon for a stuttering client, who has demonstrated progress establishing fluency in therapy, to encounter considerable difficulty when attempting to transfer the fluency skills back into the home environment. In this article, two clinical examples, a 13 year-old male and a 30 year-old male, demonstrate how VCR technology can be employed to facilitate the transfer of fluency in stuttering clients. Parents, siblings, spouses, or friends can view the progress of the client, and the client can "see" or "hear" him/herself correctly producing the speech targets being taught.
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Daly, D.A., and Burnett, M.L. (1996). Cluttering: Assessment, treatment planning, and case study illustration. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 21, 239-248.

This article discusses the procedures used in the assessment of cluttering including Daly's Checklist For Possible Cluttering. A case study is then given and describes initial evaluation finding, recommendations, treatment and finally reevaluation. A form for planning treatment was developed (Profile Analysis For Planning Treatment With Cluttering Clients) and is used with the case study.
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Daly, D.A., Simon, C.A., & Burnett-Stolnack, M. (1995). Helping adolescents who stutter focus on fluency. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN THE SCHOOLS, 26 162-168.

The diverse roles that a speech-language pathologist must employ when working with adolescents who stutter are addressed. Analogies are offered as a means of increasing the student's interest and understanding of his/her stuttering characteristics. Two phases of therapy are suggested. Phase one focuses on behavioral speech treatment strategies such as fluency target skills or stuttering modification strategies. Phase two focuses on cognitive and self- instructional procedures such as relaxation, mental imagery and positive self-talk. Five basic tenets of treatment for adolescent students are offered
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Daniels, D., Hagstrom, F., & Gabel, R. (2006). A qualitative study of how African American men who stutter attribute meaning to identity and life choices. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 200-215.

Six African American men who stutter (ages 24 to 58) were interviewed about their lives and their responses videotaped. Major and minor themes were taken from the participants' responses on a) being a person who stutters, b) being an African American, c) life choices, and d) identity. Results from the interviews found that five of the participants felt that stuttering affected their personal identity, and three participants thought their experiences were unique being both African American and a person who stutters. No participants reported their racial or communicative identities affected family life, but all identified stuttering as affecting their educational lives.
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Davidow, J.H., Bothe, A.K., & Bramlett, R.E. (2006). The stuttering treatment research evaluation and assessment tool (STREAT): Evaluating treatment research as part of evidence-based practice. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 15, 126-141.

This article focuses on the issues surrounding the Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT). The STREAT assists in critically analyzing reports concerned with stuttering treatment research and was developed based on previously published recommendations. The article discusses the seven different sections and items in the STREAT, including: The Five Basic Characteristics, Strategy/Participants/Sample Size, Dependent Variables, Treatment Fidelity, Data Fidelity, Data Analysis, and Results, in addition to Reliability. The conclusion of this research is that the STREAT is an accurate reflection of the previously published recommendations concerning evidence-based practice in the area of stuttering treatment research.
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Davidow, J.H., Bothe, A.K., & Bramlett, R.E. (2006). The stuttering treatment research evaluation and assessment tool (STREAT): Evaluating treatment research as part of evidence-based practice. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 15, 169-178.

The Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT) is used to ease the task of critical appraisal of stuttering treatment research by students, clinicians, and other readers. It is an evaluation system similar to evidence-based practice (EBP). When critiquing a stuttering treatment program or stuttering treatment investigation, the STREAT highlights seven different sections to be observed: Section I, Five Basic Characteristics; Section II, Strategy/Participants/Sample Size; Section III, Dependent Variables; Section IV, Treatment Fidelity; Section V, Data Fidelity; Section VI, Data Analysis; and Section VII, Results. The main goal of the STREAT is to assist clinicians with providing the most appropriate and effective stuttering treatment services to their clients.
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Davis S., Howell P., & Cook F., (2002) Sociodynamic relationships between children who stutter and their non-stuttering classmates. JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHIATRY, 43(7), 939-47.

Children who stutter have been bullied by their peers for over 20 years. Previous research has been done noting the differences between children who stutter and children who do not stutter and their roles in leadership, popularity, and bullying. The purpose of this study is to quantify the results from anti-bullying policies that have been implemented in the schools and report the impact of these programs related to the social status of children who stutter. Peer rejection and bullying are still present within the educational system despite the anti-bullying efforts that have been made. Providing strong bullying rules within the school systems is very important. Children who stutter can benefit from peer support systems in their schools.
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Davis, S., Shisca, D. & Howell, P. (2006). Anxiety in speakers who persist and recover from stuttering. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 40, 398-417.

This study investigates the role, state and trait, anxiety plays in the etiology, precipitation and maintenance of stuttering. Fifty-seven participants were enrolled in the study; 19 fluent speakers and 35 individuals who stuttered; those who either persisted or recovered. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was administered to all of the participants. Results of the study reveal that there were no trait anxiety differences between the control and experimental groups. State anxiety scores revealed no significant difference between the recovered group and the control group. However, the state anxiety scores were higher for the persistent group than the control group.
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Dayalu, V. N., Kalinowski, J., Stuart, A., Holbert, D., & Rastatter M. P. (2002). Stuttering frequency on content and function words in adults who stutter: a concept revisited. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 5, 871-878.

This study investigated stuttering frequency as a function of grammatical word type (i.e., content and function). Ten adults who stutter participated. Participants recited aloud a list of 126 words consisting of an equal number of content and function words, which were presented individually and visually via a laptop computer. Words were matched for initial sound and approximate number of syllables, which belonged to a single grammatical category. The results indicated that adults who stutter exhibited significantly greater stuttering frequency on content words when presented in isolation.
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Defloor, T., Van Borsel, J., & Curfs, L. (2000). Speech fluency in prader-willi syndrome. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 85-98.

This article reviews a study that explored the speech fluency of 15 subjects, from 9-20 years of age, with a total IQ between 40-94, with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). The four speech modalities the researchers used for speech samples included spontaneous speech, repetition, monologue, and automatic series. These speech samples were then examined for frequency, type and distribution of dysfluencies. Results confirmed that people with PWS are oftentimes dysfluent. Of the 15 subjects, one displayed what the authors called symptoms of "clinical stuttering" and none displayed secondary stuttering characteristics. The research indicated some of the subjects dysfluencies were typical features found in stuttering and others were very atypical. Further research must be done to determine if the dysfluency associated with PWS is related to problems with language.
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De Felcio , C.M., Rodrigues, R.L., Vitti, M., & Regalo S.C.H. (2007). Comparison of upper and lower lip muscle activity between stutterers and fluent speakers. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS,71,1187-1192

Researchers designed a study to investigate the lip muscle activity between people who stutter and fluent speakers. Lower and upper lip muscle activity was analyzed using electromyographic recording (EMG). Ten fluent speakers and ten individuals who stutter were included in the study. Findings indicated that the activity of the upper lip muscle was significantly lower in the group which contained individuals who stutter. Results also suggested no significant differences in lower lip activity between the two groups. The research did not reveal a connection between greater muscle activity and stuttering.
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DeJoy, DA., & Jordan, WJ. (1988). Listener reactions to interjections in oral reading versus spontaneous speech. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 11-25.

This study looks at the degree of overlap between normal disfluency and stuttering. The subjects of this study were 383 undergraduate students enrolled in sections of introductory level public speaking, or interpersonal communication courses. The subjects listened to one of six versions of an oral reading passage or to one of six versions of a passage presumed to be spontaneous speech. The passages contained randomly inserted schwa insertions at 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, or 20% of the possible juncture points. Listeners classified the passages as fluent, dysfluent, or stuttered and made other judgments through semantic differential scales. Significant differences in listener reactions to interjections in oral reading versus spontaneous speech were revealed.
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Dell, C., & Rastatter, M. (1987). Simple visual versus lexical decision vocal reaction times of stuttering and normal subjects. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 63-69.

In this study, the vocal reaction times of stutterers to visually presented linguistic stimuli was discussed and examined. The study suggests there are possible differences in both motor control and auditory-phonemic information processing in persons who stutter. The study included 14 subjects ages 18-36 years. They were tested on vocal reaction times and lexical decision response conditions. The results of the study showed that stutterers' vocal reaction times to visual stimuli were not significantly different from the reaction times of normal subjects. The findings from this study do not correspond with previous findings in the field.
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Dembowski, J., & Watson, B. (1991). Preparation time and response complexity effects on stutterers' and nonstutterers' acoustic LRT. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 49-59.

Subjects were 18 adult males, subclassified into PWS, who were mild, and those who were severe. Six subjects were in each group, and there were 6 control subjects, with no history or evidence of stuttering. Subjects were requested to initiate phonation as quickly as possible during structured speaking tasks. Results indicated that individuals who did not stutter produced the shortest laryngeal reaction time. Accordingly, mild PWS produced a longer LRT and severe PWS produced the longest LRT. The effect of stimulus presentation, response complexity, LRT and CNS preparation, and normal CNS function were also discussed.
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De Nil, L. F. (1995). The influence of phonetic context on temporal sequencing of upper lip, lower lip, and jaw peak velocity and movement onset during bilabial consonants in stuttering and nonstuttering adults. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20 (2), 127-144.

The purpose of this article was to investigate whether differences in bilabial articulatory sequence patterns were present between stutterers and nonstutterers. Five adult stutterers and four nonstutterers were instructed to produce three utterances. According to the results, no direct relationship between stuttering severity and the type of articulatory sequence pattern was observed.
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De Nil, L. F., Kroll, R. M., & Ham, R. E. (1996). Therapy review. Successful Stuttering Management Program (SSMP). JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21, 61-67.

In this article, the authors, De Nil and Kroll, review the Successful Stuttering Management Program, a stuttering therapy program designed for group use with adolescents and adults who stutter, which is followed by a response from Ham. The underlying philosophy of the program is stated as being a combination of avoidance reduction therapy and the application of stuttering modification techniques advocated by Van Riper and can be divided into three phases: confrontation naming, modification of stuttering, and transfer and maintenance. A brief overview of each phase is given by De Nil and Kroll. They state that the underlying philosophy of this program is thought to align more with those who advocate a stuttering modification approach rather than a total fluency approach based on fluency shaping. Some concerns listed by these authors regarding this program include: potential for high client drop-out rate due to the high level of difficulty at the initial level phase of therapy, the possibly encouragement of avoidance behaviors through promotion of the substitution method to stuttering modification, and misleading facts given in the program text. Ham responds in support of the SSMP and addresses each of the issues posed by De Nil and Kroll.
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DeNil, L., & Bruten, G. (1991). Speech-associated attitudes of stuttering and nonstuttering children. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 60-66.

The Communication Attitude Test was given to 63 males and 7 female Dutch speaking Belgium children who stuttered. The ages of the subjects ranged from 7-14 years for the males and 7-13 years for the females. The control group consisted of 271 Belgium children, 49% male and 57% female, who had no apparent speech, language or hearing problems. True-false questions regarding speech attitudes comprised the CAT-D. The higher score, the less positive the attitude toward speech. The children who stuttered scored almost two times as high as the children who did not stutter. In addition, within the group of children who stuttered, the females scored significantly higher than the males.
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De Nil, L., Houle, S., Kapur, S., & Kroll, R. (2000). A positron emission tomography study of silent and oral single word reading in stuttering and nonstuttering adults. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING, 43, 1038-1053.

This article describes a study that used PET scanning to view lateralization and cortical and subcortical activity in the brains of 10 right handed male stuttering adults and 10 right handed male nonstuttering adults when reading single words both silently and orally. The study confirmed that the stuttering adults exhibited differences in lateralization of language activity, as they showed an increase in activity in the right hemisphere during oral reading, whereas the nonstuttering adults showed an increase in activity in the left hemisphere during oral reading. During silent reading, the stuttering adults exhibited increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex in the left hemisphere, suggesting that they experienced anticipation reactions related to stuttering. Silent reading did not produce lateralization differences between the stuttering and nonstuttering adults.
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DeNil, L. F., & Kroll, R. M. (1995). The relationship between locus of control and long-term stuttering treatment outcome in adult stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20 (4), 345-364.

The purpose of this investigation was to observe whether the measurement of an individual's locus of control will allow clinicians to predict which of their clients who stutter are more or less likely to show long-term fluency following intensive treatment. Twenty one subjects initially participated in measures during a 3-week intensive treatment program. These measures included a Locus of Control Behavior Scale, Situation Checklist, reading sample, conversational speech sample, and a Fluency Self-Rating Scale. These measures were obtained pretreatment, posttreatment, and two years later. Results revealed a significant improvement in fluency immediately post-treatment. Two-year follow-up results revealed an increase in stuttering frequency in a number of subjects. A clear relationship between locus of control, as measured by the Locus of Control Behavior Scale, and long-term treatment results (measured by the percentage of words stuttered) was not identified.
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De Nil, LF., Kroll, RM., Lafaille, SJ., & Houle, S. (2003). A positron emission tomography study of short- and long-term treatment effects on functional brain activation in adults who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 357- 380.

This study utilized positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the effects of short- and long-term behavioral treatment on brain activation patterns in people who stutter (PWS). Twenty-three adult participants were divided into stuttering (n=13) and nonstuttering (n=10) groups. Each participant in the stuttering group underwent a PET scan prior to treatment. The treatment program was a modified version of the Precision Fluency Shaping Program that lasted for three weeks. The intensive schedule required each participant to participate in group and individual fluency treatment for six hours each day, followed by daily activities. During therapy, the participants worked towards gaining new motor skills, acquiring a series of speech targets, self-observation, and systematic cognitive and attitudinal adjustments. After the intensive therapy sessions, the participants underwent PET scans again. This was followed by participation in a year- long maintenance program. At the end of the maintenance program, the participants again underwent PET scanning. The results of this study showed changes in activation lateralization following treatment, particularly a shift toward left-lateralization. In addition, there was a general reduction in overactivation following treatment, especially in the motor cortex.
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De Nil, L. F., Sasisekaran, J., Van Lieshout, P. H. H. M., Sandor, P. (2005). Speech disfluencies in children with Tourette syndrome. JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH, 58, 97-102.

The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency and types of disfluencies of children with Tourette's syndrome (TS) with those of typically developing children. Speech samples were collected from 69 children diagnosed with TS, ages 4-18, and 27 typically developing children, ages 6-17. In addition, self-report information regarding the presence, nature, and familial incidence of speech and language difficulties was obtained via a questionnaire which was completed by the subjects or their parents. Speech samples were analyzed in terms of _ more typical_ disfluencies, those present in both typical and stuttered speech, and _ less typical_ disfluencies, those present in stuttered speech. Results of self-report data indicated no significant differences in perceived disfluencies between the groups. Results of speech sample analysis indicated increased disfluencies in the more typical category for children with TD. The authors discuss these results in regard to previous literature linking TD and developmental stuttering.
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Denny, M., & Smith, A. (1992). Gradation in pattern of neuromuscular activity associated with stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 1216-1229.

The purpose of this study was to investigate if stuttered speech is associated with high levels of EMG activity compared to fluent speech and if tremorlike oscillation in EMG one present in perceptually fluent as well as stuttered speech. Seventeen PWS ages 19-50 years were the subjects of the study. The results indicate that there is not a single set of physiological events that characterize stuttering in all individuals. Results showed that stuttered speech has large tremorlike oscillation in neuromuscular activity, but not in fluent amplitude. EMG amplitude was about equal in stuttered and fluent speech.
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Denny, M., & Smith, A. (2000). Respiratory control in stuttering speakers: evidence respiratory high-frequency oscillations. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 43, 1024-1037.

This article describes a study that sought to determine if stuttering speakers differed from nonstuttering speakers in terms of relations between speech breathing and life support breathing. The study used the measurements of maximum coherence in respiratory high-frequency oscillations to compare the neural mechanisms of respiratory function and control between 10 stuttering speakers and 10 nonstuttering speakers. Many variables were discussed, acknowledging that stuttering is a multifactoral and dynamic disorder. The study concluded that no significant differences in the maximum coherence in respiratory high-frequency oscillations in fluent and nonfluent speech was found.
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Dietrich, S., Barry, S.J., & Parker, D. (1995). Middle latency auditory responses in males who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38(1), 5-18.

This study focused on auditory brainstem response recordings (specifically wave P6) in males who stutter vs males who did not stutter. This difference was noted in the findings. This difference in the latency of the P6 wave between the two groups can also be found in persons with Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and autism. The authors believe that you can't draw firm conclusions from this study. The differences may have been generated after the onset of stuttering as a compensatory response.
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Dietrich, S., Jensen, K.H., & Williams, D.E. (2001). Effects of the Label "Stutterer" on Student Perceptions. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26:1, 55-66.

This article addresses people's reactions to terminology used to describe people who stutter. An example provided, was that between 1977 and 1997, when referring to a person who stutterers as a "stutterer", decreased and the use of noun + "who stutters" increased. One published study regarding the effect on terminology of stuttering resulted there were no effects regarding terminology. It was suggested that more research was needed, which led to the present study. This study held 2 purposes: (1) investigate the possibility of subtle discrimination triggered by the noun "stutter" and (2) explore the effects of the gender of the subjects of their ratings of the hypothetical person. A one page survey was handed out to 600 undergraduate students at a state university, and 544 of them were analyzed. Two forms were written out in paragraph form about a situation of a hypothetical person who stuttered. The only difference between the two forms was the terminology. One form used the noun "stutterer" and the other used "student who stutterers" and "stuttering problem". Following the paragraph, there was a list of 9 trait pairs (ambition, employability, tension, adjustment, stability, reliability, decisiveness, esteem, intelligence). The student was asked to rate their first impression of the person discussed in the paragraph. Half of the men and women used one form while the other half used the other form. The findings were: (1) There was no statistically significant difference in terminology usage. (2) Minimal difference and variability among the raters response of the two types of terminology. (3) Female raters gave significantly higher, more positive, ratings on the intelligence, employability and social adjustment traits than the males -and - was higher than the males in the rest, which the exception of degree of tension .
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Dietrich, S., & Roaman, M. H. (2001). Physiologic arousal and predictions of anxiety by people who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26, 207-225.

This study investigated the possible relationship of the perception of speech-related anxiety in people who stutter to their physiological response. Twenty-four adults who stuttered participated in this study. Participants rated their imagined anxiety by using a seven point Likert scale. Individuals' reactions were then measured by skin conduction response when exposed to four different experimental situations. The situations consisted of reading aloud, discussing a personal experience, using a telephone, and discussing his/her experiences with stuttering while being videotaped. The study found that there was no significant relationship between the participant- predicted anxiety rating and the physiological response to anxiety as measured by skin conductance.
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Dilollo, A., Manning, W., & Neimeyer, R., (2002). A personal construct psychology view of relapse: indications for a narrative therapy component to stuttering treatment. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 19-42.

Relapse following the successful treatment of stuttering is a common problem for many clients. The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical problem for understanding the problem of relapse, and to purpose a useful approach to counseling persons who stutter with the goal of increasing their long-term maintenance of fluency. The article defines its explanation for relapse; it gives a detailed description of "personal construct psychology", and lastly presents a framework for engaging a client into this narrative therapy with the aim of it facilitating their long-term maintenance of fluent speech.
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DiLollo, A., Manning, W.H., & Neimeyer, R.A. (2003). Cognitive anxiety as a function of speaker role for fluent speakers and persons who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 167-186.

This study examined cognitive anxiety with fluent speakers and persons who stutter and their dominant and non-dominant speaker role. Results from the Cognitive Anxiety Scale concluded there was increased cognitive anxiety associated with the unfamiliar or non-dominant speaker role for each group. Persons who stutter displayed greater cognitive anxiety in a fluent speaker role (non-dominant). Thus persons who stutter experienced a lack of meaningfulness of the fluent speaker role. Results indicate for maintenance part of therapy, therapist need to increase meaningfulness of fluent speaker role and change self-concept of stutter speaker role for persons who stutter.
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DiSimoni, F. (1990). Letters to the editor. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 33, 402-404.

DiSimoni comments on procedures used by Conture, et al. (1988) and Prosek et al. (1988). He claims that "breaches of the scientific process" were committed and DiSimoni goes on to identify those breaches. DiSimoni also suggests that Conture and Prosek are equating theory with fact. Replies by Conture et al. and Prosek et al. follow.
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Doi, M., Nakayasu, H., Soda, T., Shimoda, K., Ito, A. & Nakashima, K. (2003). Brainstem infarction presenting with neurogenic stuttering. INTERNAL MEDICINE, 42, 884-887.

This article analyzes the relationship of stuttering and neurological disorders such as stroke or neurodegenerative diseases. The following article reports on the case of a sixty-year-old man who, after suffering from a brainstem infarction, developed acquired stuttering. The patient's speech was characterized by involuntary repetition of mainly the first, and sometimes the last syllable of each word, which are characteristic of neurogenic stuttering. It is known that the brainstem has an important role in speech relating to the formation of stuttering. Thus, an infarction in the brainstem can be attributed to neurogenic stuttering.
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Donaher, J. (2007). The client's perspective. JOURNAL OF STUTTERING, ADVOCACY & RESEARCH, 2, 14-15. Retrieved November 23, 2007, from http://www.journalofstuttering.com/ListofArticles.html.

This article discussed an assignment completed by students in a graduate studies program in communication disorders. Students were split into pairs and were to take turns assuming the role of the client and the clinician. The "clinician" was to ask the "client" to discuss a stressful event and allow the "client" to speak uninterrupted for 15 minutes. The purpose of the assignment was to enable the client to better empathize with clients and to better understand what they may be feeling.
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Donaher, J. (2008, October 14). New manual for parents of preschoolers who stutter. THE ASHA LEADER, [13(14)], [21].

