Ladoucheur, R., & Saint-Laurent, L. (1986). Stuttering: A multidimensional treatment and evaluation package. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 93-103.

The treatment goals of this study were to eliminate behavioral, emotional, and cognitive difficulties that are associated with stuttering. Eight people who stutter and eight people who do not stutter were involved in this treatment study. Subjects were treated in a group setting with a total of four people in each group. They met twice each week for two-hour sessions. Treatment focused on five sessions related to regulated breathing, two sessions dealing with desensitization, and one session that focused on structuring cognitive thinking to be more positive. Results indicated no significant changes between different speech acts, such as, talking on the telephone, speaking to someone in person, or public speaking. There were significant changes in the subjects' amount of stuttered syllables. Due to treatment stuttering was reduced and the reduction in stuttering was maintained in follow up studies.
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Langevin, M., & Boberg, E. (1996). Results of intensive stuttering therapy with adults who clutter and stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21 (3/4), 315-327.

Criteria for evaluating the relative importance of cluttering and stuttering symptoms appears to be a clinically useful tool in identifying persons who clutter and stutter. This study presents such criteria. Results of the study indicate a positive response of cluttering-stuttering subjects to therapy, but greater gains may have been made with additional therapy time and expanded therapy goals. Pretreatment and posttreatment measures of articulatory rate as a more sensitive measure of change for cluttering-stuttering clients is also indicated.
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Langevin, M., Huinck, W.J., Kully, D., Peters, H.F.M., Lomheim, H., & Tellers, M. (2006). A cross-cultural, long-term outcome evaluation of the ISTAR comprehensive stuttering program across Dutch and Canadian adults who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31(4), 229-256.

The primary purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ISTAR Comprehensive Stuttering Program (CSP) at 2 years post-treatment within and across client groups from the Netherlands and Canada and to evaluate the global treatment effect across the groups. The secondary purpose was to examine any observed differences and to consider whether they may be due to cultural, methodological, or other factors. Participants in this study were (a) 25 clients who were treated with the CSP in the Netherlands, and (b) 16 clients treated with the CSP in Canada. The CSP evaluated in this study was a 3-week intensive group therapy program for adults who received 90 hours of therapy (6 hours per day). The program consisted of three phases which included: acquisition of fluency and cognitive behavioral skills (weeks 1&2), transfer (week 3), and maintenance (continued practice of skills in the months and years following the 3-week intensive program). It was found that the 2 year post-treatment outcomes of the CSP in the Netherlands were positive and similar to those of the Canadian Group. Results indicated that there were no differences across the cultures in outcomes which were measured by the following: stuttering frequency, speech related attitudes, confidence, and perceptions of struggle, avoidance, and expectancy to stutter. Two differences were noted between the groups in speech rate and perception of self. It was reported that the CSP appeared to be similarly effective in both cultures.
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Langevin, M., Kleitman, S., Packman, A., & Onslow, M. (2008). The peer attitudes toward children who stutter (PATCS) scale: an evaluation of validity, reliability and the negativity of attitudes. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, Sep: 25, 1-17

This article analyzed the relationship of the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale through an evaluation of validity, reliability, and the negativity of attitudes. The study surveyed third through sixth grade students from a variety of schools to determine attitudes toward children who stutter (CWS). A confirmation factor analysis (CFA) was performed to determine the validity and reliability of the PATCS scale. The article included results that support the utilization of the PATCS scale to determine the attitudes of peers toward children who stutter, and indicates the need for school-based education about stuttering, similarities and differences among children who do and do not stutter, and making personal choices about children who stutter.
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Langevin, M. & Kully, D. (2003). Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: III. Evidence- based practice in a clinical setting. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 219-236.

This article addresses the probability that evidence-based practice can be carried out in the clinical setting. The article went through the process of collecting data on treatment programs for teens, adults, and school-age children. Data was collected pre-treatment, post-treatment, and follow-up. Methods of data collection were percentage syllable stuttered, syllable spoken per minute, naturalness ratings, severity ratings, and attitude and perception inventories. The process of evaluation data for clinical and research purpose was shown through a case example. The authors conclude by saying they believe that evidence-based practice can be carried out daily in most clinical settings, with some needing assistance from researchers.
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Langlois, A., & Long, S.H. (1988). A model for teaching parents to facilitate fluent speech. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 163- 172.

The paper reports an indirect treatment for incipient stuttering focusing on parental behavior. Rate, turn taking and utterance types of the parent's conversational speech were analyzed. A teaching program introduced mirroring, self-talk, parallel talk, reflecting, expansion and speech pattern modification techniques.
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LaSalle, L. R. (1995) Dysfluency clusters of children who stutter: Relation of stutterings to self-repairs. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38(5). 965-977.

Speech dysfluency clusters in sixty 3 to 6 year-old children, half of whom stutter, is studied resulting in the following information: children who stutter exhibited significantly more "stuttering- stuttering," as well as "stuttering-repair" of clusters, while children who are considered nonstutterers were less likely to stutter and repair their disfluencies with stutters.
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LaSalle, RL., & Conture, EG. (1995). Disfluency clusters of children who stutter: Relation of stutterings to self-repairs. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38, 965-977.

The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency, type, and possible origins of speech dysfluency clusters in the spontaneous speech of 3-6 year old children. The subjects consisted of 30 children who stutter and 30 who do not stutter. Three types of speech dysfluencies were analyzed; overt self-repairs, covert self- repairs, and within-word dysfluencies, and the dysfluency clusters they compromised. The results indicate that children who stutter produce significantly more stuttering clusters and stuttering repair clusters.
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Lass, NJ., Ruscello, DM., Pannbacker, MD., Schmitt, JF., & Everly- Myers, DS. (1989). Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions of Child and Adult Female and Male Stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 127-133.

A questionnaire was given to speech-language pathologists and were asked to list adjectives describing four hypothetical stutterers. The research was done to determine the overall perception speech clinicians have about people who stutter. Personality characteristics were the most common descriptors and most of the characteristics listed by the speech-language pathologists were negative stereotypes. These findings may impact the development and possibly the onset of the stuttering problems. The results reflect a possible need in making clinicians aware of their attitudinal beliefs concerning stuttering. This assessment of beliefs needs occur to prevent these biases from interfering with stuttering therapy.
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Lass, N.J., Ruscello, D.M., Schmitt, J.F., Pannbacker, M.D., Orlando, M.B., Dean, K.A., Ruziska, J.C., & Bradshaw, K.H. (1992). Teachers' perceptions of stutterers. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 23, 78-81.