The purpose of this article was to describe a web-based resource that is currently being completed to help alleviate the frustration and confusion parents of a preschool child with a fluency disorder may have. The Preschool Stuttering Manual is being designed to answer various questions parents may have in regards to general information about stuttering, what happens during an evaluation, how to work with insurance companies, and what their role is. The Preschool Stuttering Manual is edited by parents to ensure it is user friendly and answers specific questions parents may have.
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Dopheide, B. (1987). Competencies expected of beginning clinicians working with children who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 157-166.

This study took a competency development perspective towards the problem of improving the professional education of clinicians in order to serve children who stutter. Speech language clinicians providing direct professional services were engaged as "consultants" to talk about the stuttering competencies they would look for in a first year clinician joining the staffs of their programs. Competencies were identified in the areas of assessment and remediation. Results indicated assessment competencies to be directed toward the preparation of a comprehensive description of the child's talking behaviors, as well as probing affective aspects of the child's spoken communication experiences. The remediation competencies identified in this study provide additional indication of direct intervention by clinicians with children who stutter.
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Doody, I., Kalinowski, J.A., & Stuart, A. (1993). Stereotypes of stutterers and nonstutterers in three rural communities in Newfoundland. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18 (4), 363- 374.

This study was done to determine if a negative stuttering stereotype existed in small, rural communities in Newfoundland, Canada and to examine the role of exposure and familiar relationships to the perception of stutterers. Results indicated that regardless of personal contact or familial relationship, a strong negative stereotype of stutterers existed. It was also suggested that the negative stereotype was based not on the personality traits of the stutterers but on the strength and vividness of the stuttering behaviors and because the nonstutterers generalized state to trait anxiety.
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Dorsey, M. & Guenther, RK. (2000). Attitudes of Professors and Students Toward College Students Who Stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS. 25, 77-83.

This is a discussion of research and the results done on a college campus'. It compared the attitudes professors and college students have about people who stutter. The ratings were based on the professor or students perception of the students who stutter compared to that of a non-stutterer. Both the professor's and students tended to rate stutterers traits more negatively than those students who do not stutter. It is believed that the impressions of stutterers play a major role in the academic and career opportunities. The results of the study show that college professors and students need to be educated about the negative stereotypes associated with people who stutter.
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Downey, C.S., Gardner, L.S. & Mallard, A.R. (1998). Clinical training in stuttering for school clinicians. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 253-259.

155 school based speech-language pathologists completed a survey regarding their academic and clinical training background of fluency disorders. Results indicated that a high percentage of school-based clinicians have not received adequate academic or clinical training in stuttering to prepare them to competently serve the stuttering population.
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Drayna, D.T. (1997). Genetic linkage studies of stuttering: ready for prime time? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 237-240.

This article supports the notion that stuttering is caused by genetic factors. Four reasons were given to support this claim- stuttering clusters in families, twin studies agree that monozygotic twins have a higher concordance for stuttering than dizygotic twins, adoption studies suggest stuttering is more related to whether an individuals biological parents stutter than whether the adoptive parents stutter, at least one large family has been ascertained in which stuttering behaves much like a simple, single gene Mendelian trait. The author tells us that at the current time medical professionals are unable to isolate a single gene however he feels with the recent advances in human genetics it may come within our capabilities in the near future.
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Druce, T., Debney, S. (1997). Evaluation of an intensive treatment program for stuttering in young children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22,169-186.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of intensive therapy for disorders for young children. The subjects ranged from 6:9 to 8:1 with a mean of 7:4, there were 15 subjects total. (The subjects had all been stuttering for at least 12 months previous to the initiation of therapy to eliminate the possibility of spontaneous recovery.) The children were treated in groups of 3 or 4. The therapy program ran for 5 days meeting for 6 hours each day, and a maintenance phase which gradually reduced the schedule of visits over a 3 month period. Measurements were based on a taped 2 minute sample and judged for 1. Number of syllables stuttered. 2. Speech rate. 3. Speech naturalness. 4. Subjective stuttering severity. In order to examine the final outcome the children were judged on the following perimeters on the last visit. 1. Classification as a nonstutterer or stutterer. 2. Naturalness rating on a 9 point scale. 3. Subjective severity rating on a 4 point scale. The study was effective in reducing stuttering in the short term in the following categories.
Stuttering frequency
Perceived stuttering
Naturalness
Speech rate
These categories were maintained through the final measurement.
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Duchin, S.W., & Mysak, E.D. (1987). Disfluency and rate characteristics of young adult, middle-aged, and older males. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 20, 245-257.

This study examines the characteristics of the speech of normally fluent males of various ages. Their speaking rates and disfluencies are reported for conversation, picture description, and oral reading tasks. The findings suggest that speech rate slows with increasing age. There is also a statistically significant correlation of speech production with physical health. There is not a noticeable change in disfluencies with age. An oral reading passage is suggested as a useful screening tool for disfluencies in the aging population.
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Dworkin, J. P., Culatta, R. A., Abkarian, G. G., Meleca, R. J. (2002). Laryngeal anesthetization for the treatment of acquired disfluency: a case study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 215-226.

The purpose of this study is to document the effect of laryngeal lidocaine anesthesia on acquired disfluency and discuss the possible reasons for its successful result in this case. The subject is an adult male who began experiencing phonatory and articulatory blocks that began and persisted four weeks following a motor vehicle accident. The patient's fluency was evaluated five times during the experimental phase, once pre-injection and again 15 minutes, one week, one month, and five months post injection. Drastic and consistent improvement was noted at each evaluation segment in disfluent moments, number of repetitions, disfluent rate, and speech rate, until finally the subject demonstrated total fluency and normal speech rate at the five-month post intervention evaluation. The authors discuss possible causes for this positive result as being related to psychological response, a physiological response, or a combination of the two.
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Dworzynski, K., Howell, P. (2004). Predicting stuttering from phonetic complexity in German. JOURNAL OF FLUNCY DISORDERS, 29, 149- 173.

This article looks at how phonemic complexity affects the stuttering rate in German and how this changes with age. This study looked at an Index Phonetic Complexity (IPC) where words are scored under eight linguistic categories. Results concluded that in German there is a correlation between word types and age groups. The gap between content and function word IPC scores were higher with a stutterer who was older. When comparing the two languages of German and English one similarity was the influence of word shape-word endings in consonants and the increase of stuttering rates. In conculsion, it was noted that the increased complexity of German content words will impact the stuttering rate and IPC scores in fluent to stuttered words in German when compared to English.
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Dworzynski, K., Howell, P., Au-Yeung, J., & Rommel, D. (2004). Stuttering on function and content words across age groups of German speakers who stutter. JOURNAL OF MULTILINGUAL COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 2, 81-101.

This study compared the pattern of disfluencies in English and German speakers who stutter. Research on English speakers who stutter has shown that children have a higher rate of disfluencies on function words while adults have a higher rate of disfluencies on content words, suggesting a shift in the pattern of disfluencies as a person who stutters ages. Research has also shown that in English speakers who stutter, the pattern of disfluency on function words is more likely to occur when the function word precedes a content word, versus following one. This study found similar results in German speakers who stutter.
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Dworzynski, K., Howell, P., & Natke, U. (2003). Predicting stuttering from linguistic factors for German speakers in two age groups. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 95-113.

The original background for this research study into linguistic variables associated with speech disfluency triggered by Brown (1945). The factors Brown came up with predict the loci of disfluency in English-speaking adults who stutter. These same factors were examined in native German-speaking children and adults who stutter. Speech data of 15 German adults and 17 children were coded according to Brown's factors. The results confirmed the hypothesis that linguistic factors do not affect children in the same way as adults. Comparisons with the adults showed that stuttered words were not associated with as great an increase in linguistic difficulty as were adults. Children stuttered significantly more on the "easier" level (function and short words) of these two factors but significantly lower on the "harder" lever (content and long words). For adults both word type (content/function) and word length increased stuttering rate significantly, whereas changes in stuttering rate for the other two factors were non-significant.
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Dworzynski, K., Remington, A., Rijsdijk, F., Howell, P., & Plomin, R. (2007). Genetic etiology in cases of recovered and persistent stuttering in an unselected, longitudinal sample of young twins. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 16, 169-178.

It is believed that one etiology of stuttering is genetics, even though a specific gene has not been found and hereditary patterns remain in the early stages of development. The purpose of this study was to look at patterns of heritability and shared environment of early childhood aged twins, and see if there were any differing genetic and/or environmental influences affecting recovery versus persistence of stuttering. Questionnaires were filled out by parents when the twins were at ages two, three, four, and seven. The twins were placed into a persistent or recovery group based on the questionnaire answers, and analyses were conducted to predict the presence of stuttering by age seven based on genetic and environmental influences. Results found stuttering to be a heritable disorder with little to no environmental effect by age seven for the two groups.
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Eichstadt, A., Watt, N., & Girson, J. (1998). Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Stuttering Modification Program With Particular Reference To Two New measures of Secondary Behaviors and Control of Stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 4, 231-246.

The study focuses on speech behaviors and attitudes of a group of people who stutter after they have attended an intensive stutter modification program. The goal of the workshop is to eliminate secondary behaviors and control of stuttering moments. Five PWS attended the workshop and their speech was evaluated immediately following and 2 years post. Data was collected via 2 minute speech samples from videotaped monologues. All samples were transcribed by therapists, students, and fellow stutterers. Attitude measures were assessed via completion of the Attitude Scale by subjects both immediately post-workshop and 2 years later. Due to the small number of subjects in the study, each subject's results are listed individually. In general, there appeared to be a decrease in speech behaviors through time. Attitudes showed significant improvement through time.
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Einarsdottir, J. & Ingham, R. J. (2005). Have disfluency-type measures contributed to the understanding and treatment of developmental stuttering?. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH- LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 14, 260-273.

This article was a review of available literature aimed at arguing that the use of disfluency typologies to measure and diagnose stuttering has not made any significant contribution to the understanding or treatment of the disorder. Many studies have suggested that children who stutter (CWS) simply have a higher frequency of disfluencies in their speech. However, it is widely believed that CWS exhibit a different class of behaviors that only somewhat resembles normal disfluencies. More research consideration needs to be given to a shift in the basis for creating measures of stuttering behavior.
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Einarsdottir, J. & Ingham, R. J. (2008). The effect of stuttering measurement training on judging stuttering occurrence in preschool children who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33, 167-179.

The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized training program (Stuttering Measurement Assessment and Training (SMAAT-child)) to teach individuals to accurately identify the occurrence of stuttering in young children. The developed program was based on a pre-existing program for adolescents and adults (SMAAT-adult). The participants of the study included 20 Icelandic preschool teachers, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or experimental group. The teachers listened to recorded speech samples of nine Icelandic children, ages 3-5, and were asked to identify stuttered moments of speech. The teachers in the experimental group were then put through the training program before undergoing another attempt to accurately identify stuttered moments of speech. The results of the study revealed that the teachers in the experimental group were able to more accurately identify stuttered speech after undergoing the training program, while the teachers in the control group displayed no difference in identification between the two occurrences.
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Eldridge, K. & Felsenfeld, S. (1998). Differentiating Mild and Recovered Stutterers from Nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 3, 173-194

Research involved differentiating mild and recovered stutterers from non- stutterers by means of carefully constructed diagnostic interview. Study consisted of 18 adults who stutter and 20 adults who were non-stutterers. Results indicated that such interviews did have potential in differentiation, which would be of particular importance in genetic and/or epidiomological research.
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Ellis, J.B., Finan, D.S., & Ramig, P.R. (2008). The influence of stuttering severity on acoustic startle responses. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, HEARING RESEARCH, 51, 836-850.

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not acoustic startle responses among stutterers may related to severity of stuttering. The thirty participants were in three groups. The groups consisted of 11 moderate/severe stuttering adults, 10 nonstuttering adults, and 9 mild stuttering adults. A waveform generator was used to elicit acoustic startle responses at a level of 95.0dB SPL, consistently to all participants. Results indicated acoustic startle response amplitudes were not statistically significant amongst the three groups. Mean acoustic startle response amplitudes were not significant, which may be due to relatively higher variability within the moderate/severe stuttering group. Differences in habituation rate and median latency of acoustic startle responses were also found to be not significant. In conclusion, the following study proposes that acoustic startle responses are not predicted by stuttering severity.
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Engel, D., Martens, C. (1986). Measurement of the sound-based word avoidance of persons who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 241-250.

The motivation of the study was to compare the sound-based word-choosing behavior of persons who stutter with word-choosing ability of people who do not stutter. The subjects consisted of nine people enrolled in an intensive stuttering clinic at the University of North Dakota, six people from audiotapes who were previously enrolled at the clinic, and 40 people who do not stutter. The examiners gathered a spontaneous speech sample, asked the subjects to read for three minutes or until stuttered 10 times, and had the subjects answer questions. The results suggested that 77 percent of the people who admitted to word avoidance showed evidence of sound-based word avoidance. Thirteen that admitted to word avoidance stuttered ten times in the three minute reading task.
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Enger, N.C., Hood, S.B., & Shulman, B.B. (1988). Language and fluency variables in the conversational speech of linguistically advanced preschool and school-aged children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 173-198.

The investigation observed the language and fluency of linguistically advanced children and changes which occur with chronological age. 10 preschool and 10 school-aged students were subjects. The Mean Length of Utterance (MLU), Mean Length of Responses (MLR) and Word Morpheme Index (WMI) of a 50- utterance sample were calculated. Frequency of each occurrence was calculated for each disfluency type. The disfluency patterns for both subject types were parallel. Interjections were present more frequently with an increase of age.
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Evans, D., Healey, E. C., Kawai, N., and Rowland, S. (2007). Middle school students' perceptions of a peer who stutters. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33, 203-219.

The purpose of the article was to describe how 64 middle school students perceived a teen stuttering while telling a joke. Each middle school student rated the videotaped teen based on eleven statements developed by the authors. These statements were divided into three categories: affective (feelings or emotions), behavioral (speech characteristics) or cognitive (thoughts and beliefs). The results of this study showed that, in general, the students' perceptions of the teen who stuttered did not significantly change based on the severity of the stutter.
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Ezrati-Vinacour, R., & Levin, I. (2001). Time estimation by adults who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 144-155.

This study discusses the subject of time estimation by adults who stutter. Past clinical research, suggests that the period of disfluency is overestimated by the stutterer. This study used both the productive and reproduced methods of time estimation. The results of the study indicate that the time estimation of adults who stutter did not differ significantly from that of fluent speakers. However, severe stutterers did estimate time less accurately than mild stutterers.
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Ezrati-Vinacour, R., Levin, I. (2004). The relationship between anxiety and stuttering: a multidimensional approach. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 135-148.

This study looks at anxiety in relation to those who stutter through a multidimensional model. Various questionnaires were given to measure anxiety. Several tests were given to evaluate the severity of stuttering within the participants. Participants were split into three core groups of, mild stutterers, severe stutterers, and normally fluent speakers. Results concluded that PWS are often more anxious than normally fluent speakers. Although trait anxiety scores in PWS were higher they did not differ between the degrees of severity in a PWS. A difference was noted in social communication were severe stutterers had a higher level of anxiety than mild stutterers. This study supports the idea that anxiety, as a trait is characteristic of PWS. Overall it was noted that anxiety should be taken into consideration with those who stutter both as an inherent characteristic and also during therapeutic assessment.
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Ezrati-Vinacour, R., Platzky, R., & Yairi, E. (2001). The young child's awareness of stuttering-like disfluency. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 2, 368-380.

This article focused on the development of awareness of stuttering and the theoretical and clinical implications for early childhood stuttering. This study looked at normally fluent children, ages 3-7, in grades pre-school up to first grade. There were 79 children that were divided into five groups. Each group was asked to discriminate between the speech (fluent and disfluent) of two puppets, identify with one who speaks like them, and evaluate the disfluent and fluent speech of the puppets. The results indicated that at age 3, children do show evidence of awareness, but most reach full awareness by age 5. The clinical implications of this state that children who stutter probably possess the similar cognitive abilities. This finding questions the traditional assumptions that awareness of stuttering is lacking at ages at which it begins.
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Felsenfeld, S. (1996). Progress and needs in the genetics of stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21(2), 77-104.

This study investigated the analysis of behavioral genetic studies from 1960 - present, the genetic and neurological studies as a means to our understanding of stuttering, and presented suggestions for future genetic research. Topics discussed in the study included the collection of extensive family history, blood, neurochemical, chromosome, pedigree studies, segregation analysis, and twin studies. A standard battery of tests, family and epidemiological variables, extrinsic factors, genetic linkage analysis, and biological data were among the suggestions for future research considerations.
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Fibiger, S., Peters, H. F. M., Euler, H. A., & Neumann, K. (2008). Health and human services for persons who stutter and education of logopedists in East-European countries. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33, 66-71.

This article reported on the health and human services for people who stutter and the education and therapy standards of professionals in East-European countries. An English language questionnaire that focused on therapy of fluency disorders, services opportunities and education of speech-language pathologists was sent to professionals in East-European countries. Results from this questionnaire indicated therapy approaches which are favored in Western countries are also favored by East-European countries, children have more access to therapies than adults, therapies are free only for children, screening, early detection, and intervention programs are superior in development and implementation than in Western countries, efficacy and effectiveness measures are underdeveloped, and resources, information, and social support are deficient for adult persons who stutter.
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Finn, P. (1997). Adults recovered from stuttering without formal treatment: perceptual assessment of speech normalcy. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 40, 821-831.

This study was designed to determine if there were perceptual differences between the speech of normally fluent speakers and those speakers that indicated they recovered from stuttering without treatment. Fifteen adults who previously had a stuttering problem were compared with fifteen normally fluent speakers. Judges watched videotaped samples of each of the subjects' speech. The judges were asked to indicate whether the subject used to stutter or never stuttered. A separate group of judges were asked to document speech naturalness as observed in the subjects. Results revealed that the speech of unassisted recovered speakers was perceived as perceptually different. Differences in speech quality and an increased number of part-word repetitions differentiated the unassisted recovered speaker from the normally fluent speaker. However, the findings also suggest that for some speakers, unassisted recovery from stuttering results in speech that may be indistinguishable from normally fluent speech. The author suggests more research should be done including subjects that have recovered as a result of fluency therapy.
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Finn, P. (2003). Addressing generalization and maintenance of stuttering treatment in the schools: A critical look. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 36 (2), 153-164.

The author addresses generalization and maintenance of stuttering treatment in schools to help school-based clinicians better prepare for the challenges of this setting. The current typical stuttering treatment approaches used in schools include direct and indirect methods for managing early childhood stuttering and stuttering modification and speech modification for managing persistent stuttering. It is difficult to generalize and maintain stuttering treatment gains in the school because of the influence of complicating factors, such as stuttering severity, the child's age when treated, and negative attitudes, and the fact that no accepted model of recovery exists (though the author suggests self-efficacy). Though further research is needed to fully evaluate their effectiveness for school settings, the author suggests the following strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance in schools: probing and training for generalization, incorporating real-life elements into therapy, and training clients to self-regulate their behavior.
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Finn, P. (2003). Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: II. Clinical significance of Behavioral stuttering treatments. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 209-218.

This article discussed clinical significance (meaningful change) in evidence-based treatment framework. There are three groups that determine clinical significance in treatment outcome. They are as follows: 1) clinicians and clinical researchers who are trying to administer and develop the most effective treatment approach, 2) clients who are seeking help for their problem, and 3) relevant others who have some interest in the treatment's outcome, such as parents, significant others, teachers, third-party payers, and employers. Each group measured clinical significance through various rating scales such as self-measurement evaluation, speech naturalness scale, and parent evaluations of child's stuttering.
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Finn, Patrick. (2003). Self-regulation and the management of stuttering. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 24, 27-32.

Self-regulation is defined as the process in which individuals learn to direct and control their own behavior, thoughts, and feelings in order to manage or eliminate their stuttering. This article explains the theoretical aspects and main principles of self regulation which encompass goal setting, cue management, self monitoring and self evaluation. The roles of each are explained in the article. Self-regulation apparent implications for school speech and language pathologists. Therapy is a collaboration between client/clinician aimed at meeting the client's treatment goals.
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Finn, P. & Cordes, A.K. (1997). Multicultural identification and treatment of stuttering: A continuing need for research. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22(3): p219-236.

This article reviews the past, present , and future issues related to multicultural studies of stuttering. A history of multicultural approaches to stuttering is presented among Native American populations. Prevalence and Descriptions of stuttering among the United states as well as out side of the United states are also presented. The areas out side the United states that are touched on are European countries, African countries, Japan and Pacific Island populations. A section on current cultural issues in assessment and treatment of stuttering is also included. This section covers the areas of establishing the presence of a clinically significant problem, Describing the nature and severity of the person's stuttering, and determining the level of impact the stuttering behavior has on the individual. The last section contains good guidelines that a practicing clinician should constantly be thinking about and aware of as they service individuals who stutter.
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Finn, P., Howard, R., & Kubala, R. (2005). Unassisted recovery from stuttering: Self-perceptions of current speech behaviors, attitudes, and feelings. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30, 281-305.

This study focuses on systematically investigating spontaneously recovered speaker's self-reports to find the true extent of their recovery from stuttering. Fifteen participants who had recovered from stuttering without treatment described their speaking behaviors during a semi-structured, open-ended interview. Seven of the participants reported no stuttering behaviors, and eight reported the tendency to stutter occasionally. The purpose of the study was to compare the results from the two groups to see if their self perceptions made a difference in how fully recovered they were. The results showed that complete recovery from stuttering is possible, but although the participants who reported occasional stuttering may be partially recovered, there are key differences in their speech characteristics and their self perceptions from those that are fully recovered.
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Finn, P., & Ingham, R.J. (1994). Stutterers' self-ratings of how natural speech sounds and feels. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37, 326-340.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether PWS are consistent in self-rating how natural speech sounds and feels. Also of interest was whether there are differences between PWS self- ratings of how natural speech sounds and feels when stopping and starting speech at random intervals. The results indicated that the subjects may produce satisfactory levels (76%) of self agreement when rating the naturalness of their recorded speech. While speaking, self agreement fell to 61% for how natural speech felt and to 62% for how natural speech sounded. Ratings of how speech sounded were based on perceptions of continuity, rhythm, and stuttering, while ratings of how speech felt were based on the ability to monitor the production of speech. Subjects reported that their usual speech felt more natural than any form of rhythmic speech even if frequency of stuttering was higher.
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Fitch, J. & Batson, E. (1989). Hemispheric asymmetry of alpha wave suppression in stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 47-55.

This study's purpose was to analyze differences in hemispheric alpha wave suppression between a population of stutterers and nonstutterers using different sensory modalities and types of stimuli using electroencephalogram (EEG). Twelve right-handed stuttering males, ages 10-15 years, were used as an experimental group and twelve right-handed aged-matched males that did not stutter were used as a control group. Asymmetry was not displayed by the non- stutterers as it was by the stutterers. There was a statistically significant difference in the alpha percentage in the right-hemisphere of the stutterers. The needs for additional studies are discussed.
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Fitzgerald, J. E., Djurdjic, S. D., & Maguin, E. (1992). Assessment of sensitivity to interpersonal stress in stutterers. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 25, 31-42.

The WPS-R (Willoughby Personality Schedule-R) was given to adult Yugoslav stuttering males. Results of the WPS-R revealed American stutterers and Yugoslav stutters to be the same. Speech situation and word specific anxiety were studied. General anxiety was determined to moderate stuttering severity. Hypersensitivity to stutterers interpersonal stress is thought to be general anxiety for the stutterers. The stress is not one of "overwhelming anxiety" but is thought to occur along a continuum. Personality variables may serve to moderate and mediate speech fluency and the WPS-R may be a plausible tool for assessing anxiety and the role it plays in stuttering.
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Floyd, J., Zebrowski, P. M., & Flamme, G. A. (2007). Stages of change and stuttering: A preliminary view. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32, 95-120.

The stages of change model can help determine where a person is in the process of change. This is also known as the transtheoretical model. It explains the concept of intentional change, that behavior change is influenced by decision-making and the readiness to change is a key component to the process of change. The development of treatment is closely related to the patterns of intentional change. The six stages of change include: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the responses from a modified version of the Stages of Change Questionnaire would be similar to other clinical observations. Participants in the study were prompted to complete a questionnaire and mark whether they agree or disagree by using a 5-point rating scale. Each of the questions were related to the different stages of change. The results revealed that 26 of the 32 items were significantly related to the hypothesized stages.
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Foundas, A. L., Bollich, A. M., Corey, D. M., Hurley, M., & Heilman, K. M. (2001). Anomalous anatomy of speech-language areas in adults with persistent developmental stuttering. NEUROLOGY, 57, 207-215.

The purpose of this study was to learn more about the neurobiology of stuttering by studying the anatomy of speech-language areas in the brains of adults with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) and controls through the use of MRI techniques. The authors hypothesized that participants with PDS would have more variations in the anatomy of speech-language areas in comparison to matched controls. Sixteen adults with PDS and 16 controls matched for writing hand, sex, age, and education were included in the study. The study revealed three significant findings: 1) size and asymmetry of the frontal speech-language areas did not differ between the groups, but specific frontal gyral variants differed between groups; 2) the planum temporale was larger in individuals in the PDS group, and planar asymmetry was reduced in magnitude; and 3) aberrant gyral patterns were more common in individuals with PDS.
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Fosnot, S.M. (1993) Research design for examining treatment efficacy in fluency disorders. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 221- 251.

This article presents theoretical background information as well as a longitudinal study on the efficacy of evaluation and treatment of preschool children with fluency disorders. Forty-six preschool children were evaluated treated, and followed over a 5 year period. A fluency precision model of treatment was utilized with 90.91% of the children remaining fluent during the 5 year follow-up period. A bi-directional, transactional observation/evaluation model is emphasized. A single-subject design was implemented to demonstrate how data can be collected on a young child who stutters.
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Fox, P. T. (2003). Brain imaging in stuttering: where next? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 265-272.

Brain functional imaging is having a significant impact on research in developmental stuttering. Tests such as the statistical parametric images (SPI) and the positron emission tomography (PET) are assessing the brain while the person is speaking. From this they are obtaining information about what is happening in the brain as the person is stuttering. The question they pose is where next? How do they use the information they've obtained from brain imaging to improve the research on stuttering. One way would be through structural imaging. This type of imaging would help discover the relationships between abnormalities of functional organization and developmental abnormalities of the brain structure. Another advancement that can be made is in genetics. Both functional and structural imaging could be used to obtain pedigree analyses and linkage mapping. By studying these genes we may be able to tell if a person is going to be a candidate for inheriting stuttering. A third area that needs more advancement is the neural system in order to explain how speech production is organized and also how it is executed. Also to learn why some people produce execution errors collectively termed stuttering and how fluency inductions and treatments achieve behavioral normalization. Finally, people with persistent developmental stuttering are good candidates for these imaging methods. Since this is a disorder in which the behaviors can be eliminated therefore brain images are able to be studied both before and after treatment. Also, people with persistent developmental stuttering serve as good models for neural systems and neural disorders, which not only brings benefits to them but also to other people with a wide range of brain disorders.
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Franck, A.L., Jackson, R.A., Pimentel, J.T., & Greenwood, G.S. (2003). School-age children's perceptions of a person who stutters. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 1-15.

The authors of this study sought to gain insight into the perceptions school-age children have of people who stutter. Specifically, this study examined whether the children's perceptions of people who stutter would differ from their perceptions of people who do not stutter. Additionally, the study looked at whether the children differentiated between personality and intelligence characteristics. Seventy-five 4th and 5th grade students between the ages of 9 and 11 years old participated in the study. Subjects viewed videos in their regular classrooms of people who were fluent or of people who stuttered. Later, the children rated the speakers on a 7-point rating scale of adjective pairs. Results indicated that the overall mean rating of the disfluent person on the videotape was more negative than the overall mean rating of the fluent person. No significant difference was found between ratings of personality and intelligence. These findings suggest that school age children may have a negative perception of people who stutter and this may be established by the 4th or 5th grade. Such findings support the idea of educating students and teachers about the nature of stuttering.
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Franic, D. M. and Bothe, A. K. (2008). Psychometric evaluation of condition-specific instruments used to assess health-related quality of life, attitudes, and related constructs in stuttering. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 17, 60-80.

The purpose of this study was to review and evaluate ten instruments to determine if they could adequately measure the quality of life of PWS. The ten instruments were evaluated on "fifteen measurement standards related to conceptual model, reliability, validity, responsiveness, interpretability (norms), burden (respondent and administrative), depth and versatility". Results showed that no more than 8 of the 15 measurement criteria were met on any of the ten instruments. These results indicate that a stuttering specific health-related quality of life indicator still needs to be developed.
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Franken, M., Boves, L., Peters, H., & Webster, R. (1992). Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Before and After Fluency Shaping Stuttering Therapy. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 4, 223- 242

This study investigated the Precision Fluency Shaping Program in order to gain insight as to the perceptual qualities of speech following therapy. Speech samples were made of 32 severe stutters before, after and 6 months post an intensive 4 week fluency shaping therapy. The samples were compared with speech samples of 20 non-stutters and rated on a 14 point scale by groups of untrained listeners. Results indicated that the speech of stutters was perceptually different from the non-stutters both pre and post therapy.
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Franken, M. C., Boves, L., Peters, H. F.M., & Webster, R. L. (1995). Perceptual rating instrument for speech evaluation of stuttering treatment. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38(2). 280-288.

This instrument can be used to assess the results of stuttering treatment, yielding a comprehensive and detailed summary of speech qualities including, articulation, phonation, pitch, loudness, naturalness. The analysis of psychometric characteristics and methodological processes with evaluation of stuttering instruments are also discussed.
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Franken, M.J., Kielstra-Van der Schalk, C.J., & Boelens, H. (2005). Experimental treatment of early stuttering: A preliminary study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30 (3), 189-199.

In this study, the Lidcombe Program (LP) treatment and the Demands and Capacities Model (DCM) treatment, two treatments for stuttering in preschool-age children, were compared. Thirty families were randomly assigned to treatment groups (LP, n=15; or DCM, n=15), with equal number of boys in each group. The treatment was terminated after 12 weeks or earlier if certain criteria were met. The stuttering frequencies and severity ratings were obtained immediately before and after treatment. The stuttering frequencies and severity ratings were greatly reduced for both treatment groups and no differences were found between them. Most of the parents were cooperative and most parents continued to collect data after the treatment. No differences between the parents were found on scales that measured their satisfaction with the two treatment programs.
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Franklin, D.E., Taylor, C.L., Hennessy, N. W., & Beilby, J.M.(2008). Investigating factors related to the effects of time out- on stuttering in adults. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION DISORDERS,43, 283-299

Researchers designed a study to investigate the effects of using the time out strategy with adults who stutter. The study included thirty participants who were placed in the _ time out_ group and thirty participants who were placed in the control group. The sixty participants had their speech analyzed during two twenty minute sessions. The members of the experimental group were instructed to cease talking when a red light was illuminated. Findings indicated that the time out strategy was effective in reducing stuttering behaviors. Research also suggested that the time out strategy was more effective for participants with a severe stutter.
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Fukawa, T., Yoshioka, H., Ozawa, E., & Yoshida, S. (1988). Difference of susceptibility to delayed auditory feedback between stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 94-99.

This study describes a new index, the susceptibility to DAF between stutterers and nonstutterers. There were 40 stutterers and 40 nonstutterers, each tested using DAF for susceptibility while reading passages under amplified delay conditions. Results indicate that stutterers were more susceptible to DAF than nonstutterers. In the nonstutterers group, men were more susceptible than women, in the stutterers group there were no significant difference between men and women. Finally, men who stuttered were more susceptible to DAF than nonstuttering women. The overall investigation showed stutterers were more sensitive to DAF than nonstutterers. Stutterers tend to monitor and rely on auditory feedback for speech control more than nonstutterers
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Furnham, A. & Davis, S. (2004). Involvement of social factors in stuttering: A review and assessment of current methodology. STAMMERING RESEARCH, 1, 112-122. http://www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk

Social factors and emotions play a key role in the development of stuttering. It is believed that the cause of stuttering is multi- dimensional and that social and emotional factors are one of the dimensions. The purpose of this article was to review previous research about the role of social factors in stuttering and to provide information to readers about the differing methods that can be used to assess the role of social factors in stuttering that are being utilized in social psychology. Factors that were focused on included intelligence, personality, attitudes, temperament, effects of bullying, self-esteem, and anxiety for preschool to adult-aged participants. Occupational influences were also addressed with adults. From conducting a review of the literature, authors found social and emotional factors to be a major component to the onset and persistence of stuttering.
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Gabel, R. (2006). Effects of stuttering severity and therapy involvement on attitudes towards people who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 216-277.

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stuttering severity, the knowledge that a person who stutters was enrolled in therapy, and the combination of those factors will change the attitudes of individuals who do not stutter toward those who do. In a university setting, 260 students (ages 19 to 48) who were not people who stutter were given surveys with one of four scenarios. The four randomly assigned conditions included: a male who stutters severely and has chosen treatment to improve his stuttering, a male who stutters mildly and has chosen treatment to improve his stuttering, a male who stutters severely and has chosen not to seek treatment to improve his stuttering, and a male who stutters mildly and has chosen not to seek treatment to improve his stuttering. A significant effect was found for stuttering severity and therapy status individually; however, the interaction of the two factors was not found to be significant. The data support that people who stutter mildly are perceived more positively than those with greater severity, and people who attend therapy to improve their stuttering are perceived more positively than those who do not.
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Gabel, R. M., Blood, G. W., Tellis, G. M., & Althouse, M. T. (2004). Measuring role entrapment of people who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 27-49.

The purpose of this study was to explore vocational stereotypes and how PWS suffer from role entrapment. The Vocational Attitude Scale was used to assess 385-college student's attitudes toward appropriate employment choices for PWS and PWNS. The study used a traditional survey method to obtain information from the participants. The results indicated that PWS were less likely to be advised to perform 20 of the careers. Most of the 20 careers the PWS were advised not to perform were in the field of public speaking or customer relations (i.e. Attorney, minister). The career ranked third, that a PWS would not likely be advised to perform, was a speech- language pathologist.
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Gabel, R.M., Hughes, S., & Daniels, D. (2008). Effects of stuttering severity and therapy involvement on role entrapment of people who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 41, 146-158.

This article analyzes whether undergraduate or graduate students' perceptions of stuttering affect the career choices of Person Who Stutters (PWS). The article also explores whether individuals who have varying levels of stuttering severity and therapy involvement affect perceptions of role entrapment. The Vocational Advice Scale was completed by the 260 student participants in order to examine role entrapment. Results of this study revealed that role entrapment related to career choice was not evident for PWS and that stuttering severity and therapy involvement did not improve the participants' attitudes towards those to stutter.
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Gaines, N., Runyan, C., & Meyers, S. (1991). A comparison of young stutterers' fluency versus stuttered utterances on measures of length and complexity. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 37-42.

Twelve 4-6 year old children who stuttered were videotaped during a 10 minute free-play interaction with their mothers. The children's' sentences were transcribed and analyzed for length and grammatical complexity. Results showed that children stuttered on one of the first 3 words in sentences which were more complex. Information was given regarding clinical applications of these findings, both in therapy and at home.
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Geetha, Y., Pratibha, K., Ashok, R., & Ravindra, Ravindra, S. (2000). Classification of childhood disfluencies using neural networks. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 99-117.

The article discusses one way to distinguish between the normal nonfluency (NNF) of childhood and stuttering. Ten data variables from two groups of disfluent children who were less than 6 years old, were gathered in an attempt to differentiate between children with NNF and children who stuttered (CWS). Group I data, from 25 children, was used to train the computer program, called Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Group II data, of 26 children, predicted the diagnosis. The ANN predicted with 92% accuracy, the different classes of children with NNF and CWS. In an attempt to use diagnostic procedures objectively with stuttering, ANN can be a helpful tool.
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Georgieva, D. (2006). The treatment of fluency disorders: Experience in Bulgaria. Recent history and contemporary issues. BULGARIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 1, page 66-78.

This study focuses on the periods of speech and language development (logopedics), with emphasis on fluency, in Bulgaria. Contemporary therapies regarding stuttering are comprised of eclectic approaches that idolize fluency shaping techniques. Although they are currently used by SLPs in Bulgaria; stuttering modification, management, desensitization, and counseling are the least preferred methods of treatment. Bulgaria has not yet begun any support groups for people who stutter.
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Georgieva, D., and Miliev, D. (1996). Differential diagnosis of cluttering and stuttering in Bulgaria. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 21, 249-260.

This study was done to show the prevalence of cluttering, stuttering and mixed cluttering and stuttering in young clients often referred to as stutterers. The 15 subjects participating in this study all with fluency disorders were involved in a series of diagnostic evaluations. Results according to the Bulgarian system, showed five clutterers, six stutterers and four mixed clutterers and stutterers. Four case studies are also presented to demonstrate how the criteria can be used. The article also compares Daly's Checklist with the Bulgarian system. Georgieva, D., Simonska, M., (2006). Evidence-based practice in stuttering in Bulgaria: First steps. BULGARIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 1, 55-66.

This journal article examines current evidence based practice (EBP) techniques and procedures in Bulgaria in regards to Logopedics. Specifically, it focuses on the evaluation procedures and its effectiveness. The treatment protocol was based on Tcheveleva's therapy program for disfluent children consisting of fluency shaping techniques including soft contact, easy onset and prolonged speech. The main steps in the therapy process included: 1) propaedeutics, 2) accompanying, 3) finalized, 4) planned and 5) stabilized. Eight children who stutter were involved in the 9 month program. Results of this program showed that disfluency was remarkably reduced in one group, and the rate of speech (SR) and stuttering severity rating (SSR) was reduced in the second group but disfluency was not totally eliminated.
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GianPietro, S., Giovanni, A.C., D'Onofrio, M., Deriu, M.G., & Rosati, G. (2006) Disfluent speech in patients with partial epilepsy: beneficial effect of levetiracetam. EPILEPSY & BEHAVIOR, 9:521-523.

Several antiepileptic drugs including gabapentin (GPT), topiramate (TPM), phenytoin (PHT), and lamotrigine (LTG) have been suggested to induce stuttering in individualšs with epilepsy, while only a few (i.e. levetiracetam (LEV) and divalproex sodium (VPA)) have been known to reduce disfluencies. This study evaluates the effects of levetiracetam in five individuals with partial epilepsy and disfluent speech. Results showed LEV increased the rate of fluency in the participants with partial epilepsy and disfluent speech.
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Gilman, M., & Yaruss, J. (2000). Stuttering and relaxation: applications for somatic education in stuttering treatment. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 59-76.

This article reviews the history of the use of relaxation techniques in stuttering treatment approaches. The article views relaxation as a dynamic and active process rather than a passive process and it states that somatic education during stuttering treatment may facilitate the habituation of relaxation techniques outside of the treatment setting. The terms active and passive relaxation are described in detail and examples of each are given. The presumed benefits of somatic education are discussed.
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Goberman, A.M., & Blomgren, M. (2003). Parkinsonian speech disfluencies: effects of L-dopa-related fluctuation. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 55-70.

This study investigated the speech characteristics of patients with Parkinson's disease under 3 conditions: before morning dose of L-dopa medication, 1 hour after medication, and 2 hours after medication. The basis for the study lies in the excess dopamine theory of stuttering. Nine patients at the University of Connecticut Health Center participated in the study. Subjects were between the ages of 51 and 86 years old and were between 3 and 19 years post-diagnosis of having Parkinson's disease. All subjects had experienced motor fluctuations related to their medication. Audio recordings of patients reading the Rainbow Passage and a 3 '5 minute monologue of each patient were used to gather data. Each session was conducted on a morning after the subjects had not taken the medication for at least 8 hours the night before. Results showed that 8 of the 9 patients were most impaired prior to taking any of the medication. Additionally, 8 of the 9 patients were least impaired 1 hour after taking the medication. There was no overall group change in disfluency levels related to low or high dopamine levels. The authors concluded that speech disfluencies might be related to decrease or increase of dopamine levels in the brain.
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Godinho, T., Ingham, R.J., Davidow, J., Cotton, J. (2006). The distribution of phonated intervals in the speech of individuals who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 49, 161-171.

This study examines phonated intervals (PIs) in the speech of people who stutter (PWS). A group of adolescents and adults who stutter were compared to a gender and age matched control group of subjects with normal speech on an oral reading task. During the oral reading activity, it was shown that PWS have a similar PI distribution to individuals in the control group. Rate of speech and the number of PIs produced during the reading task did differ between the two groups. However, results from this study suggest phonation patterns in PWS do not constitute an underlying relationship to the presence of stuttering behaviors.
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Gordon, PA. & Luper, HL. (1989) Speech disfluencies in nonstutterers: Syntactic complexity and production task effects. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 429-445.

This study investigated the relationship between syntactic difficulty and normal disfluencies. Sentence imitation and modeling tasks were performed by 3, 5, and 7 year old children, who did not stutter. Each task took place with three levels of syntactic complexity (affirmative declarative, future and passive). The study found an increase in disfluencies correlated with: younger age, increased syntactic complexity and task difficulty. Passive sentences were the most disfluent, with the affirmative declarative and future tense eliciting equal numbers of disfluencies. Sentence modeling, with use of picture stimuli, elicited more disfluencies than sentence imitation.
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Gordan, P.A., & Luper, H.L. (1992). The early identification of beginning stuttering I: Protocols. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH- LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY: A JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, 1, 43-53.

In this tutorial, a reviewer of six protocols designed to differentiate between incipient stuttering and normal disfluencies. The general format and criteria, clinical data collection procedures, documentation, and relative use of quantification in six protocols were examined and discussed. The advantages and problems in the use of diagnostic protocols for children that need treatment were presented in a forthcoming article.
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Gordon, P.A., & Luper, H.L. (1992). The early identification of beginning stuttering II: Problems. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, 1(4), 21-27.

This article addresses questions about the weaknesses and strengths of protocols and considerations when using a protocol. Decreasing the possibility of false positives and false negatives, consider spontaneous recovery, obtaining a representative speech sample, consider quantification issues, and examining reliability and validity of the protocols are solutions to the problems of protocols. Advantages and disadvantages of differential diagnosis protocols are also addressed.
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Gordon, P., Luper, H., & Peterson, H. (1986). The effects of syntactic complexity on the occurrence of disfluencies in 5 year old nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 151-164.

This study focused on how syntactic complexity correlates with the amount of disfluencies in speakers who are 5 years old and do not stutter. Sixteen 5 year olds who had average language skills were included in this study. Their speech was analyzed during sentence imitation tasks and through sentence modeling. An example of sentence- modeling is the examiner looking at a picture and saying "the dog is chasing the cat," and the subject would then look at a different picture and say "the man is painting the fence." Interjections, part-word repetitions, whole-word repetitions, phrase repetitions, revisions, incomplete phrases, dysrhythmic phonation, and tense or inappropriate pauses were counted as disfluencies. Results showed a large difference between the number of disfluencies on the sentence imitation task and the sentence-modeling task. More disfluencies occurred on the sentence-modeling task.
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Gottwald, S. R., & Starkweather, C.W. (1995). Fluency intervention for preschoolers and their families in the public schools. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN THE SCHOOLS, 26, 117-121.