A questionnaire asking 103 elementary and secondary teachers to list adjectives describing four hypothetical stutterers (a typical 8 year old female, 8 yr. old male, adult female and adult male stutterers). The majority of the reported adjectives were negative stereotypical personality traits, indicating perceptions of stutterers similar to other groups, including speech-language pathologists, special educators, parents, college students, and professors. Pre-service and continuing education programs were suggested to prevent an adverse effect on the assessment, instruction, and educational progress of stutterers in the teacher's classes.
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Lattermann, C, Euler, H.A., Nueman, K. (2007). A randomized control trial to investigate the impact of the Lidcombe Program on early stuttering in German-speaking preschoolers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33(1), 52-65.

Forty-six similar German-speaking preschoolers, ages 3;0 and 5;11 years, participated in a 16 week long research study to determine if the Lidcombe Program is an effective intervention to reduce stuttering compared to natural recovery. The children were divided into two groups, a treatment group or a wait-contrast group. For the treatment group participants, therapy took place immediately within the home and was monitored and modified by the parent, who was trained by the speech-language pathologist. The parent would give verbal and non-verbal reinforcement to the child during stuttering episodes (i.e. "That was great talking", "There was a little bump", and "That was smooth"). Progress was charted weekly, for both groups, through a spontaneous speech sample, collected by the SLP, and a measurement of a stuttered syllable percentage; as well as, a daily stuttering severity rating by the parent. Results indicated that over a 4 month period, preschoolers involved in the Lidcombe Program decreased stuttering behaviors significantly greater than children involved in the wait-contrast group.
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Lattermann, C., Shenker, R. C., & Thordardottir, E. (2005). Progression of language complexity during treatment with the Lidcombe Program for early stuttering intervention. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 14, 242-253.

The purpose of this article was to determine if fluency was achieved through the Lidcombe Program because of a reduction of linguistic complexity. Four male preschool children who stuttered participated in the study. Language samples were taken prior to therapy, during therapy, and 6 months after completing the program. The samples were analyzed for mean length of utterance (MLU), number of different words (NDW), amount of sentences containing complex syntax, and percent of syllables stuttered. Results of the study indicated all of the children decreased the severity of their stuttering, MLU was age appropriate, demonstrated an increase in syntactic complexity, and NDW remained consistent. Overall, the data suggests these preschool children did not have a reduction in linguistic complexity while increasing their fluency.
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Leahy, M. M. (2004). Therapy Talk: Analyzing therapeutic discourse. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 35, 70-81.

This article discusses the importance of clinicians getting away from traditional discourse with clients; where the clinician asks a question, the client answers, and the clinician evaluates the response and asks another question. The author suggested clinicians should begin attending more to the roles the client and clinician traditionally fall into; clinician in the authority role and client in the error-maker role. Leahy recommends limiting the use of the words such as we, I, OK, and now. These words put the clinician in an authority role and may limit the verbal exchange between clinician and client. Qualitative research methods for analyzing therapeutic discourse related to stuttering are discussed (i.e. ethnography of communication, conversational analysis, and framing in discourse). Leahy provides a fluency case study of a discourse analysis. The author found that the clinician in the case study was listening more to how the client was speaking than the words the client was speaking. Overall, Leahy suggests that roles need to be flexible in therapy, especially with individuals who stutter. These individuals need to develop a sense of being a competent speaker and not feel as though there speech is constantly full of errors.
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Leahy, M.M. (2005). Changing perspectives for practice in stuttering: Echoes from a Celtic past, when wordlessness was entitled to time. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 14, 274-283.

This article viewed the changing perspectives for practice in stuttering therapy by outlining the evolution of The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF; World Health Organization, 2001) which has a sociological emphasis with a focus on the ability and functioning of the person. The evolution of the ICF was outlined by moving from an impairment-based focus to a more sociological perspective. A view of speech disability in an ancient Irish society was described with tales from Irish folklore, where the central theme was that stuttering did not affect society's recognition of an individual's general ability and talent. This view differed from the impairment-based focus that has been the heritage of the speech- language pathology profession in the 20th century. The review of changing perspectives showed the dominance of the impairment- based medical model in speech-language pathology and how it was used to structure therapy for stuttering in the development of the profession during the 20th century. It was reported that the revision of the ICF broadened the scope of the previous classification system (emphasizing impairment as the source of disability and handicap) and included concepts of health, activities, and participation. It was also reported that the broad social perspectives of an ancient Celtic society are echoed in the principles of the ICF.
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Lebrun, Y. (1996). Cluttering after brain damage. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21 (3/4), 289-295.

Acquired cluttering after brain damage in adults is suggested based on observations made in two patients and on published cases. Hypotheses are made regarding the patho-physiology of the disorder and the importance of auditory feedback in the regulation of speech rate.
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Lebrun, Yvan (1998). Clinical Observations and Experimental Research in The Study of Stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 119-122.

This article is a reaction to a previous paper in the same journal by Mowrer. The author focuses on a portion of that paper in which a mother claims her son's stuttering began suddenly on February 28, 1992. The mother, and other observers, noted eye blinks and head jerks and other involuntary movements in the boy, believed to be the result of struggle during the stuttering. The writer concludes, these associated movements are more likely the result of extrapyramidal disease. The paper concludes that while experimental research contributes statistical data for efficacy in the treatment of stuttering, it cannot be used in substitution for clinical observation.
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Leder, S.B. (1996). Adult onset of stuttering as a presenting sign in a parkinsonian-like syndrome: A case study. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 29(6): p471-478.

This case study describes a 29-year-old white male who began stuttering as a result of psychological stress. The man's stuttering was diagnosed as severe and a description of the man's speech characteristics are provided. An Interesting feature reported on the subjects speech was that no starters or secondary characteristics, no specific word fears or avoidances, and no situational fears were exhibited. A neurological exam done on the subject found a resting tremor in the hands and legs as well as lingual fasciculations, gait imbalance, and numbness and tingling of the hands and feet. All the symptoms found by the neurological exam were progressive in nature. An outline of the subjects rehabilitation plan is given along with a description of the medical intervention that was implemented. This case study shows how important it is for the clinicians to consider the possibility of a neurological disease as a possible etiology for patients with adult onset of stuttering.
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Lees, R.M. (1988). The effect of foreperiod length on the acoustic voice reaction times of stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 157-162.