This article describes a fluency therapy program for preschoolers based on Starkweather's Demands and Capacities Model. This approach focuses heavily on educating and counseling the parents and teachers of the child in order to align the communicative demands with the communicative capacities of the child. These capacities are assessed in a thorough speech and language assessment. Then, the parents and teachers are educated on speech and stuttering, attitude change and behavior change. The clinician interacts at the syntactic and language level of the child to enhance fluency. Two intervention programs are discussed; speech modification and fluency shaping. In either program, the complexity of the communication advances at a pace set by the child while following the prescribed procedures. As the child progresses, the issues of transfer, termination and follow-up are discussed.
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Gow, M.L., & Ingham, R.J. (1992). Modifying electroglottograph- identified intervals of phonation: The effect on stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 495-511.

Electroglottograph-identified intervals of phonation were measured using a computer-assisted biofeedback system. An adolescent and an adult male who stuttered demonstrated that their stuttering could be controlled by modifying the frequency of phonation intervals within short duration ranges. The findings were demonstrated to be independent of changes in the speaking rate, or alterations to other intervals of phonation, and produced little disruption to speech naturalness.
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Gregg, B. A., & Yairi, E. (2006). Phonological skills and disfluency levels in preschool children who stutter. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 40, 97-115.

This study examined the link between stuttering and phonological skills. Children who stutter are much more likely to have a co-occurring phonological delay then those who do not stutter. This study examines the link between the severity of stuttering and phonological disorders. Two groups of children were included, those whose stuttering was considered severe, and those whose stuttering was considered mild. Both groups had a recent onset of stuttering, parent diagnosis and an SLP diagnosis. Both groups were very closely matched in age and gender. Both groups were analyzed for stuttering severity as well as phonological deviation. This study was found to validate previous studies as it found little correlation between stuttering severity and phonological skill.
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Gregory, H.H. (1993). A clinician's perspective: comments on identification of stuttering, prevention, and early intervention. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18 (4), 389-402.

Response to Curt Hamre's (1992) article concerning the identification and prevention of stuttering. A review of research findings is included that provides a frame of reference for Gregory's Continuum of Disfluent Speech. Included is information on Prevention an Intervention, the Diagnosogenic Theory, Bloodstein's Contributions, and the Loss of Control and Stuttering.
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Gregory, H. H. (1995). Analysis and commentary, LANGUAGE SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN THE SCHOOLS, 26 (2), 196-200.

This article is a summary of the articles presented in the entire issue. It is observed that therapy models for stuttering are being based on research and clinical observation more than in the past. All of the articles presented addressed the issue of attitude; both in the child and the parent, along with counseling as an integral part of therapy. Concomitant problems and the nature and treatment of cluttering were also presented in this collection of articles. Transfer and follow-up were recognized as necessary parts of effective therapy. Service delivery models were discussed by the contributing authors. Clinical skills were recognized as being inadequately developed among students. Gregory addressed the urgent need for more thorough clinical preparation within speech pathology educational programs.
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Greiner, JR., Fitzgerald, HE., & Cooke, PA. (1986). Speech fluency and hand performance on a sequential tapping task in left and right handed stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 55-69.

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in hemispheric functioning in right and left handed stutterers and nonstutterers. Twenty adult stutterers (15 right handed, 5 left handed) and twenty adult nonstutterers (15 right handed, 5 left handed) were asked to complete four tasks: finger tapping, tapping and spontaneous speech, tapping and reading, and tapping while singing. Results indicate that stutterers seem to have differences related to temporal regulation in the right hemisphere. The study also supports the belief that individuals who are left handed have a strong tendency for bilateral organization in the brain.
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Grinager Ambrose, N. & Yairi, E. (1999). Normative Disfluency Data for Early Childhood Stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 42, 4, 895-909

The basis of this article is a research study conducted to establish an adequate normative reference to help in providing information on differential diagnosis of stuttering from non-stuttering. Study consisted of 90 stuttering children (ages 2-5 years) and 54 non-stuttering children (ages 2-5 years). Results of study found that early on, all children exhibit disfluent patterns at some time. Age and gender of child did not play a significant role in any situation. It also does not indicate that child at early age with disfluencies should not be considered for evaluation This study offers a normative reference for parents and clinicians in guidance through the earlier stages of stuttering.
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Grube, M. M. & Smith, D. S. (1989). Paralinguistic intonation-rhythm intervention with a developmental stutterer. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14(3), 185-208.

This study examined the effects of teaching paralinguistic rules to a disfluent child. The theory behind the study is that children who stutter don't know these rules, and if they can be taught the rules when they are young they will become part of the child's speaking repertoire. The researchers chose to focus on intonation as the paralinguistic skill in this study. The subject was a 5-year-old boy who stuttered. This therapy combined motor movements of the body with different intonation patterns. The use of movement was gradually introduced and eventually phased out. The therapy also included the use of auditory training before and after each session. The results showed decreases in all types of disfluencies produced by the child as well as a decrease in his word finding difficulties. These decreases continued even after therapy was discontinued. The researchers provide compelling evidence that more research should be done in this area.
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Guitar, B. (1982). Fluency shaping with young stutterers. JOURNAL OF CHILDHOOD COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 6, 50-59.

This article introduces steps needed to teach a child to use slow, normal-sounding speech where stuttering might otherwise occur. Case selection is discussed with mention that children without much fear, shame, or embarrassment are best candidates for fluency shaping. Traditional measures of recording baseline and probe presentation are mentioned. Also included are successful fluency- inducing stimuli such as clapping or a metronome or one-word utterances shaped into longer utterances. Arrangement of a hierarchy to take the child from a slowly uttered word to conversation in daily life is mentioned. Suggestion of a token reward system is given as are concrete ideas (i.e. use of picture cards) for establishing fluency. Gradual transfer of fluency is then supported with long-term contact suggested with a child to enforce maintenance.
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Guitar, B. (2003). Acoustic startle responses and temperament in individuals who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 233-241.

The purpose of this research study was to compare the acoustic startle response as one assessment of temperament between adults who stutter and adults who do not stutter. The study included 14 adults who stutter and 14 adults who do not stutter. Procedures for the study included a hearing screening, presentation of 10 bursts of white noise, a 2- minute conversation, and a 200-syllable passage reading. Results of the study found significantly greater eyeblink responses in the stuttering group, as compared to the nonstuttering group. These results suggest that the temperament of people who stutter may be more reactive than the temperament of people who do not stutter.
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Guitar, B., Guitar, C., Neilson, P., O'Dwyer, N., & Andrews, G. (1988). Onset sequencing of selected lip muscles in stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 28-35.

Electromyography (EMG) was used to examine the lip muscle activity during speech production of initial /p/ words of stutterers and fluent speakers. There was a difference between persons who stutter and fluent speakers in which muscle was activated first for the production of initial /p/, especially during stuttering. The difference in muscle activity could be attributed to mistiming or to a physiologic anxiety reflex before a stuttering event.
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Guitar, B., & Marchinkoski, L. (2001). Influence of mother's slower speech on their children's speech rate. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 4, 853-861.

This study looked at the affects on children's speech rates when their mothers slowed their rate of speech. The subjects included six mothers and six children (3 boys and 3 girls) between the ages of 3 and 4 who were considered normal speakers. The subjects were recorded during normal play and conversation in four 10-mintue segments completed within one session. The results found that in five of the six cases, the children decreased their rate of speech when their mothers decreased their speech rates. It is important to note that if these findings were to be applied to children who stutter, it must be considered whether those mothers must reduce their rates dramatically and consistently to influence their child's fluency.
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Guitar, B., Schaefer, H., Donahue-Kilburg, G., & Bond, L. (1992). Parental verbal interactions and speech rate: A case study in stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 742-754.

This study is based on the idea that parent-child interaction is an integral part of the environment of a child who stutters. The purpose of the study was to investigate how the parent's behaviors and the child's stuttering changed with therapy. The study was divided into two parts. The results indicated that the mother's speech rate was significantly correlated with the child's stuttering. The study also divided the child's stuttering into primary and secondary. It was found that mother's speech rate and percent of talk time were correlates of primary stuttering but these did not effect secondary.
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Haasler, S. K., & Hulit, L. M. (1989). Influence of suggestion of the nonfluencies of normal speakers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 5, 359-369.

The purpose of this study was to determine if normal speakers could become disfluent with the suggestion of difficulty. The study looked at the affect of suggestion of difficulty in normal speakers. They took 60 normal-speaking adult males and had them read three tongue twisters. The subjects had to read them under six conditions from "easy" to "extremely difficult" and "extremely difficulty" to "easy". Suggestions of difficulty were offered to the subjects both orally and in print. The suggestion did not affect rates of fluency. Also, the tongue twisters did not consistently generate disfluencies. Though the reading passages they were approximately equal in length, the reading times were not equal. The study concluded with a discussion as to possible reasons why the rates of disfluency were not affected by the suggestion of difficulty.
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Hadden K.B., Skinner R.D., Wall P.T., Metzer W.S., Drummond S.S. (1997). Application of nonlinear methods for analyzing rate of speech production. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 205-217.

The purpose of this study was to gather information in the variability of speaking rates through the use of nonlinear methods. When using nonlinear methods you are able to plot points and results on a graph which lets us visualize the results as regularities or irregularities. The only subject was a 28-year old man. There were four experimental procedures, Spontaneous Speaking Rate, Auditory-Click Controlled Spontaneous Rate, Auditory-Click Controlled Accelerated Rate and Auditory-Click Controlled Accelerated Rate + Tone-Burst at Spontaneous Rate. In all of the experiments the subject was asked to repeat the word "pop-pop" for a total of 1050 productions per test. After the subject had completed 21 repetitions he was allowed a one minute resting period in order to coordinate respiratory and speech performances. The data was plotted sequentially in phase plots and analyzed for regularities. The findings of this study confirm that nonlinear techniques may be useful in observing the qualitative changes in fluency disorders.
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Hageman, CF., & Greene, PN. (1989). Auditory comprehension of stutterers on a competing message task. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 109-120.

The focus of this study was the auditory processing abilities of stutterers versus nonstutterers. One of the theories of the cause of stuttering involves deficits in auditory processing. Previous research has produced evidence to suggest that there is a difference in auditory processing in people who stutter. The purpose of this study was "to quantify and describe the auditory processing skills of listeners who stutter as compared to listeners who do not stutter in order to more clearly define the level of CAP disfunction in stutterers" (p. 111). The experimenters used the Revised Token Test (RTT) and the adapted competing message RTT (ARTT) to test their subjects. The data were analyzed quantitatively by completing a one- way analysis of variance and qualitatively by reporting pattern predominance as a percentage of occurrence. Results revealed that stutterers and normal speakers differed significantly quantitatively on the ARTT. However, results did not show a significant difference qualitatively. These results suggest that stutterers do not process information differently than nonstutterers. The findings suggest that stutterers are less efficient in their auditory processing abilities.
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Hagstrom, F., & Daniels, D. E. (2004). Social identity and the stuttering experience. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS. 31, 215-224.

This article illustrates the need to address personal perspective and social identity when working with people who stutter. Working with social identity in the clinical setting can offer new ways to think about challenges that confront clients and clinicians. The authors reflect that personal identity is the link to the origins of personality, and the ways individuals deal with emotions, feelings, and self concept.
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Hakim, H.B., & Ratner, NB. (2004). Nonword repetition abilities of children who stutter: An exploratory study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 179-199.

This is an exploratory study that examines the performance of eight children who stutter (CWS) and eight normally developing children (ND) on tests of nonword repetitions of increasing length, of increasing syntactic complexity, and of variation in lexical stress differing from English-like stress. Nonword repetition is considered a more sensitive measure of children's linguistic abilities than the results of standardized diagnostic inventories that identify language impairments. The CWS performed more poorly than the ND children on measures of Number of Words Correct and Number of Phoneme Errors at all nonword lengths and on measures of lexical stress variations in nonwords. The fluency for the CWS group did not change systematically with increasing nonword length. The conclusion is that the CWS may have diminished ability to remember and/or reproduce novel phonological sequences and further investigation may shed light on the emergence and characteristics of childhood stuttering.
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Hall, N. E. (1996). Language and fluency in child language disorders Changes over time JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21, 1-32.

This study examines language and fluency overtime in children with language disorders in attempts to answer the following two questions: Do preschool children with language disorders identified as exhibiting increased disfluencies continue to present greater frequencies of disfluencies than would be expected at school-age? and Do changes in language skills overtime (specifically profiles of linguistic abilities) relate to changes in fluency skills? Sixty children between the ages of 3:0 and 5:11 were studied and, in answer to question one, it was found that children with language disorders, although diminishing in frequency, exhibit higher rates or disfluencies that often become increasingly stuttering-like. Although inconclusive, the author states that fluctuations in fluency likely signal changes in language skills.
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Hall, KD., Amir, O., & Yairi, E. (1999). A longitudinal investigation of speaking rate in preschool children who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH, 42, 1367-1377.

Three groups of preschool children had language samples evaluated for articulation rate, over a two year period (three samples, 12 months apart). All children increased rate between first and second sample, with no significant increase between the second and third sample. The children who stuttered made two groups: recovered and persistently stuttering, and the control consisted of normally fluent children. The control group spoke with a faster rate (phones/second) than either stuttering group. The recovered group spoke significantly more slowly for all three samples. Rate was also measured in syllables / second, but results were similar for all three groups. The samples used only fluent segments of speech, without artificial manipulation. The results support previous studies which indicate a slower rate enhances fluency.
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Hall, N. E., & Burgess, S. D. (2000). Exploring developmental changes in fluency as related to language acquisition. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 119-141.

This one-year case study traced the fluency development in the context of language acquisition of a preschooler. Analyses of fluency, semantic, syntactic, pragmatic, and phonological behaviors were conducted on spontaneous speech and language samples taken every 4-months. Changes in fluency that often accompany changes in language behaviors are described. Clever procedures for examining fluency and language are outlined. Guidance for improving the study of linguistic interaction in speech and language development is provided.
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Hall, D., Lynn, J., Altieri, J., Segers, V., & Conti, D. (1987). Inter-intrajudge reliability of the stuttering severity instrument. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 167-173.

The purpose of this study is to extend and clarify the interobserver reliability of the Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI), as well as provide estimates of intraobserver reliability. Intra- and interjudge reliability were measured for two stutterers using the SSI as scored by nine judges. The judges viewed and scored each subject individually or in groups of two or three on a RCA video monitor. After one week's time, judges again viewed each stutterer and scored them using the SSI procedures. Results indicate good intrajudge reliability, but call interjudge reliability into question. Judges did tend to rate the stutterers as having different severities, however the relatively poor interjudge agreement suggests the need for extreme caution when interpreting SSI scores. It would appear that judges are in good agreement only when evaluating very mild (and, perhaps very severe) stuttering. The relatively high intrajudge agreement suggests that judges are able to maintain stable ratings over time.
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Hall, K., & Yaira, E. (1992). Fundamental frequency, jitter and shimmer in preschoolers who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 1002-1007.

The purpose of this study was to compare speaking fundamental frequency, jitter and shimmer in fluent utterances of children who stutter to children who do not stutter. The results showed that the children who stutter had significantly higher amounts of vocal shimmer perturbations in fluent speech than did children who did not stutter. There was no difference in fundamental frequency or jitter between the children who stutter and nonstuttering children.
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Hall, N. E. (2004). Lexical Development and Retrieval in Treating Children Who Stutter. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 35 (1) 57-70.

This article reviews literature on lexical development in children and also describes the process of acquiring lexical items in stuttering by looking at three aspects, (1) how children learn words, (2) the relationship between lexical and syntactic development and the emergence of disfluencies in typically developing children, and (3) what is known about these phenomena in children who stutter (CWS). The role of linguistics "trade-offs" or dysynchronies in language skills during the possible onset and development of stuttering are also discussed in the relationship between lexical development and disfluencies. In conclusion the article throws light on the on treatment of stuttering based on the cases studies and the interaction between fluency and language.
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Ham, RE. (1988). Unison speech and rate control therapy. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 115-126.

This therapy program is a rate/prosody control program. It was developed for use by clinicians that lack access to instrumentation and to develop a consistent, reusable stimuli resource. It can be used in most therapy settings including preschool aged and group therapy. A rate/prosody control therapy using unison speech as the method to impose a desired speech rate and pattern of production. This method simply requires audiotape cassettes along with clinician modeled unison speech. Stimulus materials, procedures, and treatment phases are outlined.
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Ham, R., (1989). What are we measuring? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 231-243.

This study was conducted to find out what specific stuttering behaviors are being measured and what practices are used while measuring stuttering. Professional, published clinicians were surveyed by questionnaire to address how they personally assess stuttering spasms, stuttering avoidance behaviors, the criteria used in word/syllable counting, and speech models selected for measurement. It was found that a majority of the participants did measure some common core behaviors and did follow similar procedures, but overall the way clinicians measure stuttering is just as unclear as every other aspect of stuttering.
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Ham, R. (1992). I know the chapter, but what's the verse? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 39-41.

This article is a critical commentary of an article presented by Hamre. The author criticizes Hamre's chain of logic and system of proof, which the author found highly selective and often to be interpreted unidimensionally. The author agrees with Hamre's contentions that identification of stuttering is not as practically difficult as some people think, and that stuttering does not necessarily develop from normal disfluencies. However, the author suggests that we also have the ability to identify behaviors that are nonstuttering. The author also provides evidence that lay persons do not always use basic level effects such as prolongations to categorize stuttering. He further disputes Hamre's position that stuttering simply "is", since it does not suggest how stuttering does occur, and ignores the fact that stuttering may sometimes develop from normal disfluencies in some people. The author criticizes Hamre's discussion of covert stuttering as a red herring, and suggests that stuttering ranges in its covert characteristics for different individuals.
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Ham, R. (1992). Response to "Stuttering prevention II:" Deja vu, again. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 1 & 2, 87-88.

This is a commentary by Richard Ham in response to Curt Hamre's article Stuttering Prevention II: Progression which is contained in this same issue. Ham sums up Hamre's article as containing information that is dated and professes that Hamre does not suggest any changes that are new.
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Ham, R. (1995). Treating disordered speech motor control: For clinicians by clinicians Vogel, D. and Cannito, M. P. (Eds.), (1991). Austin, TX: Pro-ed. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(1).77-80.

Although the reviewer makes some criticisms of the text book, he suggests that the book be used by those for whom neuromotor and neurosymbolic disorders are of interest, as well as those who work with stutterers. He says the chapters are informative, generally clear, and contain many informative aspects important to the student, teacher, or clinician. He believes the entire book is well worth reading.
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Ham, R. E. (2002). Book review. [Review of the book Foundations of stuttering] JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 353-355.

Included in Wingate's book are numerous chapters describing the history, statistics, definitions, and symptoms associated with stuttering. It gives insight into facts and concepts regarding stuttering. Wingate describes the process involved in normal speech production and compares it with that of people who stutter. He touches on the neurological aspect of stuttering, and finally on therapy techniques for people who stutter. The book is filled with many valuable insights, but the reader needs to be open minded to opinions outside the book. It would not be a good book to use for therapy ideas, but may serve as a good reference book.
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Ham, R., & Holbrook, A. (1986). Oral/manual motor reaction times and delayed auditory feedback disturbances among normally speaking females. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 117-129.

This research looked at normal speaking female's reaction time in correlation with the DAF (delayed auditory feedback) instrument. Thirty-nine females participated in the study. All had normal hearing, no neurological problems, none were taking any medication, and no one had used the DAF instrument before. It should also be noted that none of the subjects were dextral in handedness or had athletic scholarships. Reaction times for both oral and motor aspects were studied. The subject's ability to read a standardized passage while using the DAF instrument was also tested. The study focused on if there was any correlation between the number of speaking errors while using the DAF instrument and the subject's oral and motor reaction times. People who had faster oral and motor reaction times did tend to have more speaking errors while using the DAF instrument. However, no significant correlation was made.
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Hammond, K., & Leikin, J. B. (2008). Topical pyrethrin toxicity to acute-onset stuttering In a toddler. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF THERAPEUTICS, 15, 323-324.

Hammond and Leikin report on a case of a two year old girl who had multiple exposures to topical pyrethrin for head lice within a short period of time. The chief complaint after the repeated exposure to topical pyrethrin was general clumsiness and acute stuttering that resolved after a brief period of time. The authors discuss the two different types of pyrethrin extracts, type I and type II, and further discuss the variables of this particular case that may have led to the acute onset of stuttering in the toddler.
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Hamre, C. (1992). Stuttering prototypes: another look. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 141-150.

The author suggests stuttering be placed not in a classical category, but in a prototypic category, where categories are placed in one or more dimensions of a continuum. He does not feel this continuity hypothesis has been disproved. This has proven boundaries of categories are being fixed, no category members are better than others, the discrimination between categories is done automatically, and infants are able to discriminate between categories equally as well as adults. He identifies several studies that he feels are consistent with his claims that Curlee, his critic feels are not and defends them. The author defends his position that stuttering should be placed on the same continuum as normal disfluencies (ND), but that each should be placed in different categories. He admits to being confused about the difference between diagnosogenic (DG) and the continuity hypothesis (CH), but does not feel lonely. He explains the role of the environment regarding stuttering acquisition to colleagues confused about his position in the issue. He clarifies his understanding of primary prevention when criticized for including the Temple Program as part of it. Finally, Hamre admits stuttering needs to be treated, but that no means of preventing it are available.
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Hamre, C. (1992). Stuttering prevention I: Primacy of identification. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17 (1-2) 3-23.

The article critically evaluates information relating to the difficult distinctions between stuttering and normal disfluencies found in children. The author evaluates the diagnosogenic and continuity hypotheses (Iowa school) and argues that they are invalid. The author maintains that stuttering is qualitatively different from other disorders and parents can differentiate between normal disfluencies and stuttering. Hamre believes that a treatment construct should replace the prevention construct.
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Hamre, C. (1992). Stuttering prevention II: Progression. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 63-79.

This article is part two of a discussion on stuttering prevention. Hamre provides evidence that stuttering does not grow out of a period of normal disfluency in childhood, and suggests that stuttering is categorically different from fluency. He discusses ASHA's positions on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in relation to stuttering. He disputes the ideas of diagnosogenic theory or progression from normal disfluency as causes of stuttering. He further provides evidence that stuttering does not increase gradually over time. Therefore, he suggests that the concepts of primary and secondary prevention are not applicable since preventing stuttering (primary) and "catching" stuttering early (secondary) are not relevant. He argues that normal disfluencies are a normal part of adult speech, whereas stuttering typically declines or disappears after childhood. Overall, he suggests that while future research may help determine primary prevention strategies, current knowledge allows us to simply recommend treatment for children who stutter because we cannot predict which children will overcome it on their own, and it is much easier to show young children how to talk easily than to do so for children who have stuttered a year or more.
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Hancock, K. & Craig, A. (1998). Predictors of stuttering relapse one year following treatment for children aged 9 to 14 years. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 31-48.

Currently there is very little research into relapse of stuttering following therapy in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to establish specific predictors which might identify those children who will relapse after stuttering treatment. When determined, this information would be very valuable so remedial action can be taken before a relapse occurs. Maintenance therapy could be more intensive and continue for longer periods for those who show early predictors of relapse. This study found two measures which may predict relapse: pretreatment percent syllables stuttered and immediate post-treatment trait anxiety. The authors suggest further research should also include ratings of communicative attitudes.
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Hancock, K., A. Craig, C, NcCready A, McCaul D, Costello, K. Campbell, and G. Gilmore (1998). Two-to Six-Year Controlled-Trial Stuttering Outcomes for Children and Adolescents. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 41, 1242-1252.

This study looks at the effectiveness of 3 stuttering treatments: intensive smooth speech, parent-home smooth speech, and intensive electromyography feedback. The purpose of this study was to see if treatment gains at 12 months following therapy for stuttering was maintained 2 to 6 years later. In all three types of stuttering treatment, the majority of subjects maintained their treatment gains long-term.
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Hanrahan, L., Inouye, L., Langlois, A. (1986). A comparison of interactions between stuttering children, nonstuttering children, and their mothers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 263-273.

The motivation for this study was to identify patterns of interactions between the mothers of children who stutter and the mothers of children who do not stutter. Another important focus was if mothers verbal communication affects the child's communication abilities regardless of presence of disability. Eight children who stutter, eight children who do not stutter, and the mothers were observed in the personal homes and audio taped. The results provided that mothers of children who stutter may place more communication pressure on the children. For example, mothers of children who stutter asked more questions-placing more demands on the child. Findings supported that stuttering is related to environmental demands and stress.
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Hardin, C., Pindzola, R., & Haynes, W. (1992). A Tachistoscopic Study of Hemispheric Processing in Stuttering and Non-stuttering Children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 4. 265-281

This study investigated hemispheric processing in 20 children, 10 stutterers and 10 non-stutterers. Linguistic and non linguistic stimuli were presented to the left and right visual fields. Results found that no differences existed in the subjects processing patterns based on their reaction times and accuracy data.
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Hargrave, S; Kalinowski, J; Stuart, A; Armson, J; and Jones, K, (1994) Effect of Frequency-Altered Feedback on Stuttering Frequency at Normal and Fast Speech Rates, JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, Vol. 37, 1313-1319.

This study was conducted to determine the effect of frequency- altered auditory feedback (FAF) on stuttering. Fourteen subjects were asked to read passages at normal or fast rates under conditions of no auditory feedback, and then under four different frequency altered feedback conditions. The results indicated that each of the frequency altered conditions was a significant fluency enhancer at both a normal and fast rate of speech. The article suggests that further study be conducted on the role of using prosthetic devices to enhance fluency.
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Harrington, J. (1988). Stuttering, Delayed Auditory Feedback, and linguistic rhythm. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 36-47.

In this study, the author proposes and tests a model of speech which depends on an internal rhythmic structure which regulates time intervals between stressed vowel productions and perceptions. Under this model, stuttering may be explained as a failure in the stutterer's rhythmic structure to predict when the next stressed vowel production should occur. The effects of Delayed Auditory Feedback on fluent and non-fluent speakers are discussed. This model supports the notion that self- perceptions and anticipation of stuttering events can cause stuttering.
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Harris, V., Onslow, M. Packman, A., Harrison, E., Menzies, R. (2002). An experimental investigation of the impact of the Lidcombe Program on early stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 203-214.

The purpose of this study is to find if the Lidcombe program's effect on stuttering is greater than that of natural recovery. Twenty-three children were given a selection criteria screener and then randomly assigned to the experimental group (12 sessions in the Lidcombe program) and the control group (same length of time with no treatment). Pre- intervention baselines showed similar means of 8.6 %SS for the experimental group and 8.4 %SS for the control group. Post-intervention measurements were 3.5 mean %SS for the experimental group, a 39% reduction, compared to post-intervention 5.8 mean %SS for the control group, a 26% reduction. Study results suggest that Lidcombe treatment has an immediate effect on the natural course of stuttering.
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Harrison, J.C. (1997). Zen in the art of fluency. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22(3): p243-246.

This article reviews the concept of Zen principles and relates it to stuttered speech. Zen principles, which come from Japan, are taught to the person who wants to master archery. The principles include things like relaxation and giving over control to the "it" or higher self. Comparisons of these principles are made to a couple of sports and then are related to stuttered speech. An explanation of what is happening when the speech system breaks down is given using the principles of Zen. The issue of how successful a person can be at becoming fluent is explained using the Zen principles.
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Hartfield, K., & Conture, E. (2006). Effects of perceptual and conceptual similarity in lexical priming of young children who stutter: Preliminary findings. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 303-324.

Research suggests that speech-language planning of people who stutter differs slightly from the planning of those who do not stutter, specifically in the area of lexical retrieval. The purpose of this study was to investigate that hypothesis by examining children three to five years of age who stutter (CWS) and children of the same age range who do not stutter (CWNS). The authors examined the influence of physical, categorical, and functional properties on speed and accuracy of lexical retrieval during picture naming tasks. CWNS had faster reaction times in all categories, but no significant difference was found when comparing errors. CWS were more influenced by functionality than the perceptual properties assessed. These findings lead to the conclusion that preschool children who stutter do vary in speech-language planning as compared to preschool children who do not stutter.
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Hartinger, M. & Mooshammer, C., (2008). Articulatory variability in cluttering. FOLIA PHONIATRICS ET LOGOPAEDICA. 60(2). 68-71.

This study was developed to investigate the spatial and temporal kinematic variability of the fluency disorder cluttering by means of electromagnetic midsagittal articulography (EMMA). Six subjects were used, three with cluttering and three without. All subjects were native speakers of German. They were all assessed on repetitive CV syllables and loan words because people who clutter tend to struggle with long words with a complex syllable structure. The results indicated some differences however no overall significance was observed.
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Hartman, B. T. (1997). Response to John Van Borsel's review. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 71.

Hartman states that Van Borsel "missed the point" when reviewing his book. Sufficient evidence is not found in support for any stuttering theory, so where is the sufficient data refuting his theory.
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Hasbrouck, J. M., Doherty, J., Mehlmann, M. A., Nelson, R., Randle, B., & Whitaker, R. (1987). Intensive stuttering therapy in a public school. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 18, 330-343.

Two intensive stuttering treatment programs, designed for implementation within a school setting were discussed. The first program was completed during the summer months, for 4 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks in length. A combination of the following treatment procedures was used: airflow training, tension/relaxation, EMG feedback, and discriminative stimulus control. Results of this program indicated that all 6 of the subjects had reduced their percent of stuttered words to less than 1%, but none of them were able to maintain these fluency levels until the 7-month follow-up session. The second program was completed using a similar schedule as the first program. It involved a combination of the following treatment procedures: airflow training, tension/relaxation training, quiet biofeedback training, and discriminative stimulus control. Results of this program indicated that all of the 9 subjects had reduced their percent of stuttered words to less than 1 %, and that 6 of the 9 subjects maintained their fluency levels until the 7- month follow-up session.
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Hasbrouck, J.M. & Lowry, F. (1989). Elimination of stuttering and maintenance of fluency by means of airflow, tension reduction, and discriminative stimulus control procedures. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14(3), 165-183.

This study presented a comprehensive and demanding therapy program for stuttering. The therapy program combined a controversial airflow procedure with three other therapy procedures. Those procedures were tension relaxation, EMG biofeedback, and discriminative stimulus control. The researchers thought that by combining the airflow procedure with other therapy techniques stutterers would receive effective and lasting fluency skills. The subjects were required to proceed through each component of the therapy by passing strict requirements. The results were mixed. Most of the subjects maintained their fluency, but some relapsed. Differences were noted in how those who did maintain and those who relapsed ranked the stimuli in the discriminative stimulus control component of the program. This study shows that for some individuals an airflow procedure combined with other techniques may be effective.
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Healey, E.C., Howe, S.W., (1987). Speech shadowing, characteristics of stutterers under diodic and dichotic conditions. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 20(6), 493-506.

This study investigated stutterers and nonstutterers fluent speech patterns. One nonshadowed reading and two speech shadowed conditions were presented, Results did indicate that stutterers produced fewer speech-production errors than nonstutterers during each shadowing condition. Stutterers favored word by word speech shadowing strategy, nonstutterers used both word by word and small phrase shadow strategy. Stutterers demonstrated longer vowel and phrase duration than nonstutterers during shadowing condition
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Healey, E.C., Gabel, R.M., Daniels, D.E., & Kawai, N. (2007). The effects of self-disclosure and non self-disclosure of stuttering on listeners' perceptions of a person who stutters. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32, 51-69.

Negative stereotypes exist about people who stutter (PWS) mostly because of listeners' negative perceptions and reactions to PWS. In order to deal with this issue, clinicians have integrated the use of self-disclosure techniques into their therapy sessions with PWS. It is thought that self-disclosure helps to reduce the negative reactions of listeners and relieve anxiety and tension felt by the person who stutters. The purpose of this study was to examine listeners' perceptions of a man who does or does not disclose that he stutters, and examine if the place of disclosure within a monologue effected the listeners' perceptions. Three groups of listeners viewed one of three different videotapes made by a man who stutters who disclosed his stuttering at the beginning of the monologue, the end of the monologue, or not at all. Listeners were asked to rate six different statements and answer three questions. The results were compared to a previous study, which found listener reactions to be more positive after self-disclosure. This study did not find any significance between the use and non use of self-disclosure. Reasons for this were addressed.
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Healey, E.C., Norris, J.A., & Trautman, L.S. (2001). The effects of contextualization on fluency in three groups of children. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 3, 564-576.

It has been researched that for children with normal communicative development, children with language disorders, and children who stutter, the frequency and distribution of disfluencies seem to be influenced by grammatical complexity and constrained language formulation requirements. Beyond the limited comparisons of spontaneous and imitated sentences, however, little research has focused on the relationship between speech fluency and developmental language formulation demands. This article studied the effects of contextualization on fluency in 12 school-age children who stutter, 11 children with language impairment, and 12 with normally developing fluency. The children were between 8 and 12 years old. The results showed, for all three groups, both decontextualized situations produced greater frequencies of normal- type disfluency and mazing. The findings from this research would support Starkweather's Demands and Capacities model in which stuttering arises from a need for more time to plan or revise utterances in response to increasing linguistic demands.
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Healey, E. C., & Ramig, P. R. (1986). Acoustic measures of stutterers' and nonstutterers' fluency in two speech contexts. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH. 29, 325-331.

In this study, 22 adult stutterers were age and sex matched with 22 adult non-stutterers. Each participant was given two different speech tasks to elicit responses. Fluency was evaluated and considered acceptable using five standards. Following the collection of samples, four acoustic measures were calculated and tested for statistically significant differences. The results signify that there exists a greater difference between stutterers' and nonstutterers' fluent durational measures in acoustic means during reading samples than during short phrase samples.
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Healey, E.C., & Reid, R. (2003). ADHD and stuttering: A tutorial. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 79-93.

The first purpose of the article is to provide a description of key diagnostic features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is divided into three categories. The second purpose is to provide information and give suggestions about treating children who stutter and who have been diagnosed with ADHD. The article gives three educational objectives: (1) identify diagnostic criteria for children with ADHD; (2) differentiate pharmacological, environmental, and behavioral interventions for children with ADHD; (3) examine effective instructional techniques for children who stutter and have ADHD. Specific information is provided regarding medication used to treat ADHD symptoms as well as documented evidence of its impact on stuttering, which gives conflicting evidence.
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Healey, EC, Trautman, LS & Susca, M. (2004). Clinical applications of a multidimensional approach for the assessment and treatment of stuttering. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 31, 41-48.

In this article, Healey, Trautman and Susca describe a multidimensional model of stuttering which they developed. Before the discussion of this model, they provide brief reviews of six other multidimensional models of stuttering. The model developed by Healey et al., is called CALMS because it looks at the cognitive, affective, linguistic, motor and social components of stuttering. The CALMS model is based on the fact that the five components do not and cannot function independently. The authors discuss how to use this model in assessing clients who stutter and in treating clients who stutter. When discussing the treatment, Healey et al. show how to used the CALMS model in both planning and implementing treatment. They end the article with a case example of how the model is used with a specific client.
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Healey, E.C., & Scott, L.A. (1995). Strategies for treating elementary school-age children who stutter: An integrative approach. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 26, 151-161.

This article describes a model of service delivery for school-age children who stutter. The model emphasizes the integration of fluency-shaping and stuttering modification approaches. The authors suggest a service delivery model that is divided into three phases. Phase I involves the identification and understanding of fluency and stuttering. Phase II focuses on the instruction and integration of fluency-shaping and stuttering modification procedures. The authors provide a description of each procedure along with a discussion of ways it can be integrated into therapy. Phase III deals with the concern of transfer and maintenance of speech improvement to speaking situations outside the clinic environment. Eight principles that form the foundation of treatment with school-age children who stutter are identified and discussed.
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Healey, E. C., Scott, L. A., & Ellis, G. (1995). Decision making in the treatment of school-age children who stutter. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 28(2), 107-124.

This article includes ten decisions that should be addressed before, during, and when dismissing a child who stutters; for example, determining success or failure of an intervention approach. It provides the reader/clinician with information regarding long-term goals to parent involvement. In addition, this article presents questions which clinicians should ask themselves when dealing with children who stutter.
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Hearne, A., Packman, A., Onslow, M., & Quine, S. (2008). Stuttering and its treatment in adolescence: The perception of people who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33, 81-98

The authors of this article addressed the experiences of adolescents who stutter in regards to five main categories: 1. Their experience of stuttering during the adolescent years, 2. Reasons for seeking or not seeking therapy during the adolescent years, 3. Barriers to seeking therapy during the adolescent years, 4. Their experience of therapy during adolescent years, and 5. Suggested improvements to therapy for adolescents. 13 adolescents and young adults participated in the study. Seven individual interviews and two focus groups were conducted. The researchers concluded that teachers, parents, and other adolescents associated with the participants in the study seemed to have a lack of awareness regarding stuttering. They also found that, for the most part, the participants did not feel the need for treatment just because they stutter. Group therapy was well liked, however, in the event of the adolescents seeking help.
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Hearne, A., Packman, A., Onslow, M., & O'Brian, S. (2008). Developing treatment for adolescents who stutter: A phase I trial of the camperdown program. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN THE SCHOOLS, 39, 487-497.

This study evaluated the individual responsiveness of three adolescents who stutter to a stuttering treatment. The treatment program used in this study was the Camperdown Program which consists of four stages: individual teaching sessions, group practice day, individual problem-solving sessions, and a performance-contingent maintenance stage. Outcome measures of the program were collected before treatment and five occasions after treatment. Of the three participants, only one responded well to the treatment. The study indicated that the adolescent who performed well presented a high level of self-confidence and maturity. The study also concluded that decreased parent influence and increased peer influence and self-direction seemed to make an impact on the outcome of treatment. The authors of this study also discussed the possibility of how a group format treatment program would lead to better results than delivering treatment primarily individually as done in the Camperdown Program.
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Hegde, M. (1992). Comments on Hamre's Stuttering Prevention. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 131-139.

Hamre's critical analysis of the concepts and methods on which stuttering is based is critically analyzed further. Hegde, who has reviewed the article Hamre wrote on stuttering prevention, agrees with him that current technology does not allow stuttering prevention. Hegde feels that Hamre's point may be concluded without placing it in the continuity hypothesis. To evaluate prevention, one needs only to say that there are no manipulable signs that appear before stuttering. Hegde also points out that Hamre is making a false distinction between stuttering being part of the continuous versus the categorical model. Hamre is contradicting himself by claiming stuttering is categorically different from disfluencies. Generally, Hegde agrees with Hamre's views on stuttering progression and prevention, while some of his questionable arguments are presented. Nevertheless, Hegde applauds Hamre for critically evaluating professional practices in stuttering prevention because they only seek to serve the profession.
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Hegde, M. N. (1995). Measurement and explanation of stuttering: A retrospective appreciation of Gene Brutten's contribution. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20, 205-230.

This article elaborates on Gene Brutten's two-factor theory on stuttering and presents recent trends in research that still support his main ideas. Hegde describes and illustrates how Brutten's insistence that stuttering be defined and measured more precisely is still a relevant and unresolved issue. He also provides a detailed description of how two historically opposing views on stuttering, classical vs. operant conditioning, share commonalities within Brutten's etiological investigations. Finally, the author suggests that the recent neurophysiological research, which has replaced the conditioning and learning paradigm, indirectly supports interaction of environmental and physiological variables that Brutten advocated.
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Hedges, D. W., Umar, F., Mellon, C. D., Herrick, L, C., Hanson, M. L., & Wahl, M. L. (1995). Direct comparison of the Family history method and the family study method using a large stuttering pedigree. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(1). 25-34.

The family history method (inquiry only) is compared to the family study method (direct family member interviews) in order to collect a sampling of subjects with a stuttering phenotype. This study supports previous data which proposes that the sensitivity of the family history method is reduced when compared to the family study method. In addition, this study confirms earlier findings which state that affected family; members are more accurate in-formants than non-affected family members. Family members asked to focus only on first-degree relatives, accuracy of sensitivity decreases, which suggests that familiarity may play a role in the failure to identify affected family members.
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Hennessey, N. W., Nang, C. Y., Beilby, J. B. (2008). Speeded verbal responding in adults who stutter: Are there deficits in linguistic encoding? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33 (3): 180-202.

The purpose of this study was to determine the processes responsible for linguistic encoding in PWS. Hennessey et al. studied the linguistic encoding of 18 PWS to see if verbal response time differed from normally fluent speakers on tasks of words vs. non words and picture naming. They determined that linguistic word encoding does not cause an increased delay in speech motor control of PWS. Further research needs to be completed to determine where the deficit is in the speech motor system that is responsible for delays in response time.
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Herder, C., Howard, C., Nye, C., & Vanryckeghem, M. (2006). Effectiveness of behavioral stuttering treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 33, 61-73.

The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of behavioral stuttering treatment for people who stutter. Inclusion criteria for this study included the following: participants who were diagnosed as people who stutter, treatment method was behavioral, outcomes were of speech behavior, and participants who were randomly assigned to an experimental and control condition before the intervention. The studies researched were split into two groups: (a) studies that compared a treated to a non-treated group and (b) those that compared a treated group to another treated group. Results indicated a significant effect size for the outcomes of treated versus non- treated participants and a non-significant effect size for the compared effectiveness of two different treatments. It was found that the data reported in this study supported the claim that intervention for stuttering results in an overall positive effect. It was also found that no one treatment approach for stuttering demonstrated significantly greater effects over another treatment approach.
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Hill, DG. (1995). Assessing the language of children who stutter. TOPICS IN LANGUAGE DISORDERS, 15 (3), 60-79.

This article looks at theories explaining the relationship between language and stuttering and includes a review of studies focusing on the co-occurrence of speech and language problems in children who stutter. The importance of a multidimensional evaluation of children is emphasized. The author provides a description of differential evaluation including: 1) a case history; 2) a fluency assessment; 3) a broad-ranging skills assessment covering language, articulation, and motor-speech areas; and 4) parent-child analysis. Each of these areas are broken down and discussed in detail with special attention given to the description of language assessment.
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Homzie, MJ., Lindsay, JS., Simpson, J., & Hasenstab, S. (1988). Concomitant speech, language, and learning problems in adult stutterers and in members of their families. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 261-277.

This study was developed to determine if a significant number of adult stutterers report of having exhibited early speech, language, and learning disorders; and if other members of their families also reported these same disorders. A questionnaire was developed and sent out to gather data about the speech and language history of the subjects and their families. The result of the questionnaire report that stuttering appear to be associated with delayed language, articulation disorders, and reading, writing, and spelling disorders.
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Horii, Y., & Ramig, P. R. (1987). Pause and utterance durations and fundamental frequency characteristics of repeated oral readings by stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 257- 270.

Adaptation effects of repeated oral readings on the duration of pauses and utterances and on fundamental frequency were investigated in a group of stutterers and a group of non-stutterers. Analysis indicated significant differences in pause duration, speaking-time ratio, and total speaking time between the two groups. There were also differences between the first reading and the last reading. Analysis of reading errors showed different types of errors between stutterers and non-stutterers. There were no significant differences in fundamental frequency.
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Howell, P. (2004). Assessment of some contemporary theories of stuttering that apply to spontaneous speech. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCES AND DISORDERS, 31, 123-140.