The purpose of the study was to compare the voice reaction times of stutterers and nonstutterers to investigate the phonatory behavior of people who stutter. Six stutterers and six nonstutterers were subjects. The response to the offset of a stimulus tone was measured. The length of the tone and preparatory period were controlled. Results state stutterers were slower at all tone directions, but failed to reach statistical significance.
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Lees, R., Anderson, H., & Martin, P. (1999). The influence of language disorder on fluency: a pilot study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 24, 227-238.

This was a pilot study done on the influence of language disorders on fluency. The basis for the study is the fact that young, normally developing children experience a period of dysfluency during language growth. It was hypothesized that if a child is having difficulty with language, it could lead to an increase in dysfluency. There were 16 children that participated in the study who were divided into four groups: children receiving speech and language treatment, children receiving stuttering treatment (divided into 2 age groups), and children with no fluency problems. The results were examined in a variety of ways: language impaired vs. non-language impaired, stuttering vs. nonstuttering, and modeling vs. imitation. The results showed a clear pattern of non-relationship between dysfluency and language impairment.
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Lees, R.M., Boyle, B.E., and Woolfson, L. (1996). Is cluttering a motor disorder? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 21, 281-287.

Because of the inadequate definition of cluttering certain problems exist and are discussed in this article. It goes on to suggest the importance of assessing speech rate and other aspects of motor speech. This article discusses the results of tests done with a 15 year old male who was assessed for a fluency disorder not though of as stuttering.
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Levine, S. Z., Pertrides, K. V., Davis, S., Jackson, C. J., & Howell, P. (2005). The use of structural equation modeling in stuttering research: Concepts and directions. STAMMERING RESEARCH, 1(4). http://www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk

This article discusses the use of an analytical data technique known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and how it is used/will be used within the field of stuttering. SEM is described as being a broad range of procedures which assist in factor analysis, time growth analysis, multi-level latent modeling, and simultaneous equation modeling. The strengths of SEM includes: permitting statistical analyses accounting for measurement of error, providing a rigorous approach to model testing, flexibility, accommodating to tests of mediation and moderation, and permitting for statistical testing of theoretical models. The article discusses in detail new possibilities that SEM offers which includes analysis for stuttering data. From the implications of this article, SEM offers researchers a new way to approach hypothesis testing by replacing conventional data analysis techniques, more comprehensive theoretical statements, and providing a way for researchers to study the developmental pathways of stuttering.
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Lewis, C., Packman, A., Simpson, J.M., & Jones, M. (2008). A phase II trial of telehealth delivery of the Lidcombe Program of Early Stuttering Intervention. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 17, 139-149

This article evaluated the efficacy of telehealth delivery of the Lidcombe Program of Early Stuttering Intervention to determine the number of children showing an 80% reduction in the percent syllables stuttered scores over a nine month period. The study included 22 participants including the ages of 3-6 years. The treatment was performed by parents and correspondence took place via telephone consultations with a speech-language pathologist, typically on a weekly basis. The article includes results that support the use of telehealth delivery of the Lidcombe Program for preschool children who are unable to receive clinic based treatment.
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Lewis, K. (1991). The structure of disfluency behaviors in the speech of adult stutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 492-500.

Videotaped monologues of 139 males and 41 females made up the subject sample in the current study. Subject files were taken from five university speech clinics, and one private practice clinic. For each subject, all instances of the nine disfluency types were marked and totaled. The interrelationships observed among the nine disfluency types indicated that the idea of a twofold classification of stuttering behavior has some merit.
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Lewis, K.E. (1994). Reporting Observer Agreement on Stuttering Event Judgments: A Survey and Evaluation of Current Practice. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, v19, n4, Dec.

This article discusses finding agreement of people observing and how it is valid or nonvalid in three national journals dating from November 1988 to September 1992. Five common agreement procedures, which account for 92% of the articles, include: Sander's Agreement Index, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation r, Mean difference Scores, Tests of Deviation from known Distributions, and Percentage Agreement. The author discusses problems with these five agreement procedures and suggests some alternative procedures such as: Occurrence Agreement and Chance Occurrence Agreement, Scott's Pi, and Kappa.
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Lewis, K. (1995). Do SSI-3 scores accurately reflect observations of stuttering behaviors? AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH- LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 4(4) 46-59.

The purpose of this investigation was to answer the question, "Do scores obtained on the Stuttering Severity Instruments for Children and Adults accurately reflect observations of stuttering behaviors?" The results from this study indicate they do not. These findings indicate a considerable range of stuttering behaviors underlie a given SSI-3 severity level score. It is clear that clinicians and researchers have a need for instruments that provide valid and reliable measures of numerous aspects of stuttering. However, the present data indicates that need is not met by the SSI-3. For the many reasons addressed in this article, continued use of the SSI-3 is not supported.
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Lewis, K.E., Harrison, N., & Haring, M. (1998). Toward a mentoring model for fluency specialty recognition. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 59-71.

Special Interest Division for Fluency and Fluency Disorders (SID-4) is ASHA's first specialty recognition program. The purpose of this article was to work at developing steps towards a mentoring relationship which all professionals in different stages of their careers could utilize for SID-4. Members of SID-4 participated in this study and worked towards giving a desirability rating to multiple areas/ functions studied. The authors developed two main phases of functions- adjusting and development. The results of this study give further direction towards implementing mentoring models for specialty recognition programs in the future.
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Liles, B.Z., Lerman, J., Christensen, L., & St. Ledger, J. (1992). A case description of verbal and signed disfluencies of a 10 year old boy who is retarded. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 23, 107-112.

Disfluencies in the verbal and signed language of a 10 year old moderately mentally retarded boy were analyzed from video samples of spontaneous communication and structured language lessons. The boy had normal hearing with speech and language commensurate to his mental age. The subject was observed to be disfluent in verbal communication and in verbal and manual communication produced simultaneously. Repetitions, prolongations, and blockages were described as occurring at the time across communicative modes during the use of total communication. Accurate characterization of stuttering in manual communication and the appropriate approaches to management were discussed.
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Lincoln, M., & Onslow, M. (1997). Long-term outcome of early intervention for stuttering. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH- LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 1, 51- 58.

This paper reports on the long-term outcome of treatment from two previous studies that evaluated the effect of a parent- administered, operant, nonprogrammed stuttering treatment on their children. This study provides outcome data on the children at 2 and 7 years post-treatment. Results indicate near-zero stuttering levels achieved post-treatment and maintained in the long term. These findings indicate that preschool-age children treated for stuttering may not need to re-enter treatment for up to 7 years after their initial treatment.
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Lindsay, J., (1989). Relationship of Developmental Disfluency and Episodes of Stuttering to the Emergence of Cognitive Stages in Children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 271-284.