This article discussed different approaches to stuttering and looked at whether stuttering is caused by a problem linguistically or at the motor level, or if it is a combination of both. This article summarized the linked covert repair hypothesis, which is a complex system where there is a hierarchical linguistic system. Errors can happen at different points, they go through a monitoring system, and works through a cycle. This article also summarized the EXPLAN model, which had to do with planning and executing, and that they are two separate processes. EXPLAN said that failures in interaction between these two parts are what could cause dysfluencies. This article broke down the different parts of the EXPLAN model and described what each step meant.
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Howell, P. (2004). Effects of delayed auditory feedback and frequency-shifted feedback on speech control and some potentials for future development of prosthetic aids for stammering. STAMMERING RESEARCH, (1)1, 31-46. http://www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk

Two known ways to improve fluency in a person who stammers is to use a device that makes noise so the stammerer can't hear their own voice (altered auditory feedback), and similar to this, to manipulate the sound of a person's voice before they hear it (making the voice high or low-pitched). This article reviews how these two methods affect the fluency of people who stammer and also covers how these methods are introduced to the speaker. Results indicated that alterations to recurrent auditory information - ARAI (another term for altered auditory feedback) helps stammerers produce speech that sounds nearly fluent, even if only temporary. Further research is needed to determine if ARAI could play a role in long-term fluency recovery from stammering.
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Howell, P. (2004). Comparison of two ways of defining phonological words for assessing stuttering pattern changes with age in Spanish speakers who stutter. JOURNAL OF MULTILINGUAL COMMUNICATION DISORDERS. 2(3), 161-186.

This study is based on speech samples from 46 monolingual native speakers of Penisular Spanish that have a stutter and range in age from 3-68. Spontaneous speech samples were obtained and then segmented into phonological words in function words as satellites to content words as nuclei and as a word with stress as the nucleus of a phonological word. These segmentations were then analyzed as similar or different to try to predict patterns in dysfluency. The patterns found in phonological words in English were similar to those found in Spanish. Stressed or content words are possibly not the only factors that can affect the words around the phonological word nuclei.
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Howell, P. (2005). The effect of using time intervals of different length on Judgments about stuttering. STAMMERING RESEARCH, 1, (4), 364-374. www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk

In an effort to increase reliability, time interval analysis has been used rather than traditional procedures. Through samples of speech from participants of this study, time interval procedures were assessed and evaluated as either fluent or stuttered. The speech samples judged by the participating members were reviewed using a scale based on 1-s and 5-s intervals as stuttered or fluent. Through different studies it has been found that different length intervals can alter the effect of speech through different treatment procedures. The need for a specific, set, time interval length is crucial for every study, or within each individual clinic setting, to make the procedure reliable.
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Howell P. (Feb. 2008) Do individuals with fragile X syndrome show developmental stuttering or not? Comment on "Speech fluency in fragile X syndrome" by van Borsel, Dor and Rondal. CLINICAL LINGUISTICS AND PHONETICS. 2:163-7.

This article looks into whether or not the speech of nine males with fragile X syndrome is similar to those with developmental stuttering. Many different aspects of speech were looked at and five areas were reported as different. 1. Distribution of types of dysfluency 2. Dysfluency and word class 3. Effect of word length on fluency 4. Number of elements repeated in word and phrase repetitions 5. Effect of different types of material on dysfluency. There were similarities noted, however, it was decided that the five differences proved that fragile X syndrome and developmental stuttering speech is different. The authors studied these nine subjects and compared their information from various studies done and information produced over the years.
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Howell, P. & Au-Yeung, J. (1995). Syntactic determinants of stuttering in the spontaneous speech of normally fluent and stuttering children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(4), 317-330.

Howell and Au-Yeung review the literature pertaining to language factors associated with stuttering, specifically, the contradicting findings of the relationship between linguistic complexity and stuttering. This study consisted of 31 stutterers and 48 fluent speakers recorded in conversational episodes with an interviewer. Subjects were divided by fluent/stutterer categories and by age. The age range was 2:7 - 12:7. All recordings were narrowly phonetically and prosodically transcribed. Data parsing was done according to the procedure used previously in a study done by Wall, Starkweather, And Cairne (1981). Results of this study conclude that: 1) child stutterers differ in syntactic constructions they use in comparison with Wall's investigations, 2) the rank ordering of which syntactic categories were used did not differ significantly from that of Wall's investigation, and 3) the analysis of stuttering within clauses showed that young children exhibited a marked tendency to stutter at the clause boundary.
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Howell, P. & Au-Yeung, J. (1995). The association between stuttering, Brown's factors, and phonological categories in child stutterers ranging in age between 2 and 12 years. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(4), 331-344.

This investigation examines the claim phonological difficulty of a word is not a factor in children who stutter. Two specific issues are addressed: 1) phonological difficulty does not differentiate which sounds will be stuttered and which will not, and 2) what influence do Brown's factors have on the relationship between phonological difficulty, age group, severity, and whether a word is stuttered or occurs after a stuttering. Thirty one children who stuttered and 48 fluent speakers were subjects. Age range was from 2:7 to 12:7 , and subjects were matched for age and educational level. All subjects were recorded in conversation with an interviewer. These recordings were narrowly phonetically and prosodically transcribed. Implications reveal that the measure of phonological difficulty showed differences in phonological ability for children of different ages. No dependence of stuttering on phonological category was observed for age group, stutterer's severity, or word types. Thus, phonological difficulty does not appear to be a major factor influencing the incidence of stuttering in children.
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Howell, P., Au-Yeung, J., Sackin, S., Glenn, K., & Rustin, L. (1997). Detection of Supralexical Dysfluencies in a Text Read by Children Who Stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 299-307.

This study looks at the difference in detecting supralexical dysfluencies between a computer and human judges. Supralexical dysfluencies are made up of interjections, revisions, incomplete phrases, and phrase repetitions. Subjects used in this study were six stuttering males age 10-13 years. Speech samples were obtained by having each subject read the passage, "Arthur the rat". Results indicate that the computer software can detect speech errors more accurately than trained human judges. The computer was able to locate 100% of the discrepancies while the human judges made 8.5- 12.8% errors in the speech error detection task.
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Howell, P., Au-Yeung, J., & Sackin, S. (1999). Exchange of stuttering from function words to content words with age. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 42, 345-354.

A study was performed to determine the reason why dysfluent or fluent speakers stutter or hesitate on function words rather than content words and if the patterns are consistent with all age groups. A frequent pattern was observed; repetition and hesitation on function words occurred when they preceded content words. They study consisted of 51 individuals who exhibited stuttering behaviors divided into five categories: ages 2-6, 7-9, 10-12, teenagers, and adults. It also consisted of 68 control speakers. Two minute spontaneous speech recordings were taken from all subjects in a relaxed atmosphere. Results indicated that fluent speakers use repetition on function words and people who stutter attempt a content word when their language plans are incomplete. The results varied across the age groups.
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Howell, P., & Davis, A. (2005). Elements of statistical treatment of speech and hearing science data. STAMMERING RESEARCH, 1, 333-343. Retrieved November 21, 2007, from http://www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk

The purpose of this article was to provide information for students so they can apply it to other texts. The article gives us two important specifics. The first one is the "experimental design and choice of data." This has information about the procedures for looking at information, such as populations, sampling, biases, estimating means, estimating proportions, and estimating variances. The second specific is "statistical terms involved in inference to the population mean from the sample mean." This includes simple hypothesis testing, an analysis of variance, and non-parametric tests.
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Howell, P., Davis, S., Bartrip, J., and Wormwald, L. (2004). Effectiveness of frequency shifted feedback at reducing disfluency for linguistically easy, and difficult, sections of speech. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY AND RESEARCH, Vol. 1, Issue 3, 309-315.

This study investigated the effects of frequency shifted feedback (FSF) on fourteen children between 9 and 18 years of age. Two reading tests were given to each participant containing difficult and easy passages as determined by increased sentence and word length. The FSF device was switched off or on while participants read the passages. The readings were taped and evaluated for reading time and number of disfluencies. Results indicated that difficult passages took longer to read than easy ones under normal conditions and using FSF. There was no significant reduction in reading time using FSF when compared to normal reading conditions. There was, however, a decrease in disfluencies when FSF was switched on, which was equal to the increase in disfluencies when FSF was switched off. The conclusion of the authors is that FSF is equally effective whether test material is easy or difficult, and the results have implications for using FSF as a tool to reinforce or elicit fluency. They also see the possibility for future potential as a long-term fluency treatment, with further research
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Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, S.M. (2005). Auditory abilities of speakers who persisted, or recovered, from stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 257-270.

This article focuses on determining a difference in auditory tasks between people who persist in stuttering behaviors and those who have recovered in an effort to determine the degree to which auditory functioning is a predictor of recovery. Thirty people who stutter (25 males and 5 females) were assessed through the Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI-3), were determined to be either a persistent developmental stutterer (PDS) or a recovered developmental stutterer (RDS), had their parent(s) interviewed, had a home visit that lasted approximately 90 minutes, and a hearing test. Results indicate that there is a significant threshold difference between the PDS and RDS groups for the backward-masked stimulus with thresholds being higher for the PDS group. Results conclude that backward masking scores are one factor that differentiate speakers who recover from speakers who persist in stuttering behaviors.
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Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 51, 669-687

In this article, the authors analyzed the presence or absence of factors that may lead younger children who stutter to continue to do so into pre-teen years. 76 children, ages 8-12 participated in the study; they were all assessed initially as stuttering. After speech-language pathologists conducted treatment over the course of 12 months, the children were assessed again. A trained researcher completed the assessments after a minimum of 12 months post-treatment. The children were then classified as persistent or recovered. Of the 76 participants, 41 participants were classified as recovered, and the research showed that males are more affected by late childhood stuttering. It was noted by the researchers that dysfluency types changed with age, as well as performance on sensory, motor, and temperamental tasks. The researchers also concluded that the longer a child is in therapy, the longer the child will stutter.
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Howell P, Davis SR, Williams R. (2008 Sep 9). The effects of bilingualism on stuttering during late childhood. ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD (EPub ahead of print - www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18782846)

This article focuses on the effects of bilingualism and the onset of stuttering, school performance and the recovery rate of stuttering. There were three groups that were followed through many years: BIL-bilingual from birth, LE-learned English at school and MONO-monolingual speakers who stutter. All three groups had the same criteria to qualify the participants. Different measurements were used such as a parent/caregiver interview, the SSI-3, etc. Results show that the mean age of onset was within 6 months for all three groups, the school performance was not significantly different between all the groups and the recovery rate of stuttering was 25% for the BIL group and 55.5% for the LE-MONO combined.
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Howell, P., & El-Yaniv, N. (1987). The effects of presenting a click in syllable-initial position on the speech of stutterers: Comparison with a metronome click. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 249-256.

The speaking rates and number of disfluencies were compared with normal auditory feedback, with a metronome, and with a click at syllable onset for a group of 10 stutterers. Speaking rates were higher when the click was presented at syllable onset. The number of disfluencies was less with the metronome or syllable-onset click compared to normal auditory feedback. Listeners judged speech produced when a click was heard at syllable-onset as sounding more natural than with normal auditory feedback or with the metronome.
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Howell, P., and Huckvale, M. (2004). Facilities to assist people to research into stammered speech. STAMMERING RESEARCH, 1(2), 130-242. http://www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk

The article's purpose was to inform others that audio tapes of PWS will be made available to the public thanks to the University College of London and Wellcome Trust. It will provide an archive of speech samples that have already been analyzed and allow others the opportunity to provide any corrections, if needed, to the supplied data. Transcriptions of the speech samples will also be made available. The purpose of creating such an archive that is publicly available is so more research can be conducted related to stuttering. Various software programs will be available for free, so researchers are able to analyze the speech samples free of cost and also have the option of what particular software package they prefer to use.
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Howell, P., Sackin, S., & Rustin, L. (1995). Comparison of speech motor development in stuttering and fluent speakers between 7 and 12 years old. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 3, 243-255.

This study examined fluent children and stuttering children's abilities to perform three tasks deemed necessary for producing fluent speech. The tasks included (1) production of voiced plosives varying in place of articulation (indicative of laryngeal/supraglottal coordination) (2) moving the lower lip to follow the movement of a sinusoidally-varying target (indicative of supraglottal movement alone) (3) making the minimum possible articulatory movement either with or without attendant visual feedback (indicative of use of kinesthetic feedback). Results revealed that the stutterers produced longer voice onsets in the plosives which the authors view as potentially a problem in coordination. The children who stutter were also found to have larger tracking errors; however, the authors state that it is accuracy rather than the nature of the movement that differs for stuttering children. Finally, the stuttering group produced bigger minimal movements when no visual feedback was provided, suggesting that this group may be less sure of where the articulator is held.
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Howell, P., Sackin, S., &Williams, R. (1999). Differential effects of frequency- shifted feedback between child and adult stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 24, 127-136.

This study focuses on the influence of frequency-shifted feedback on adult vs. child stutterers and the effects of fluency enhancement. A group of eight boys (ages 9 -11) and eight men (ages 20 -24) who stuttered and had no history of therapy were enrolled in an intensive two-week therapy course. The therapy course analyzed speech under two different listening conditions; frequency- shifted feedback (FSF) and normal auditory feedback (NAF). It was predicted that adult stutterers' fluency would significantly increase as compared to the child stutterers' fluency due to differences in the rate of speech and the effects of FSF on the temporal lobe. Results indicated this to be true.
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Hubbard, CP. (1998). Reliability of judgments of stuttering and disfluency in young children's speech. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 31, 245-260.

The purpose of this study was to investigate interobserver reliability in the speech of young children regarding judgements of stuttering vs. disfluency. More specifically, the author examined whether interobserver agreement was higher for judgements of speech disfluency or for judgements of stuttering. Speech samples by eight preschool children identified as stuttering were used. Five adult women, each with more than one year of experience in perceptual judgements of stuttering and disfluency, were the judges. Results showed that interobserver reliability was not significantly higher for judgements of speech disfluency than judgements of stuttering. Both forms of judgement differentiated variation among the subjects.
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Hubbard, CP. (1998). Stuttering, Stressed Syllables, and, Word Onsets. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH. 41: 4, 802-808.

Research was done on ten adult stutterers (age 17 years to 62 years) to see if there is a relationship between stuttering and syllabic stress, stuttering and word onsets, and stuttering and word position. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the proportion of stuttering on stressed versus unstressed syllables. It also indicates that stuttering occurs more frequently on word-initial syllables versus word-final syllables, and that stuttering occurs more frequently on the first four words of a sentence versus the last two words.
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Hubbard, C.P., & Prins, D. (1994). Word familiarity, syllabic stress pattern, and stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37, 564-5 71.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether stuttering frequency in adults varies with changes in word familiarity and syllabic stress pattern during an oral reading task. A groups of ten people who stutter and a control group of ten fluent subjects were studied. The authors found that significantly more stutter events occurred on sentences containing less familiar words in the group of subjects who stutter. This factor did not influence the fluency of the control group. Syllabic stress pattern did not alter the fluency in either of the two groups.
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Hubbard, CP. & Yairi, E. (1988). Clustering of disfluencies in the speech of stuttering and nonstuttering preschool children. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 228-233.

This study examined clustering formation, the occurrence of two or more disfluencies on the same or adjacent words, in a spontaneous speech sample of 500 syllables for each of 15 preschool stuttering children and 15 nonstuttering control subjects. Results indicated both sets of children produced higher percentages of disfluencies in clusters than expected by chance. These results are consistent with past studies that found a similar percentage of clustered disfluency by nonstuttering children; indicating that clustering is a significant factor in the speech of stuttering and nonstuttering children.
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Hubbard Seery, C. (2005). Differential diagnosis of stuttering for forensic purposes. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 14, 260-273.

This article was a case study about a male in his 30s charged with armed robbery. A speech-language pathologist was asked to perform an assessment on the man because he claimed to be a person who stutters (PWS) but was suspected of malingering. The assessment took place in the jail where the man was being held, lasting two hours and consisting of speech samples, oral reading, observing of various speaking situations, communicative attitudes, information from a case history, and background information gathered. Results showed extreme dysfluency during speech samples of 104 dysfluencies per 100 words, no secondary behaviors, and frequent eye contact during stuttering. Severe stuttering was also evidenced in oral reading, imitated words, imitated phrases, imitated sentences, whispering, shouting, automatic speech, and other situations. Results from a communicative attitude scale scored the man in a range similar to other PWS or at the extreme end of people who do not stutter. The man's jail records reported a 'recent diagnosis of seizures and brain aneurysm,' 'poor word-finding and memory problems,' and 'psychosis not otherwise specified.' Assessment information from the speech-language pathologist as well as other information gathered found that the man probably was a PWS, but also exaggerated his stuttering and included a certain amount of malingering. Future studies should explore differential diagnosis protocols and case history questions to find which aspects are most revealing in decision-making.
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Huinck, W.J., Langevin, M., Kully, D., Graamans, K., Peters, H.F.M., & Hulstijn, W. (2006). The relationship between pre-treatment clinical profile and treatment outcome in an integrated stuttering program. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 43- 63.

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference in treatment outcome based on the method used to characterize a person who stutters and the severity of stuttering. The study included 25 adults who stutter (17 male, 8 female; ages 17-53 years). Participants all had a reported onset of stuttering before age 6, they had no motor development problems, no unrelated speech or language problems, no medication use that would interfere with the study, no psychiatric history, and normal hearing. Participants were divided into mild and severe groups based on their stuttering severity (assessed with the Stuttering Severity Instrument) and their secondary factors (Perceptions of Stuttering Inventory, Stuttering Severity Scale, and Inventory of Interpersonal Situations). The stuttering therapy was provided in a three-week intensive format and included principles of fluency-enhancing and stuttering modification. The study found that there is a difference in treatment outcome based on the subtype of stuttering; that the severe stutterers showed the biggest gains in treatment, yet also the biggest regression; and finally that there is no relationship between severity of stuttering and the secondary characteristics of negative emotional and cognitive reactions.
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Huinck, W. J., van Lieshout, P. H.H.M., Peters, H. F. M., & Hulstijn, W. (2004). Gestural overlap in consonant clusters: effects on the fluent speech of stuttering and non-stuttering subjects. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 3-25.

This study was designed to further explore what influence consonant clusters in initial and medial positions, have on reaction times and word durations of people who stutter (PWS) and people who do not stutter (PWNS). Browman and Goldstein's Gestural Phonology Model was used. In this study 12 monosyllabic and 12 bisyllabic non-words were used. Ten PWS and 10 PWNS participated in the study. The focus of the study was on perceptually judged, fluent utterances. The results indicated that PWS have slower reaction time, but these results were not statistically different from the group of PWNS. Also, the results of the word duration section indicated no significant differences. However, there was a significant coloration between group, cluster type, and cluster location.
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Hulit, L. M. (1989). A stutterer like me. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14(3), 209-214.

Every year Lloyd M. Hulit gives his class the same assignment. His students are instructed to pseudo-stutter for a certain length of time and then write a paper reflecting on their experience. In this article he records and discusses the comments made by 29 female students. These comments are divided into four categories: physical reactions, emotional reactions, listener reactions, and insights gained. Hulit, himself a stutterer, feels as though his students experience many of the same feelings and emotions as those of an actual stutterer. Some people question the usefulness of this activity. A fluent speaker will never know what it is like to stutter because the fluent speaker knows that they can always return to fluency. However, this assignment gives the fluent speaker the best insight into what a stutterer goes through.
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Hulit, L.M. & Wirtz, L. (1994). The Association of Attitudes Towards Stuttering with Selected Variables. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, v19, n4, Dec.

A stuttering inventory was made by the authors who borrowed (with the author's permission) questions on several tests. This test was given to 203 people with varying education and professional backgrounds in the North-Central Illinois area. This test was given to assess how people view people who stutter Each question has a five point continuum. When asked about attitudes, most people avoided the extreme ends of the scale indicating that the subjects may not be certain what response is appropriate.
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Ingham, J. C. (1993). Current status of stuttering and behavior modification -I: Recent trends in the application of behavior modification in children and adults. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 27-55.

The purpose of the article is to provide an overview of behavior modification research since the 1980's. Most of the studies involve adult clients working on treatments incorporating stutter- free speech. Ingham comments " The results of these treatments are mixed, but generally positive."
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Ingham, J.C. (2003). Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: I. Definition and application. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28,197-207.

The article defines evidence-based treatment as the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence. Evidence-based treatment is dependent on research evidence, clinical expertise, and client preferences. A clinician can practice evidence-based treatment by following these four steps: 1) ask a clinically relevant question, 2) track down the best evidence, 3) critically evaluate the evidence that you discover, 4) integrate the best evidence with clinical judgment and the client's circumstances. The article addresses the need for more research in treatment efficiency, the treatment that shows the most improvement. This research would aid evidence-based treatment.
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Ingham, JC.; Riley, G. (1998). Guidelines for Documentation of Treatment Efficacy for Young Children Who Stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 41: 4, 753-770.

The authors discuss the importance of documenting the outcomes of treatment by following a few guidelines. Their guidelines include: conditions of documentation, the dependent variables, treatment integrity, and verification of the relationship between treatment and outcome. Following the descriptions of these guidelines, two cases are looked at as examples of how to apply these guidelines.
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Ingham, Roger J. (2007) Yaruss, Coleman, & Hammer. (2006): An exemplar of non-evidence-based practice in stuttering treatment. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS 38:283-286.

This articles focuses on the importance of evidence based practice in stuttering treatment. It is used as an example of what is NOT an EBP article as there are four main problems in the original report: failure to provide clinicians with replicable procedures, failure to collect valid and reliable speech performance data, failure to control for predictable improvement in children who have been stuttering for less than 15 months and the advocacy of procedures for which there is no credible research evidence. The author goes into great detail outlining the errors and giving examples for each of the main problems in the original report.
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Ingham, R. J., Finn, P., & Bothe, A. K. (2005). "Roadblocks" revisited: Neural change, stuttering treatment, and recovery from stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30, 91-107.

This paper discussed the importance of research in the area of neural plasticity and reorganization of adolescents and adults who stutter. The authors suggest that a lot of information about how the brain reorganizes and compensates can be learned from individuals who have recovered from stuttering with and without any formal treatment. Further neural examination of adults and adolescents who have recovered from stuttering will aid in understanding of the nature and treatment of chronic stuttering. For example, the authors suggested these individuals could be a "benchmark" for evaluating current and future stuttering treatment.
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Ingham, R.J., Fox, P.T., Ingham, J.C., Xiong, J., Zamarripa, F., Hardies, L.J., & Lancaster, J.L. (2004). Brain correlates of stuttering and syllable production: Gender comparison and replication. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 47, 321-341.

The purpose of this study was to identify neural regions that are functionally related to stuttered speech in females and investigate possible gender specific regional activation. The participants included 10 females who stutter and a control group of 10 fluent females. Each participant was given nine PET scans while completing a speech task (oral reading from text, choral reading, and rest). PET scan results were then compared to speech performance data collected during the scan, including measurements of stuttering rate, syllable production rate, and speech naturalness. During non-stuttered speech, activation patterns were similar between sexes and between people who stutter and the controls. During stuttered speech, the results showed activation in the right anterior insula and deactivation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and right Brodmann area 21/22 of both genders. Several gender differences in neural functioning were also seen during stuttered speech. Females showed bilateral activation of the anterior insula and bilateral deactivation of the Brodmann area 21/22 during stuttered speech. Males showed activation in the left medial occipital lobe and the right medial cerebellum. The results evidence a possible link between specific neural regions and stuttered speech. The researchers suggest that abnormal neural activation patterns may contribute to a system in which stuttered speech occurs. In addition, the results indicate gender differences in the neural regions involved with the functional control of stuttering.
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Ingham, R. J., Ingham, J. C., Finn, P., & Fox, P. T. (2003). Towards a functional neural systems model of development stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 297-318.

This article discusses recent developments in an ongoing program of brain imaging research on developmental stuttering called the San Antonio studies. These studies used imaging of different speaking tasks of persistent stutterers, recovered stutterers and controls in order to isolate the neural regions that are associated with stuttering. A model of the neural basis of speech production was proposed by Jurgens. This is a box and arrow model of neural regions and structures involved in speech production. It provides information on the sequence i! n which particular regions participate in different speech tasks. It also helps to focus research in areas that are inactive or overactive in people with developmental stuttering. This model was used to reanalyze the findings used in this study. An overview of the San Antonio studies was discussed. In this study neural regions were isolated and functionally associated with stuttering. The first study included ten adult male stutterers and ten matched controls. The purpose of this study was to assess the neural region activations by stutterers and controls during oral reading. In the second study a comparison was done to find the differences between the neural activations of stutterers, late recovered stutterers, and the normally fluent controls. The main purpose was to study the fully recovered developmental stutterers as a way to create a neurophysiological measure of recovery and treatment outcome. A third study dealt with identifying neural regions that distinguish between temporary and sustained improvements in fluency by people who stutter. The main goal was to distinguish between improvements that were temporary and those that were maintained. The final study in the San Antonio studies was an across-study analysis which made comparisons of different studies in order to identify regions and structures that were active or inactive. This was done to test the validity of the Jurgens Model and to isolate the regions that are associated with stuttering. The results of this study conclude that the Jurgens Model is a strong predictor of neural regions for developmental stuttering.
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Ingham, R.J., Kilgo, M., Ingham, J.C., Moglia, R., Belknap, H. & Sanchez, T. (2001). Evaluation of a stuttering treatment based on reduction of short phonation intervals. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 1229-1244.

This study evaluated the efficiency of a treatment for stuttering named Modifying Phonation Intervals (MPI). Through a training process, stutterers learn how to reduce the frequency of short phonation intervals during connected speech in all speaking situations. The MPI is a computer based program which involves pretreatment, establishment, transfer, and maintenance phases. The study subjects, five men, ages 18-28, were able to choose when therapy took place and the duration of therapy sessions as well as the out of clinic tasks. They were evaluated three times during each phase for %SS (percent of syllables stuttered), SFSPM (stutter-free syllables per minute), and Na (speech naturalness rating). Results of the therapy were a decreased %SS and an increased SFSPM and Na which were consistent for all subjects. When tested 12 months post treatment, all subjects had maintained their levels of fluency. Evaluation results of this study indicate the MPI could be used independently or in conjunction with other treatment strategies. Further investigative research using a larger population is indicated to prove the reliability and validity of this treatment.
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Ingham, R. J. (1993). Current status of stuttering and behavior modification -II. Principal issues and practices in stuttering therapy. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 57-79.

The purpose of the article is to determine why there has been a decline in the behavior-therapy research in recent years. This is achieved by focusing on the emergent issues in the areas as follows: treatment for children, stuttering measurement, neurophysiological perspective, treatment issues, generalization and maintenance, and assessment and evaluation. Ingham believes behavior therapy influenced more individuals to question stuttering therapy and therapy problems. He proposes the current decline in therapy research may be due to the conflicts between current research and previous stuttering therapies.
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Ingham, R.J. (1993). Stuttering treatment efficacy: Paradigm dependent or independent. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 133-149.

In this article the author points out that over the past decade stuttering treatment efficacy evaluation has been largely influenced by a model designed to assess the interaction between environmental factors and variability in stuttering frequency. The model outlined in this article blends treatment process and outcome evaluation and may or may not be paradigm dependent. The author explains this model thoroughly and discusses whether the model does depend on paradigm-based concepts of stuttering.
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Ingham, R. (1997). Valid distinctions between findings obtained from single-subject and group studies of stuttering: Some reflections on Kalinowski et al.(1995). JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 51-56.

This article argues whether data obtained in a single-subject design study of people who stutter gives information that is markedly different from information obtained in a group study of people who stutter. The author is of the opinion that the differences between the two approaches and what they can show about behavior may be substantial. This is in opposition to a recent article by Kalinowski et. al. (1995).
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Ingham,R G., & Cordes, AK. (1992). Interclinic differences in stuttering-event counts. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS,17,171- 176.

This study was designed to determine if there are differences in identifying stuttering events across research centers as well as among groups of judges. The results of this study indicate that counting of stuttering events does differ across research centers as well as among groups.
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Ingham, R. & Cordes, A. (1997). Identifying the Authoritative Judgments of Stuttering: Comparisons of Self-Judgments and Observer Judgments. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 40, 581-594.

The purpose of this study was to compare stuttering judgments from 15 adults who stutter, judging their own speech; the same adults who stutter, judging each other's speech; and a panel of 10 authorities on stuttering research and treatment. The study included three separate but interdependent experiments including the Concurrent Judgments Experiment, the Stability Experiment, and the Multispeaker Experiment. Five adults who stuttered since childhood were used for the Concurrent Judgments Experiment. The original five adults and an additional 10 adults who stuttered that served as both speakers and judges participated in the Stability Experiment. The Multispeaker Experiment was made up of the 15 adults from the previous experiment plus a group of 10 researchers and clinic directors. Results indicate substantial differences in stuttering judgments across speakers, judges, and judgment conditions. In conclusion, there are marked differences between the judgments of stuttering made by speakers while they are talking and the judgments made after the fact by the speaker or observer.
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Ingham, R. & Cordes, A. (1998). Treatment Decisions for Young Children Who Stutter: Further Concerns and Complexities. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH- LANGUAGE, 7, 3, 10-18

Study was done to find if interval-based training could improve judgement by individuals in assessing a stuttering event. Study consisted of 20 university students (20-35 years) who participated in three assessment sessions and one training session. It was found that judges of stuttering could be trained to provide judgment of spontaneous speech in a more accurate and reliable way.
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Ingham, R.J., Cordes, A.K., & Finn, P. (1993). Time-interval measurement of stuttering: Systematic replication of Ingham, Cordes and Gow (1993). JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 36, 1168-1176.

This study repeated Ingham, Cordes, and Gow's 1993 study, in an effort to expand their results of time-interval judgments of stuttering. Thirty four grad and undergrad students served as judges. Each was required to decide if each of the 143 intervals of speech was or was not perceived to contain stuttering. Interjudge agreement was 80% and intrajudge reliability was 88.4% These results were fairly consistent with the previous study. The present study found little difference between audiovisual and audio only conditions, experience vs. inexperienced student judges, or significant differences across two different university research settings.
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Ingham, R. J., Cordes, A. K., Ingham, J. C., & Gow, M. L. (1995). Identifying the onset and offset of stuttering events. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38 (2). 315-326.

The onset and offset of individual stuttering events produced in the spontaneous speech of chronic stutterers is analyzed by four experienced stuttering researchers. The researchers view each speaker on videodisk during which time they attempt to locate the aspects of stuttering previously mentioned. The reliability and validity of this study is challenged, due to interjudge disagreement.
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Ingham, R. J., Moglia, R.A., Frank, P., Ingham, J. C., & Cordes, A. K. (1997). Experimental investigation of frequency-altered auditory feedback on the speech of adults who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 40, 361-372.

This study entailed a series of single-subject experiments evaluating the effects of frequency-altered auditory feedback (FAF) on the speech performance of four adult males who stutter. In the past, FAF has been reported to reduce stuttering frequency, and have comparable or superior results to DAF, continuous masking, and voice-actuated masking. The purpose was to determine within- subject effects of two different types (one octave above and one octave below) of FAF on stuttering, speech rate, and speech quality during reading and spontaneous speech. Results indicated that the effects of FAF are not consistent across all persons who stutter, over extended periods of speech, or between oral reading and spontaneous speech. Clinical implications were discussed.
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Ingham, RJ.; Siegel, GM. (1999). Review of Stuttering: A Short History of a Curious Disorder, by Marcel Wingate. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 24: 1, 77-83.

Ingham and Siegel state their opinions of Marcel Wingate's Stuttering; A History of a Curious Disorder. They start out by describing Wingate's background and accomplishments in the field of stuttering. Then they point out the good and bad portions of the book, and how it could have been made better.
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Ingham, R.J., Warner, A., Byrd, A., & Cotton, J. (2006). Speech effort measurement and stuttering: Investigating the chorus reading effect. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 49, 660-670.

The purpose of this study was to research the effect of chorus reading on the effort used in speech production. A secondary purpose was to investigate the effect of a speech effort measurement highlighting strategy. Twelve adults who stutter persistently (PS) and twelve adult controls participated in the ABA experimental study. Participants read a passage for one minute to obtain a base rate, and then read in unison with a recording for one minute. The process was repeated until three base rates and two choral readings were completed. After each reading the individuals would rate themselves on the amount of effort used on a nine-point scale, and trained judges would rate them on stuttering frequency, rate, and naturalness of speech. Chorus reading led to more fluent and natural sounding speech for PS, and they reported less effort. The highlighting strategy, reminding participants of their previous effort ratings, had no significant difference on future readings.
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Jackson, E. (2006). A stutterer's perspective: a stutterer's challenge. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY AND RESEARCH, 1, 114-118. Retrieved from http://www.journalofstuttering.com/ListofArticles.html

Many people who stutter show avoidance behaviors or are embarrassed because of their stuttering. This article discusses Eric Jackson's experience with coping strategies such as advertising stuttering and voluntary stuttering. Learning to manage psychological and emotional reactions to stuttering is also a large piece of managing one's disfluencies. Maintaining a positive outlook on stuttering, and its challenges can be reinforced by joining support groups. These groups offer a connection and similar experiences with other people who stutter.
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Jaencke, L. (1994). Variability and duration of voice onset time and phonation in stuttering and adults. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 19 (1), 21-38.

Eighteen male stutterers and sixteen male nonstutterers who were matched according to age and social status were required to speak test words ( /kakakas/ /tatatas/, and /papapas/) with stress on the middle syllable at two different speech rates. Duration of phonation, voice onset time, and coefficients of variation were computed and analyzed. It was shown that stutterers produced, even during nonstuttering periods under repetitive articulation, an enhanced variation of voice onset time and an increased variability of the duration of phonation associated with the production of the first syllable. Furthermore, this experiment did not confirm the often reported differences in voice onset time and vowel duration between stutterers and nonstutterers (p. 21).
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Jancke, L., Bauer, A., Kaiser, P., & Kalveram, K. (1997). Timing and Stiffness in Speech Motor Control of Stuttering and Nonstuttering Adults. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 309-321.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there is a difference between the jaw movements of stutterers and nonstutterers when producing a nonsense word across various trials. Twelve stutterers and 12 nonstutterers were asked to say the word /papapas/, stressing either the first or second syllable over three speech rates. Results show that jaw kinematics vary with speech rate and stress pattern. Durations of total jaw movement decreased with an increase in the rate of speech. Peak velocities were found to be slower for stressed syllables than for unstressed syllables. Overall, stutterers and nonstutterers exhibited the same strategies for jaw movements of accented and unaccented syllables. However, stutterers were shown to use motor compensations such as lengthened jaw opening and closing and reduced peak velocities to obtain fluent speech.
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Jankelowitz, D.L., and Bortz, M.A. (1996). The interaction of bilingualism and stuttering in an adult. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS,29, 223-234.

Correlation between stuttering and bilingualism was investigated in one bilingual adult . Language proficiency tests and cloze were used to assess the English and Afrikaans linguistic ability. Practical clinic information was obtained in the assessment of disfluency in a bilingual person who stutters when examining adaptation, anticipation and consistency. Information was given on stuttering as well as bilingualism. Distribution, frequency and nature of disfluency were all influenced by language ability. For the individual the predominant language was more proficient and less stuttered in.
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Janssen, P., Kloth, S., Kraaimaat, F., & Brutten, G. J. (1996). Genetic factors in stuttering: A replication of Ambrose, Yairi, and Cox's (1993) study with adult probands. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21(2), 105-108.

This study was a replication of the Ambrose, Yairi, and Cox's study (preschool probands) from 1993. However, this study investigated adult probands, gender, and incidence among relatives. Self report questionnaires were obtained from 106 adult stutterers (77 males, 29 females) which referenced first, second, and third degree relatives. Results revealed no evidence that relatives of females probands are more likely to stutter than male probands. Thus, genetic transmission of stuttering in questioned.
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Johannsen, H.S. & Victor, C. (1986). Visual information processing in the left and right hemispheres during unilateral tachistoscopic stimulation of stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 285-291.

Using tachistoscopic stimuli, this study attempts to determine whether or not there are differences in brain dominance for language between people who stutter and people who do not stutter. The subjects were asked to name the number and then a nonsense syllable presented to them on different sides of the number. Subjects who recognized more syllables on the right side of the number were known as right lateralized while those who recognized more syllables on the left side were known as right lateralized. The results show that over twice as many people who stutter had dominance in the right hemisphere of the brain.
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Johnson, G. F. (1987). A clinical study of Porky Pig cartoons. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 235- 238.

Porky Pig has been stuttering since 1935. His often bizarre stuttering has not stopped him from being successful in a variety of occupations. An analysis of 37 of his cartoons yields a rate of stuttering on approximately 23% of his spoken words. The cartoons may be useful in therapy with children who stutter by having them analyze behaviors and situations or having them explain to Porky Pig how to not stutter.
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Johnson, G. (1987). Ten commandments for long-term maintenance of acceptable self- help skills for persons who are hard-core stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 9-18.

This article introduced and explained in detail the ten commandments for long- term maintenance skills for persons who consider themselves to be hard-core stutterers. The report is directed towards persons who stutter who usually accomplish a therapy program. The article is designed to be a "booster" for any person who stutters who feels they need some additional encouragement or reminders/refreshers. The ten commandments suggested by the author are explained in detail and are extremely well written to be understood and applied by a person who stutters.
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Jones, M., Gebski, V., Onslow, M., & Packman, A. (2001). Design of randomized control trials: Principles and methods applied to a treatment for early stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26, 247-267.

Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) are considered to be the most sound method of testing efficacy of treatment in medical research and other areas, such as psychology. This paper is a tutorial covering the principles and methods of RCTs: the trial protocol, choice of control treatment, eligibility criteria, random allocation, outcomes and hypotheses, sample size, subject recruitment, analysis by intention to treat, interim analysis, stopping rules, safety data monitoring/trial management, and study documentation. Each principle is covered in-depth with reference to previous RCTs on Phase I and Phase II of the Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention, and a current RCT of Phase III. Because of the superiority of RCTs, they often lead to change in clinical practice.
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Jones, M., Gebski, V., Onslow, M., & Packman, A. (2002). Statistical power in stuttering research: A tutorial. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 45, 243-255.

This article discusses the importance of reporting findings when there is no clinically significant difference, otherwise known as null findings. The article states that in regards to stuttering research, the knowledge of null findings would provide useful information for understanding the nature and causes of the condition. The article discusses the power and errors in statistical inference. It also looks at the parameters that influence power such as the nature of the dependent variable, effect size, and population variability. The article also includes demonstrations of how it is calculated.
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Jones, M., Onslow, M., Harrison, E., & Packman, A. (2000). Treating stuttering in young children: predicting treatment time in the Lidcombe Program. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 43, 1440-1450.

This study focuses on the concept that many children may recover from stuttering without formal treatment during the first year of onset. This report presents data pertinent to this issue for 261 preschool-age children who received the Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention. For children who were treated successfully, logistical regression analyses were used to determine whether age, gender, period from onset to treatment, and stuttering severity related systematically to the time required for treatment. The present data confirmed previous reports that a median of 11 clinic visits were required to achieve zero or near zero stuttering with the Lidcombe Program. Results were also consistent with a preliminary report of 14 children showing a significant relation between stuttering severity and the time needed for the treatment. The present findings are also discussed in relation to natural recovery to stuttering.
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Jones, M., Onslow, M., Packman, A., & Gebski, V. (2006). Guidelines for statistical analysis of percentage of syllables stuttered data. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 49, 867-878.

Percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) is the most widely used method to count stuttering in research studies. The goal of the study was to critique the existing standard analytical techniques to determine the most appropriate way to analyze the %SS. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was found to be a reliable technique in the majority of the studies. The study described two examples where ANOVA was inappropriate, small sample size (<20) or in studies with significant disparities between sample sizes and variances of the groups.
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Jones, M., Onslow, M., Packman, A., Williams, S., Ormond, T., Schwarz, I., & Gebski V, (2005). Randomized controlled trial of the Lidcombe programme of early stuttering interventions. BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL. 24, 331:659

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Lidcombe program of early stuttering intervention. This study included 54 participants from two different speech clinics in New Zealand and were randomly assigned to either the Lidcombe program or a control group. The children were between the ages of three and six and were required to have a frequency of stuttering on at least 2% of syllables. The results indicated that the control group reduced their stuttering an average of 43% compared to an average of 77% in the treatment group. These results provide evidence that the Lidcombe program is an effective treatment for stuttering in children.
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Joukov, S. (2004). Trial software for frequency shifted and delayed auditory feedback. STAMMERING RESEARCH, 1, 316-325. URL: http://www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk/Vol1-Issue3.pdf

This article discusses different fluency products that Stammering Research has explored. The DAF/FAF Assistant runs on most Windows programs and requires a head set and microphone. Once installed, the device can be adjusted for playback and recording in the Volume Control Properties panel of a computer. Once this is set up, the DAF/FAF Assistant can be used during basic reading exercises and increasingly complex speaking situations as the individual becomes more comfortable with the device. The Pocket DAF/FAF Assistant is also available. Like the DAF/FAF Assistant, the Pocket version also requires headphones and a microphone. Additionally, this program allows the use of iPAQ cell phone headsets that have Bluetooth technology. This program is used in the same way as the DAF/FAF Assistant. Some research has shown that the short delays provided by these products immediately reduces stuttering by a significant degree.
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Kaderavek, J. N., Laux, J. M., & Mills, N. H. (2004). A counseling training module for students in speech-language pathology training programs. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 31, 153-161.

The purpose of this article was to describe a training program designed to train counseling skills to speech-language pathology graduate students. Ten first-year female graduate students participated in the study. The counseling training procedure taught skills in three areas including: Therapeutic Relationship/Attending Behaviors; Open Versus Closed Questions/Focusing on Feelings; and Paraphrasing and Summarizing Feelings. The results indicated there was a significant difference in the pre and post counseling skills of the graduate students.
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Kalveram, KT., Natke, U., Pietrowsky, R., Sandrieser, P., & Van Ark, M. (2004). Linguistic stress, within-word position, and grammatical class in relation to early childhood stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29. 109-122.

This study investigates if the stress effect is present in preschool children who stutter. Areas studies included, within-word position, grammatical class and stress, stuttering frequency, and stuttering frequency with respect to disfluency type. Results concluded that there is a strong relationship between grammatical class and stress. Children stutter more often on function words than on content words thus there is a clear word-initial stress effect seen in children. Overall, it was stated that there is a stress effect not only for adults and adolescents but also for preschool children. This study concludes that stress effect is related to its origin rather than being a consequence of stuttering.
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Kalinowski, J., Armson, J., & Stuart, A. (1995). Effect of normal and fast articulatory rates on stuttering frequency. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 3, 293-302.