This article explores the relationship between cognition, language and fluency in an attempt to find answers for the diagnosis and treatment of stuttering and if stuttering is associated with developmental stages. Piaget's stages were investigated as well as the stages of stuttering and normal dysfluencies. The hesitation phenomenon was discussed and it was found that there is a relationship between fluency and cognitive complexity. Overall, findings that relate stuttering to the emergence of new cognitive stages in children need to be further studied.
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Lincoln, M., Onslow, M., Lewis, C., & Wilson, L. (1996). A clinical operant treatment for school-age children who stutter. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 2, 73 - 85.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a nonprogrammed, operant treatment for school-age children who stutter. Treatment was administered by clinicians and parents to 11 children between the ages of 7 and 12 years. After treatment the children's speech was assessed in three everyday speaking situations over a 12-month post-treatment period. Results found that all children maintained decreased stuttering rates at 12 months post- treatment. Parents were all "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with their children's speech post-treatment.
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Lincoln, M.A., Onslow, M., & Reed, V. (1997). Social validity of the treatment outcomes of an early intervention program for stuttering. AMERICAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 6, 77-84.

The focus of this study contained two parts of social validity of the Lidcome program (a procedure based on response contingent stimulation(RCS). The first part of the investigation focused on a comparison of the percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) in children who stuttered and children who did not. The 2nd part of the investigation focused on judgments made by experienced clinicians and unsophisticated listeners to the speech of the same children. Results indicate that the treatment outcome of the Lidcome program appears to be socially valid.
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Logan, K.J. (2001). The effect of Syntactic Complexity Upon the Speech Fluency of Adolescents and Adults Who Stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26:2, 85-106.

Previous research indicated that in young children, syntactic complexity affects stuttering. The present study tried to answer 3 questions. (1) Do adolescent and adult speakers stutter more often in syntactical complex utterances than they do in syntactically simple utterances? (2) Does the extent of any such syntactic effect vary with speaking context? (3) Do adolescent and adults who stutter produce syntactically complex sentences at a different speaking rate than syntactically simple sentences? The study involved 12 adolescent and adult stutterers, with mean age being 23, who interacted for about 15 to 20 minutes with a research assistant who was blinded to the purpose of the study. The conversation was structured around a list of open-ended requests pertaining to the participants communication skills, hobbies, career/schooling, and also, a prepared sentences within a reaction time task was given. The finding were: (1) There was no difference in the number of clauses or syntactic constituents per utterance in the analysis of length-matched stuttered and fluent conversational utterances. (2) There appeared to be no difference in dysfluency rates across the for levels of syntactic complexity associated with the tasks in the analysis of prepared sentences. (3) There was no support that no type of syntactic structure affects the speech fluency of adolescents and adults more than any other type of syntactical structure. (4) The speakers articulated syntactically complex sentences more rapidly than simple sentences in the prepared sentence tasks. (5) Seemed to be less stuttering frequency during prepared sentences that during length-matched conversational utterances.
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Logan, K.J. (2003). The effect of syntactic structure upon speech initiation times of stuttering and nonstuttering speakers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 17-35.

The purpose of this study was to determine how syntactic structure of a sentence affects the rate of initiation of speech in people who stutter and people who do not stutter. The stimuli used in this investigation were adapted from those used in a similar study by Ferreira (1991). Participants in this study included 11 people who stutter and 11 people who do not stutter. Subjects' ages ranged from adolescent to early adult. Subjects who stuttered had done so since early childhood and ranged from mild to severe. After reviewing various versions of 96 target sentences, subjects were to repeat the sentences when given auditory and visual cues from a computer. The sentences appeared on the screen and subjects were instructed to begin speaking them as soon as possible after the stimulus. Results revealed that 10 of 11 people who stuttered had speech initiation times longer than the group mean for people who did not stutter. Additionally, 7 of 10 people who stuttered had an overall speech initiation time that was greater than one standard deviation above the mean for the group of people who do not stutter. Overall the results did not support the idea that a speaker's speech initiation time was affected by the syntactic complexity of a sentence. It was indicated that slowness in motor planning might not necessarily be present in stuttered speech.
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Logan, K. J. (2003). Language and fluency characteristics of preschoolers' multiple- utterance conversational turns. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 178-188.

The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of conversational turn length on preschoolers' speech fluency and length and complexity of the utterances they produce, as well as to determine whether conversational turns of children who do stutter differ from those of children who do not stutter in their complexity or pragmatic function. The study included 15 3- and 4-year-old children who stutter and 15 age- and gender- matched children who do not stutter. Data collection for the study was achieved through a 15-minute parent-child interaction, conducted in a play setting. Results of the study indicated that there were not significant differences between the 2 groups of children.
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Logan, K. J. & Conture, E.G. (1995). Length, grammatical complexity, and rate differences in stuttered utterances of children who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(1). 35-62..

Length, grammatical complexity, and articulatory rate are used to assess differences in stuttered and perceptibly fluent conversational utterances produced by children who stutter, resulting in the fol- lowing: syllabic rate for stuttered utterances is significantly greater than perceptibly fluent utterances, length and/or grammatical complexity are significantly greater for stuttered utterances than for perceptibly fluent utterances, and perceptibly fluent utterances are considered to be low in length and/or grammatical complexity. Articulatory rate is said to have no influence on utterances, whether stuttered or perceptibly fluent.
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Logan, Kenneth J., LaSalle, Lisa R. (2003). Developing intervention programs for children with stuttering and concomitant impairments. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 24, 13-19.

Children who stutter often present with concomitant impairments that creates difficulty in the treatment process. In a recent survey of speech language pathologists, results revealed that more than 40% of children who stutter also meet state eligibility requirements for phonological and language impairment. The article summarized four priorities that should be addressed in the initial assessment. It also provides clinicians with potential treatment models, treatment principles and treatment strategies for children who stutter. There are suggestions for parents and teachers regarding the intervention plan.
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Logan, K., Morey, M., Pretto, A., & Roberts, R. (2002). Speaking slowly: effects of four self-guided training approaches on adults' speech rate and naturalness. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 2, 163-174.

Speech-language pathologists often ask the parents of children who stutter to reduce their rate of speech when talking with their children. Little is known about how to help parents do this, or how much this affects the child's resulting speech. In this article two experiments were done to examine this issue. In experiment 1 adult females altered their speech rate with one of the four self-guided methods. Speech rates post therapy was slower in all the experimental groups compared to the control group. The extent of rate reduction varied across all, and the speakers rated their speech as unnatural. In the second experiment 39 females rated the naturalness of sentences from the groups in experiment 1. Across the board, the slower a speaker's post training rate, the less natural it sounded to its speakers. Results suggested that adults can readily slow their speech using self-devised methods, and that speaker perceptions of speech naturalness may differ, and this must be considered in training.
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Logan, K., & Yaruss, J. (2002). Evaluating rate, accuracy, and fluency of young children's diadochokinetic productions: a preliminary investigation. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 65-86.

Diadochokinetic rates are commonly used to assess children who posses speech and language disorders, even though it is not clearly known how to apply the results of this measure. The study in this article explored the possibility of the accuracy and fluency of the DDK rates as being more reliable measures than just a rate number. Through the study of 15 boys between the ages of 3 and 7, analysis revealed and errors and disfluencies did not affect the DDK rate, suggesting that this may be an insensitive measure of children's speaking abilities. Findings suggested that DDK accuracy and fluency may provide information on a child's speech development more closely related to oral motor development than rate. It is suggested that rate measures be supplemented with the measurements of accuracy and fluency when evaluating a child's speaking abilities.
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Loucks, T., De Nil, Luc, & Sasisekaran, J. (2007). Jaw-phonatory coordination in chronic developmental stuttering. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 40, 257-272.

This journal article examines if jaw-phonatory coordination in Adults Who Stutter (AWS) showed less accuracy and more variability than adults with normal speech fluency to determine if a deficiency in sensorimotor integration is a factor of developmental stuttering. Specific measures consisting of total variability (TV), variable error, peak velocity and movement time were examined. Subjects included 11 right handed men who stutter and 11 right handed men who did not stutter (control group). Results indicated that the AWS group showed greater error in jaw-phonatory coordination in comparison to the control group.
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Louko, LJ. (1995). Phonological characteristics of young children who stutter. TOPICS IN LANGUAGE DISORDERS, 15 (3), 48-59.

This article reviews the research exploring the co-occurence of disordered phonology and stuttering in children. There is a general consensus in the research that children who stutter are more likely to exhibit speech sound disorders when compared with children who do not stutter. A review of studies focusing on the speech sound errors and/or phonological processes of children who stutter was also included in the article. These studies provide information about the type of errors/processes exhibited by children who stutter. This article also discusses therapy issues and provides suggestions for the treatment of phonological problems that co-occur with stuttering.
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Lubinski, R., Pollack, J., Weitzner-Lin, B. (1986). A pragmatic study of child dysfluency. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 231-239.

The purpose of the case study was to examine the conversational breakdown in a mother and child interaction. Conversational breakdowns, repairs, and resolutions were examined between a 3 year old female and her mother. The girl displayed hard contacts, repetitions of words and phrases, and secondary behaviors. The examiners videotaped the interactions, book reading, telling time, tracing numbers, and writing, for 20 minutes. The results indicated that 37 breakdowns, 47 repairs, 37 resolutions occurred within the 20 minutes of interaction. The study helped professionals identify the conditions in which people who stutter may display an increase in dysfluencies.
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Ludlow, C.L., & Braun, A. (1993). Research evaluating the use of neuropharmacological agents for treating stuttering: Possibilities and problems. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 169-182.

This article reviews and discusses the findings of twenty-two neuropharmacologic studies. A description is given as to what types of agents were used in each of the studies. The authors describe in detail the common findings in each study. The authors found after reviewing all twenty-two studies that 65% of the stutterers had a significant positive response to treatment. At the end of the article the authors provide some recommendations for the development and evaluation of neuropharmacological approaches to the management of stuttering.
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Ludlow, C. L., & Loucks, T. (2003). Stuttering: a dynamic motor control disorder. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 273-295.

The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that are involved in stuttering and to determine which neural mechanisms may be dysfunctional. Since speech is a rapid motor control task, they looked at the rapid inter-relationships between neural events prior to and during speech gestures and stuttering interruptions in different regions of the brain through Magnetoencephalography (MEG). They also looked at the location of the brain injury and found that the location and the type of lesion can cause acquired stuttering. Results indicate that lesions that appear on structures that are involved with rapid communication between brain regions such as the corpus cal! losum, the basal ganglia and the thalamus might be related to acquired stuttering. The final area this study discussed was the similarity and differences between stuttering and other speech motor control disorders. They looked at sensory deviations, muscle interference, central abnormalities, basal ganglia abnormalities, and vulnerable systems in people who stutter and as compared to individuals with dysotonias, spasmodic dysphonia, and Tourettes syndrome.
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Lutz, K.C. & Mallard, A.R. (1986). Disfluencies and rate of speech in young adult nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 307-316.

The authors use the Precision Fluency Shaping Program with young adults who stutter and hope to be able to compare the young adult's post-therapy disfluencies with the disfluencies of young adults who do not stutter. Normative data was gathered in this study in order to make that comparison. Fifty students completed the study by answering ten questions and reading the first paragraph of the Rainbow Passage. Every subject had some disfluencies during conversational speech while only 68% of the subjects had disfluencies while reading. The data obtained from the study will allow clinicians to objectively analyze the disfluencies of young adults' post-therapy speech.
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Mackey, L. S., Finn, P., & Ingham, R. J. (1997). Effect of speech dialect on speech naturalness ratings: A Systematic replication of Martin, Haroldson, and Triden (1984). JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 40, 349-360.

This study investigated the effect of dialect on listeners' speech naturalness ratings using three groups of speaker samples. Two groups had General American Dialect - one with persons who stutter and one with persons who do not stutter. The third group consisted of speakers who do not stutter, but spoke non-General American dialect. Undergraduate speech and hearing students made judgments from a one-minute speech sample regarding the speech rate, frequency of stuttering, frequency of normal disfluencies, and speech naturalness. The findings were consistent with previous research that listeners' naturalness ratings differed between each group, with stutterers judged as least natural sounding, non- stutterers judged as most natural sounding, and non-stutterers with non-general dialect in between. Implications for evaluating stuttering treatment were discussed.
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MacKinnon, S. P., Hall, S., & Macintyre, P. D. (2007). Origins of the stuttering stereotype: Stereotype formation through anchoring- adjustment. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32, 297-309.