This study investigated the effect of increased articulatory rate on stuttering frequency in a sample of adult stutterers. The authors found no statistically significant difference in stuttering frequency between normal and fast speech rate conditions. A significant difference was noted for articulatory rate (in syllables per second). That is, there was no statistically significant change in stuttering frequency with an increase in articulatory rate. The authors discuss the findings, suggesting that increased articulatory rate does not determine stuttering frequency with the same consistency as does decreased articulatory rate.
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Kalinowski, J. S., Lerman, J. W., & Watt, J. (1987). A preliminary examination of the perceptions of self and others in stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12(5), 317-331.

This research study examines the views of stuttering and non-stuttering subjects regarding perception of self and perceptions of others. Each group filled out two scales that were two pages in length. A comparison of the two groups' responses found that people who stutter have similar perceptions of self as those indicated by the non-stuttering group. However, the ratings of perceptions of the opposite group were contrastive in nature. Non-stutterers had negative connotations of stutterers whereas people who stutter viewed non-stutterers in a more positive way.
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Kalinowski, J., Noble, S. Armson, J., & Stuart, A, (1994). Pretreatment and posttreatment speech naturalness ratings of adults with mild and severe stuttering. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 3(2), 61-66.

The purpose of this study was to compare the naturalness of pre- treatment stuttered speech to post-treatment fluent speech in people with both mild and sever stuttering. Sixty-four college students served as subjects and all completed the Precision Fluency Shaping Program during the course of the study. The researcher predicted that the subjects with mild stuttering would sound more natural after treatment and the subjects with severe stuttering would have fluent but unnatural sounding speech. All subjects who stuttered exhibited a reduction in stuttering frequency following treatment, however, all subjects were judged to have significantly less natural sounding speech. This study suggests that simply producing perceptually fluent speech may not be a sufficient end product of treatment, that the perceptual attributes of speech also needs to be addressed.
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Kalinowski, J., Stuart, A., & Armson, J. (1996). Perceptions of stutterers and nonstutterers during speaking and nonspeaking situations. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 2, 61- 67.

This study was an examination of how the general public views a hypothetical adult male stutterer and a nonstutterer in speaking situations versus nonspeaking situations. One hundred and eight respondents from a telephone survey who agreed to receive, complete, and return a questionnaire served as participants. Results indicated that a negative stereotype of stutterers was perceived whether people were asked to describe stutterers in speaking or in nonspeaking situations.
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Kalinowski, J., Stuart, A., & Armson, J. (1997). Response to Ingham: Seeking the truthfulness of stuttering research data. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 57-59.

This article argues points made in the Ingham (1997) article (this issue) regarding single-subject versus group designed studies of people who stutter. The authors still support that findings from both approaches combined can lead to a better understanding of stuttering.
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Kalinowski, J., Stuart, A., Wamsley, L., & Rastatter, MP. (1999). Effects of monitoring condition and frequency-altered feedback on stuttering frequency. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH, 42, 1347-1354.

This study engaged 8 people who stutter in oral reading situations using normal auditory feedback (NAF) and frequency altered feedback (FAF). The reading environment occurred with three monitoring levels: no monitoring, audiovisual monitoring and audiovisual monitoring with two people present. The occurrence of stuttering increased with the people present, when using the NAF. However, changing the monitoring situation did not affect the speech output of the readers while using the FAF. Frequency altered feedback significantly decreased the stuttering in all situations.
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Kamhi, A. G., (2003). Two paradoxes in stuttering treatment. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, (3), 187-196.

There are two inconsistencies that clinicians face when dealing with people who stutter. The listener paradox is the multiple ways that typical listeners and clinicians respond to stuttering. The communication paradox is the use of treatment procedures that may have negative consequences on communication. The author notes that often clinicians request that the person who stutters alter their speech, which affects communication. The goal of the author is to make clinicians aware of the two paradoxes and to integrate the information into their treatments.
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Kandi-Hanifi, K., & Howell, P. (1992). Syntactic analysis of the spontaneous speech of normally fluent and stuttering children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS,17, 151-170.

This study assessed the syntax of the spontaneous speech of children who stutter. The analysis was conducted on three age groups to establish developmental trends in syntax for children who stutter and fluent children. Analyses were made on the mean length of utterance, the frequency of usage of syntactic categories, and frequencies of stuttering. In general, the more complex the syntactic category, the higher the stuttering frequency. This relationship depended on age with the youngest children who stuttered exhibiting the most difficulty.
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Kamhi, A.G. (2003). Two paradoxes in stuttering treatment. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 187- 196.

The author comments on two inconsistencies for clinicians and treatments for people who stutter. The first one is called the listener paradox. Clinicians are taught to maintain eye contact with client during moment of stuttering. In reality, typical listeners respond with shifting eye gaze, a natural reflex, to speaker's shift in gaze or as a response to distracting stimulus associated with stuttering. Clinicians need to let clients know about this reflex and that the listener is not being insensitive. The second inconsistency is the communication paradox. The treatment strategies for stuttering, such as fluency shaping and voluntary stuttering, may elicit negative reactions from listeners due to the artificial speech it produces. The author concludes that clinicians need to be aware of these inconsistencies during therapy and make effective communication as a main focus during treatment.
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Karrass, J., Walden, T.A., Conture, E.G., Graham, C.G., Arnold, H.S., Hartfield, K.N., & Schwenk, K.A. (2006). Relation of emotional reactivity and regulation to childhood stuttering. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 39 (6), 402-423.

This article describes a study that was conducted to examine childhood stuttering versus typically developing, and its relation to emotional reactivity and regulation. 65 children who stutter (CWS) and 56 children who do not stutter (CWNS) met a certain set of criteria and participated in the study. Children were tested twice; once at home for speech/language skills and once at a laboratory for hearing screenings and further speech/language assessment. Parents were given a Behavior Style Questionnaire (BSQ), at the home visit that was specifically designed with three types of grouped questions. The questions focused on emotional regulation, emotional reactivity and attention regulation. Results indicated that preschool CWS, in stressful/intense situations, were more emotionally reactive than CWNS. It was also found that the ability to regulate emotions as well as control attention was more difficult for the CWS. These findings suggest that the reduced ability to regulate emotions and control attention along with the increased emotional reactivity, experienced by the CWS, limits their abilities to produce speech and language with normal fluency.
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Kelly, E. M. (1995). Parents as partners: Including mothers and fathers in the treatment of children who stutter. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 28, 93-105.

While restating the utility of including parents, this article also investigates the possible differences between the mother's and father's role in their child's stuttering therapy. Kelly discusses two sides to this issue. First, some studies reveal no significant differences between the mother's and father's influence on their child's fluency. However, other studies indicate differences, such as speaking rate and pragmatic style, can exist and affect the child's fluency. Kelly summarizes: with an increase in parental involvement, it would be advantageous to clinicians, family, and researchers to clearly outline the variables of the mother's and father's child interactions separately. This may prove to be an efficient approach to therapy for dysfluent children who are influenced differently by each parent.
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Kelly, E.M., & Conture, E.G., (1991). Speaking rates, response time latencies, and interrupting behaviors of young stutterers, nonstutterers, and their mothers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 1256-1265.

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of speaking rate, response time and latencies have to speech disfluencies in conversation between mothers and stuttering sons and nonstuttering sons and their mothers. No significant differences were found between the speaking rates of stutterers and nonstutterers, but the mothers of the nonstutterers had faster rate of speaking than either group of children. No significant differences in interruption in any child or mother groups, but most interruptions occurred when children were disfluent.
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Kelly, EM., & Conture, EG. (1998). Acoustic and perceptual correlates of adult stutterers' typical and imitated stutterings. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 233-252.

This study was used to determine if there are any externally observable, objective differences between stutterers' self-reported controlled stutterings versus uncontrolled stutterings. The results indicate that the stutterers were generally more certain of their perceptual judgments of initiated stutterings when compared to uncontrolled stutterings. There were no significant differences between adult stutterers' perceived typical and imitated stuttering.
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Kelly, E.M., Martin, J.S., Baker, K.E., Rivera, N.I., Bishop, J.E., Krizizke, C.B., Stettler, D.S., & Stealy, J.M. (1997). Academic and clinical preparation and practices of school speech-language pathologists with people who stutter. LANGUAGE, SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 28(3), 195-212.

A survey was sent out to 157 Indiana School SLP's to determine the adequacy of their education and training in stuttering. Results indicate insufficient academic and clinical preparation. With the recent action taken by ASHA SID 4 (Fluency Disorders Special Interest Division), to devise a continuum of educational and clinical opportunities, future SLP's may be better prepared and feel more confident to meet the needs of people who stutter.
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Kelly, EM., Smith, A., & Goffmann, L. (1995). Orofacial muscle activity of children who stutter: A preliminary study. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38, 1025-1036.

This study examined the relations between stuttering development and the maturation of speech motor processes. The subjects of this study consisted of nine children who stutter and their age-sex matched normally fluent peers. Electomyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the orofacial muscles of the subjects during conversational speech. The preliminary results from this study suggest that the production of stuttering may be responsible for tremorlike oscillations in the orofacial muscle of children who stutter.
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Kiefte, M., & Armson, J. (2008). Dissecting choral speech: properties of the accompanist critical to stuttering reduction. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 41, 33-48

Researchers investigated the consequences of using choral speech and altered auditory feedback (AAF) for people who stutter. The study included seventeen participants. Researchers altered various aspects of the choral speech components. Findings indicated that both choral speech and AAF led to a decrease in stuttering frequency. However, research revealed that AAF produced less significant reductions in stuttering behaviors when compared to choral speech. These findings were consistent with findings uncovered in previous research.
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Killin, H., McCaul, A., & Murdoch, B. E., (1989). A kinematic analysis of respiratory function in a group of stutterers pre-and post- treatment. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 5, 323-350.

This study looked at the respiratory abilities of seven stutterers in a variety of speech tasks prior to treatment, following treatment, and 1-month post treatment. They used kinematic analysis by means of measurement. The analysis studied the direct relationship between volume displacement of the lungs and displacement of the chest wall. Thus, changes in lung volume during breathing can be measured kinematically through combined displacements of the rib cage and abdominal walls. Movements of the chest wall during both steady speech tasks and conversation speech were found to alter following treatment. The changes in respiratory function correlated with the improvement of disfluencies. The authors stated the potential of a kinematic techniques with traditional stuttering therapy procedures can be effective for treatment and beneficial in delaying relapse of stuttering following treatment.
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Kinger, H., (1987). Effects of pseudostuttering on normal speakers' self-ratings of beauty. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 20(4), 353-58.

This study evaluated the feelings of undergraduate and graduate students before and after a pseudostuttering experience. Areas evaluated include self evaluations of outer and inner beauty before and after a pseudostuttering experience. Results varied somewhat between undergraduate and graduate students. However, overall, results did indicate that the pseudostuttering experience can lower self-image, giving the normal speaker empathy for the person who stutters.
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Kiser, A.M., Lass, N.J., Lockhart, P., Mussa A.M., Pannbacker, M., Ruscello, D.M., & Schmidt, J.F. (1994). School administrators perceptions of people who stutter. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 25, 90-93.

A questionnaire was developed and distributed to school administrators in Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, and West Virginia. Respondents were required to lost adjectives to describe male and female children and adults who stutter. Of the 197 adjectives listed by respondents, 143 were negative, 39 were positive, and 15 were neutral. The adjectives shy, nervous and quiet were the most frequently reported. Such a large number of negative personality traits may have an adverse effect on the education of students who stutter. The researchers concluded that stuttering needs to be addressed in pre-service coursework and continuing education programs to heighten awareness and reduce negative stereotypes.
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Klein, J., Cervini, M., & Clemenzi, K. (2006). When do I get to shut the door? The pseudostuttering experiences of two undergraduate students. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY, AND RESEARCH, 1, 36-41. Retrieved from http://www.journalofstuttering.com/ListofArticles.html

Pseudostuttering assignments have become common in college fluency classes, because it is thought that they help future clinicians understand what stuttering is, how to do it, and feelings associated with it before working with clients who stutter. This article discussed the experiences of two undergraduate students. The students were assigned to stutter in various situations such as when speaking on the phone, in a restaurant, at home, etc. and then write about their experiences. The two undergraduate students' encountered quite opposite experiences. One experienced feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and nervousness based on her own reaction to her stuttering and not the reaction of the person with whom she was talking. The other student felt angered and guilty based on the reactions she received from others. Even though the two experiences were opposite, they both still reflected real feelings of what it is like to be a person who stutters.
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Klein, J., & Hood, S. B. (2004). The impact of stuttering on employment opportunities and job performance. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 255-273

In this article 232 people who stutter took a 17 item survey containing questions that focused on thoughts and feelings about how stuttering affects their job performance and employability. The results show that 70% of the participants see stuttering as an interfering factor in job attainment and promotion while 36% indicated that stuttering interferes with their work performance. Of the individuals surveyed, more men and minorities viewing stuttering as a handicap than did women and Caucasians.
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Kleinow, J. & Smith, A. (2000). Influences of length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor stability of the fluent speech of adults who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 43(2), 548-559.

This study examines the stability of the lower lip during phrases varying in length and complexity. It looks at fluent adult speakers and the fluent speech of adults who stutter. The researchers used a measure that looks at the stability of movements over repeated trials called the spatiotemporal index (STI). There were 16 subjects included in the experiment, 8 speakers who stutter and 8 fluent speakers. The subjects were asked to say a baseline phrase alone, and then other utterances that contained the baseline phrase. Results showed that stutterers had less motor stability than non-stutterers, and the complexity of the utterance seemed to cause more instability. Length didn't have an effect on either group. The researchers point out the need for more research and better ways to separate length and complexity.
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Klompas, M., & Ross, E. (2004). Life experiences of people who stutter, and the perceived impact of stuttering on quality of life: personal accounts of South African individuals. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 275-305.

This study included 16 South African adults who stutter with an age range of 20 to 59 years of age. The participants were interviewed and asked questions pertaining to the affects of stuttering on; education, social life, employment, speech therapy, family and marital life, identity, and beliefs and emotional issues. Of the 16 participants 62% believed that stuttering had a negative impact of their academic performance, 56% viewed stuttering as having a negative impact on their social life, 25% reported factoring in stuttering when they chose there jobs, almost 95% of the participants have had speech therapy at some point in their life with eighty seven percent of those reporting speech therapy as non- helpful. Fifty six percent of the participants said that stuttering did not affect the relationship with their parents. Most of the participants interviewed believed that stuttering had affected their self-esteem and self image.
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Kloth, S., Jansen, P., Kraaimaat, F., & Bruten, G. (1998). Child and Mother Variables in the Development of Stuttering Among High-Risk Children: A Longitudinal Study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 4, 217-230.

The article was a study done to evaluate the development of articulation and language in children who have a parental history of stuttering and have begun to stutter and also in terms of their mother's communicative styles and speaking behaviors. Data collection involved obtaining 10 minute speech samples from mother-child interaction from 30 minute play time sessions. Language skills were assessed using the Reynell, PPVT, and MLU. Articulation skills were assessed using an acoustical temporal analysis to find a syllable rate per second. The mothers communicative style was assessed by using an interaction-analysis developed by the authors. Speaking behaviors for mothers were measured with the same procedure. Results showed that the children who stuttered in the study had increased articulation rate and increased receptive and expressive skills one year after initial testing. Mothers noted an increased language complexity as measured by MLU.
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Kloth, S. A. M., Janssen, P., Kraaimaat, F. W., & Brutten, G. J. (1995). Speech-motor and linguistic skills of young stutterers prior to onset. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(2), 157-170.

This article presents the one year results of a 3-year longitudinal study of 93 preschool children. At initial testing, all 93 two year old subjects were not dysfluent. The study objectives included gaining knowledge about the relation between genetic, physiologic, linguistic, and environmental factors relating to the onset and development among at-risk children (1 or more parents stutter). Test procedures included a parental disfluency questionnaire, the Reynell Language Development Scale, PPVT, and 10 minutes of spontaneous speech. Results found at the one year follow-up that 26 children (16 boys, 10 girls) were considered stutterers by their parents. There were no significant differences between stutterers and nonstutterers in both receptive and expressive language. Notably, the pre-onset articulation rate of the 26 dysfluent children was significantly faster than the nonstuttering subjects (3.7, 3.45 syll/sec. respectively). The rate of the at-risk nonstutterers was notably slower than non-risk age equivalents in a study by Walker (1992). The authors suggest that this relatively slow speaking rate served as a protective factor against a fluency breakdown.
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Kloth, S. A. M., Janssen, P., Kraaimaat, F. W., & Brutten, G. J. (1995). Speech, motor and linguistic skills of young stutterers prior to onset. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20 (2), 157-170.

In this prospective study, 93 children with a parental history of stuttering were the subjects. Initially, all subjects were viewed as nonstutterers, but one year later, 26 were regarded as stutterers. It was noted that prior to the onset of stuttering these children did not differ from the others, but their rate of articulation was significantly faster. Therefore, it was concluded that the children who stuttered did not differ in their expressive or receptive language abilities, but that a slower rate served as a buffer against fluency breakdowns.
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Kraaimaat, F., Janssen, P., Brutten, GJ. (1988). The relationship between stutterers' cognitive and autonomic anxiety and therapy outcome. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 107-113.

This study looked at the relationship between anxiety and the outcome of therapy for people who stutter. Thirty-three male stutterers aged 13-16 were chosen as subjects for this study. The subjects were all diagnosed as stutterers. Each subject was videotaped prior to therapy and then again 7 months after the termination of therapy as they read aloud a 384-syllable passage. The tapes were used to determine the frequency of 1. fast repetitions of sounds, syllables, or one-syllable words, 2. Silent or oral prolongation's, and 3. Slow repetitions or interjections of a sound, syllable, word, or phrase. Anxiety was autonomically assessed using measures of heart rate and skin conductance. Anxiety was also cognitively assessed using the emotional reactions portion of the speech situations checklist and self-rating scales. Therapy took place over 70 hours for four consecutive weeks. Ten booster sessions were then held bimonthly. Therapy was given in groups of twelve and involved training in relaxation and regulated breathing, desensitization of speech-associated anxiety, cognitive restructuring, and self-control. The results indicated that improvement in anxiety levels was evident despite the fact that normal fluency was not achieved. However, subjects of this study did show fewer fluency failures following therapy than in the pretreatment period.
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Kraaimaat, FW., Vanryckeghem, M., & VanDam-Baggen, R. (2002). Stuttering and social anxiety. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 319-331.

The topic researched in this article was the difference of emotional tension in social situations with people who stutter compared to people who do not stutter. The subjects consisted of 89 adults ranging from 18 to 50 years of age who stuttered, and 131 adults who did not stutter. The subjects used a 5 point scale to self-evaluate discomfort levels and frequency of occurrences in various social situations. Both groups showed emotional tension in social situations, but the group of people who stuttered showed significantly higher amounts. These findings suggest that speech therapy should include strategies to help reduce anxiety for people who stutter.
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Kramer, M.B., Green, D., & Guitar, B., (1987). A comparison of stutterers and nonstutterers on masking level differences and synthetic sentence identification tasks. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 20(5), 379-90.

This study was conducted to determine the performance differences between stutterers and nonstutterers on 2 central auditory processing tasks. The 2 tasks the Synthetic Sentence Identification with Ipsilateral Competing Message (SSI-ICM) and Masking Level Difference (MLD) were administered to 10 subjects. There were 8 males and 2 females in each group. The mean age of the participants was 32.6. Results indicated that there was no significant difference between stutterers and nonstutterers on the SSI-ICM, but stutterers did perform poorer on the MLD.
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Krishnakanth, M., Haridas, P. V., & Muralidharan, K. (2008). Clozapine-induced stuttering: a case series. PRIMARY CARE COMPANION JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY. 10(4), 333-334.

This article provides the cases of 3 patients between the ages of 23-35 who had developed stuttering while taking clozapine. The patients involved in this study developed stuttering at 200-250 mg/day of clozapine. Past research has shown stuttering to be associated with a higher dose of clozapine, between 400-700 mg/day. When decreasing the dose of clozapine in one of the patients, his stuttering was resolved. This suggests that stuttering is related to the dose of clozapine taken.
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Kumar, A. & Balan, S. (2007) Fluoxetine for persistent developmental stuttering. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NEUROPHARMACOLOGY. 30(1), 58-59.

This article describes the definitions of stuttering, developmental stuttering, and persistent developmental stuttering. It discusses a case of a 22-year-old male who had persistent developmental stuttering the positive affects that fluoxetine had on his stuttering. In this article the affects that fluoxetine can have on persistent developmental stuttering are discussed.
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Kuniszyk-Jozkowiak, W. (1995). The statistical analysis of speech envelopes in stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(1). 11-24.

This article is a portion of a research project which attempts to develop an objective fluency evaluation method. Acoustic analysis is used to evaluate utterances, distinguishing between fluent and dysfluent speech. Results indicate that differences in speech envelopes of stutterers and non-stutterers may be used to analyze degrees of speech non-fluency, proving the hypothesis which states that dysfluency results from a dys-synchronization, a disorder of timing, between laryngeal function and vocalizing activities.
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Kuster, J.M. (2008, October 14). International Stuttering Awareness Day is Oct. 22. THE ASHA LEADER, Vol. 13, No. 14, p. 18

The purpose of this article was to highlight the 2008 International Stuttering Awareness Day (ISAD) by briefly describing its history, its present success, and its future in the lives of people who stutter (PWS) and the professionals working with them. This article also explains the ISAD online conferences, which were launched ten years ago, when the ISAD was first recognized. The conferences are live worldwide once a year in October for three weeks. Participants in the conferences post articles, stories, therapy ideas, and tips or ideas. While the conference is live, readers can post questions or comments to the author(s) of the material. The ISAD online conferences are available to PWS, professionals, family members, students, or to anyone who is interested in learning more about stuttering.
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last modified November 28, 2008