Stereotypes of people who stutter have been well documented. School teachers, parents, community members and even SLP's have been found to associate negative personality trait stereotypes such as shyness, insecurity, avoidance, hesitance and nervousness with people who stutter. The current study examines how these ' stereotypes are formed. Testing the anchoring and adjustment theory of stereotype formation this study investigates how 183 psychology students relate to 3 hypothetical males. The first male is presented as a trait stutterer, the second as a normally fluent adult who has a brief episode of disfluency and regains fluent speech (state stutterer), the third speaker a normally fluent adult man. Participants are asked to rate these hypothetical people on 25 different personality scales. Results supported the anchoring and adjustment theory of developing personality stereotypes.
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Maguire, G.A., Yu, B.P., Franklin, D.L., Glyndon, D.R. (2004). Alleviating stuttering with pharmacological interventions. EXPERT OPINION ON PHARMACOTHERAPY, 5(7), 1565-71.

The authors of this article suggest that stuttering may be associated with dopamine hyperactivity within in the brain. This is why they suggest pharmacological drugs, such as risperidone and olanzapine, as a way to reduce the instances of stuttered speech. Physicians can use this as an opportunity as a foundation to treat stuttering more effectively.
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McKinnon, D.H., McLeod, S., and Reilly, S. (2007). The prevalence of stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders in primary school students in Australia. LANGUAGE SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 38, 5-15.

This Australian study examined the prevalence of communication disorders in 10,425 primary school students. The study examined stuttering, voice disorders and speech-sound disorders in relation to gender, grade-level (K-6), and socio-economic status along with other factors including teacher perceptions of students' required level of support vs. learning support provided to students, curriculum adaptation, IEP and the involvement of outside agencies. The study found significant differences in prevalence by gender and grade, but no differences across disorders or socioeconomic groups (SEGs), although students in higher SEGs were more likely to be diagnosed. Results indicate that 1.51% of primary schools children have a communication disorder and that over half of them were not receiving necessary services of classroom accommodations. Results may not translate directly to other countries due to structural differences in school systems and treatment delivery systems for communication disorders.
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MacLeod, J., Kalinowski, J., Stuart, A. & Armson, J., (1995). Effect of single and combined altered auditory feedback on stuttering frequency at two speech rates. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 28, 217-228.

Based on previous studies that indicate fluency improves under altered auditory feedback conditions, this study investigated the additive effects of combining delayed auditory feedback (DAF) with frequency altered feedback (FAF). It also investigated the hypothesis that altered feedback improves fluency by slowing down the rate of speech. Ten adult subjects read eight different passages of 300+ words under conditions of nonaltered feedback (NAF), DAF, FAF, and combined DAF and FAF at both slow and fast rates of speech. The results found that fluency substantially improved under all altered conditions, but that the combination of DAF and FAF did not lead to more fluency than did each condition alone. The authors suggest that this lack of additive effect could be the result of a floor effect where the DAF or FAF alone created such fluency that there was no room for improvement in the combined condition. Future studies could alleviate this situation by testing subjects with more severe stuttering or decreasing the effects of the altered feedback. It was also found that fluency was improved at both fast and slow rates of speech, refuting the claim that altered feedback improves fluency by slowing rate of speech. Recommendations for therapeutic strategies based on these findings are provided.
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Mahr, G., & Leith, W. (1992). Psychogenic stuttering of adult onset. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 283- 286.

The key characteristics of psychogenic stuttering of adult onset were reviewed and four cases of this disorder were presented. The four cases described represented conversation reactions. Criteria or elements available for the diagnosis of stuttering as a conversation reaction were presented.
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Mahr, G. & Torosian, T. (1999). Anxiety and social phobia in stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 24, 119-126.

This study focuses on comparing the symptoms of anxiety among 22 stutterers to social phobics and nonpatient controls. If a substantial relationship is seen between social phobia and stuttering, then therapeutic interventions that have been useful in treating social phobia could also aid in treating stuttering. Measures included the experience of distress in social situations and the avoidance of social situations; fear and avoidance of being negatively evaluated by others; general anxiety; and specific fears including agoraphobia, social phobia, and the participants own primary fear. Results indicated that the group of stutterers did not show symptoms of social phobia although they do have avoidance behaviors that are related to their own fear of stuttering.
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Mallard, A.R. (1998). Encouraging a Broader Perspective in Judging the Effectiveness of Stuttering Therapy. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 1 23-125.

The article addresses Mallard's perspective of a family based fluency program for children. The paper is a precursor to a study done by Mallard, published in the same journal issue. He refutes "scientific method studies" saying they have done little to solve the daily problems encountered by those who stutter. He believes in a family bases therapy program and emulates an approach, using family management procedures for dealing with stuttering, by Rustin for his study.
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Mallard, A. R. (1998). Using Problem-Solving Procedures in Family Management of Stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 127-135.

The study provides results from an program at Southwest Texas State University modeled after therapy described by Rustin, which emphasizes social skill training, and parental involvement, for children who stutter. Twenty-eight families participated in the program. The focus was never on the frequency of words stuttered but rather teaching the child, and their families, to manage their stuttering. A combination of fluency shaping, stuttering modification and other practices based on the needs of the client were used with the groups. A year later, follow up interviews were performed and found 23 of the children were no longer enrolled in any type of therapy. That is not to say they no longer stuttered but that 82% of the children and their families were managing their stuttering and did not require further assistance.
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Mallard, AR., Gardner, LS., & Downey, CS. (1988). Clinical training in stuttering for school clinicians. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 243-259.

A survey was developed to determine the educational and clinical backgrounds of speech-language pathologists working in school setting. Research points to that the academic and clinical training of speech-language pathologists are insufficient to prepare professionals to work with stutters. The results from the survey indicate a high percentage of clinicians working in school settings seem to have neither the academic or clinical experience in stuttering that prepare them to be accountable with fluency disorders.
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Mallard, AR & Westbrook, JB (1988) Variables Affecting Stuttering Therapy in School Settings. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 19, 362-370

A two year project within two school districts in San Antonio, Texas was designed to document the variables that affect stuttering therapy in the school. The participating schools had a traditional, itinerant schedule. The two school districts used serviced different populations, one was an urban setting while the other was suburban. Two therapy programs were used. The first year the therapy presented by Van Riper (1973) was used. The second year the therapy program was the Monterey Fluency Program. Results indicate that stuttering children may need more assistance than can be provided by two therapy periods a week of 30-45 minutes duration.
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Manning, W. (2004). "How can you understand? You don't stutter! ". CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 31, 58-68.

Manning talks about how many clinicians who work with people who stutter do not have enough experience or education. He believes that a clinician can be a good and effective clinician for a person who stutters even if he or she has never stuttered before. Manning's article provides suggestions as to how to be a good and effective clinician, and gives clinicians ways to respond when a clients says, "You don't stutter so you don't understand! " Some of Manning's suggestions include: listening closely to the client and their stuttering, listening to the client's nonstuttered speech, doing activities outside of the therapy room and attending self-help meetings. However, the key point of this whole article is that not everyone is going to understand, but if a clinician has the basic clinical skills, is desensitized to and unafraid of stuttering, he or she is capable of being a good clinician for people who stutter.
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Manders, E., and Bastijns, P. (1989). Sudden recovery from stuttering after an epileptic attack: a case report. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 421-428.

This is a case report about a little boy with myolomeningocele, complicated with hydrocephalus. At the age of two, he was seen at the University Speech and Hearing Rehabilitation Center in Belgium because of language retardation. The parents were offered advice concerning language stimulation at home a periodical follow-up was scheduled. He caught up to his language delay when he was 4 years, 6 months of age. When the little boy was 5, his mother contacted the clinic and stated that his son has been stuttering since his fifth birthday. Following an evaluation of his speech, an abnormal disfluency was evident. Parents were given advice and an appointment for three months later was scheduled. At the three- month appointment, mother shared that her son had a short, focal epileptic attack and immediately after this seizure, the stuttering had completely disappeared. The reevaluation indicated no disfluencies, normal speech, and his language remained at a high level.
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Mansson, H. (2000). Childhood stuttering: incidence and development. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 47-57.

This article reviews the results of a study on the incidence and development of early childhood stuttering in which the entire population of children born within a 2-year period in Bornholm was surveyed. The results of the study indicated that the incidence of stuttering among this group reached a level of 5.19%. Regarding the development of stuttering among these children, it was reported that 71.40% of their stuttering ceased after two years following the initial survey and more children continued to stop stuttering after that evaluation. Factors such as age of onset, character of onset, and stuttering severity were taken into consideration.
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Marshall, C. (2005). The impact of word-end phonology and morphology on stuttering. STAMMERING RESEARCH, 1(4), 375- 391. http://www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk

This article describes a study conducted that analyzes stuttering and its association with morphological and phonological complex word endings. In study one, a specific set of materials were presented to participants (stuttering adults/adolescents) by an interviewer. After thorough analyses of responses, it was concluded that stuttering rates in ordinary speech is not affected by ending clusters in words. It was also found that morphological complexities do not influence stuttering. Studies two and three were conducted on children and young adults. Study two involved a non-word repetition task and study three involved an elicitation task. Results from these two studies showed that stuttering rates are not affected by words ending in a morphological and phonological complexity in most children and young adult participants. However, there was a small amount of participants, during the elicitation task, who stuttered on morphologically complex word-endings. Therefore, word ending phonological complexities do not affect stuttering, but morphological could affect some people who stutter.
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Marshall, R. C. & Neuburger, S. I. (1987). Effects of delayed auditory feedback on acquired stuttering following head injury. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12(5), 355-365.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether DAF could effectively reduce stuttering behaviors in individuals exhibiting acquired stuttering. The subjects of this study were three men who began to stutter following a head injury. Baseline measures were obtained for the number of stuttering events and number of words spoken per minute during a description of action pictures, a description of sequences of action pictures, and narrative discourse. Treatment involved utilization of the DAF for each of the preceding tasks. Focus was placed on one task while the remaining tasks stayed at the baseline level. Results found that stuttering behaviors decreased for each of the three subjects within each treatment task. This indicates that DAF may be an effective tool for treatment of individuals with acquired stuttering.
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Martin, R. (1993). The future of behavior modification of stuttering: What goes around comes around. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 81-108.

The article begins by discussing various research pertaining to the onset and modification of stuttering via operant conditioning. The endeavors of research have been unsuccessful in explaining the onset and development of stuttering. It has been suggested that future operant analysis should focus on generalization and maintenance because these are the most important issues to the people who stutter and their everyday activities.
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Martin, RR. & Haroldson, SK. (1988). An experimental increase in stuttering frequency. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 272- 274.

The purpose of this study was to look at the effect, if any, on stuttering after speaking with an adult male conversationalist. In this study, 8 men and 2 woman, with age ranges from 22 to 48 years, talked first for 10 minutes alone, then with an adult conversationalist who started out by commenting or asking a question about the topic the stutterer spoke of in the initial 10 minutes and then the conversationalist spoke as little and consistent as possible, keeping the conversation alive. Finally, the conversationalist male left the room, and the stutterer continued to speak for 10 minutes. Results indicated that stuttering did increase in the conversationalist situation, but decreased during the last 10 minutes as compared to the baseline (initial 10 minutes).
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Martin, RR., Haroldson, SK., & Woessner, GL. (1988). Perceptual scaling of stuttering severity. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 27-47.

The article presents a review and an integration of research concerning the perceptual scaling of stuttering severity. The results of two experiments are reported. In Experiment I, observers judged stuttering severity on a seven-point scale. The observers identified each stuttering instance, judged the severity of each instance, and judged stuttering severity of the overall speech sample. In Experiment II, stutterers spoke normally and under DAF while an observer judged "on-line" the severity of each instance of stuttering on the same seven-point scale used in Experiment I. The results were: 1) Observer reliability was satisfactory for scaling severity of individual stuttering, overall speech samples, and instances of stuttering severity "on-line". 2) Stuttering severity scale value for the overall sample was higher than the mean scale value for individual stuttered words within the sample. 3) A complex relationship obtained between the measures of stuttering frequency, severity, and other characteristics of the speech signal.
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Martin, R.R, & Haroldson, S.K. (1992). Stuttering and speech naturalness: Audio and audiovisual judgments. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 521-528.

Recorded stutterer and nonstutterer speech samples were judged by unsophisticated raters (using 9-point interval scales) for speech naturalness and stuttering severity. The audio only and audiovisual presentations were judged separately by the raters. The raters judged the audiovisual presentation more unnatural than the audio presentation of the same sample for the stutterer samples. For the nonstutterer samples, there was no difference between the audio and audiovisual naturalness ratings.
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Max, L., and Caruso, A. (1998). Adaption of Stuttering Frequency During Repeated Readings: Associated Changes in Acoustic Parameters of Perceptually Fluent Speech. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 41, 1265-1281.

This study investigates further the motor learning hypothesis of stuttering adaptation. It also looks at a whether there is a relationship between stuttering and the variability of certain acoustic parameters, especially vowel duration. There were 8 subjects used in this study. The results of this study support the hypothesis that stuttering adaptation may be a result of motor learning. The study discusses the variability of acoustic parameters individually.
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Max, L., Caruso, A. J., & Gracco, V. L. (2003). Kinematic analysis of speech, orofacial nonspeech, and finger movements in stuttering and nonstuttering adults. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 215-233.

The purpose of this research study was to investigate the question of whether or not neuromotor differences between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter are limited to the movements involved in speech production. The study included 10 gender- and age-matched stuttering and nonstuttering adults. Kinematic data was obtained as participants performed tasks involving speech movements, orofacial nonspeech movements, and finger movements. Results of the study found significant differences between stuttering and nonstuttering participants on measures of lip and jaw closing movements during perceptually fluent speech. The study also found differences in the finger movements of the two participating groups. These results indicate that the neuromotor differences between stutterers and nonstutterers are not limited to speech production movements.
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Max, L., Caruso, A.J., & Vandevenne, A. (1997). Decreased stuttering frequency during repeated readings: A motor learning perspective. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 17-33.

A study done by Frank and Bloodstein (1971) was reproduced and extended. Ten subjects who stutter completed readings of a 300- word passage under two conditions. The first condition included six readings of a 300-word following an adaption procedure. The second condition included ten readings of a different 300-word passage in succession. The first five times in this condition the readings were done together with the clinician and the second five readings were done alone. This study indicated that stuttering frequency in the sixth reading of both conditions is the result of subsequent readings rather than repeated stuttering.no great difference in the sixth readings of both conditions.
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Max, L., & Gracco, V. (2005). Coordination of oral and laryngeal movements in the perceptually fluent speech of adults who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 48, 524-542.

The study was designed to examine oral and laryngeal movements in the perceptually fluent speech of people who stutter and of people who do not stutter. The study was based on a modified version of the oral-laryngeal discoordination hypothesis. Previous studies on oral and laryngeal movement have found differences in duration, but duration does not sufficiently indicate the speaker's coordination of the oral and laryngeal mechanism. The results of the study found the fluent speech of the stutterers was characterized by a slower initiation of phonation rather than a deficit in the coordination of the oral and laryngeal mechanism.
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Max, L. , Guenther, F. H. , Gracco, V. L. , Ghosh, S. S. , & Wallace, M. E. (2004). Unstable or insufficiently activated internal models and feedback-biased motor control as sources of dysfluency: A theoretical model of stuttering. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCES AND DISORDERS, 31, 105-122.

This article focused on neural processes and sensorimotor mechanisms that could be involved in stuttering. This article reviewed a lot of literature and it concluded with two hypothesis. One was that stuttering had to do with "unstable or insufficiently activated internal models", which means that a child may have problems achieving stable and correct pathways between the motor and sensory portions of the brain. The second hypothesis was that stuttering had to do with a "weak feedforward control and overreliance on afferent feedback". The article reviewed topics such as speech movements, nonspeech movements, and brain activation patterns.
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Max, L. & Yudman, E. M. (2003). Accuracy and variability of isochronous rhythmic timing across motor systems in stuttering versus nonstuttering individuals. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 146-163.

The purpose of this research study was to compare the abilities of adults who stutter with those of adults who do not stutter in tasks of speech and nonspeech isochronous rhythm timing. The study included 10 adults who stutter and 10 adults who do not stutter. Administration of the experimental tasks included the completion of the following isochronous rhythmic movements: orofacial structures for speech production movements, orofacial structures for nonspeech movements, and index finger and thumb movements. Results of the study indicated that stuttering and nonstuttering participants showed highly similar level of both timing accuracy and timing variability.
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Max, L., & Yudman, E.M. (2004). Understanding stuttering will require theoretical models that fit the data rather than attempts to make the data fit the preferred models: A response to Howell (2004). JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 47, 105-113.

The purpose of this letter was to defend previous research done by the authors, which Howell (2004) disagreed with. Max and Yudman (2004) addressed all of the issues Howell pointed out. They discussed how Howell's arguments reflect a theoretical perspective on stuttering that has little, or no, empirical evidence, he didn't acknowledge studies that agreed with that of the authors, experimental procedures were misrepresented, subjective judgments were suggested instead of the objective experimental procedures administered, and Howell misrepresented the statistical analysis and conclusions. Max and Yudman (2004) did not believe they had previously included or implied the conclusions Howell was against. They, instead, stated that there is a need for further research, and that scientific knowledge about stuttering must be based on theoretical models that fit the data presented.
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McAllister, J., & Kingston, M. (2005). Final part-word repetitions in school-age children: two case studies. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30, 255-267.

This study examined final part-word repetitions in two healthy 7 year-old boys. Because final part-word repetitions are relatively rare characteristics of a person who stutters, the authors were interested in expanding the small body of literature concerning the topic. Expressive and receptive language abilities were assessed to ensure that the boys were both age appropriate. Each boy completed two spontaneous speech samples, a reading aloud task, and a sentence repetition task. Results indicated that both boys were at an age appropriate level regarding their language skills. Results indicated that both boys exhibited the majority of total disfluencies during spontaneous speech, although some were recorded during the other tasks. The boys did not appear aware of the disfluencies and no secondary behaviors were observed for either child. Phonological structures of each child's final part-word repeated fragment were predictable after analyzing the disfluencies.
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McClean, M. D. (1996). Lip-muscle reflexes during speech movement preparation in stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21, 49-60

The premise behind this study is that neural processes underlying speech initiation involve reduction in the excitability of sensory input from mechanoreceptor that mediate speech movements. The hypotheses is that this reduced excitability is not as great in individuals who stutter. This was tested by analyzing lip-muscle reflexes prior to speech initiation in people who stutter and comparing this data to that of nonstutterers. Fourteen stutters and nonstutterer's mechanically evoked reflex levels just prior to productions of/p/ were studied. It was found that, as a group, stutterers showed less lip-muscle reflex attenuation or the lower tip prior to fluent speech when compared to the nonstutterers. Reflex modulation associated with dysfluent speech was quantified in three stutterers and showed marked increases in relative magnitude of lip- muscle reflexes prior to dysfluent speech as opposed to fluent speech trials. Based on these results, it is suggested that reduced attenuation of mechanoreceptor input at the time of speech-movement initiation contributes to speech dysfluency.
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McClean, M., Kroll, R., & Loftus, N. (1990). Kinematic analysis of lip closure in stutterer fluent speech. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 33, 755-760.

In an attempt to evaluate previous observations regarding the fluent speech of stutterers and to describe the possible effects of speech therapy, the authors of this study analyzed the lip and jaw motion of 28 subjects. The subjects were divided as follows; 10 normal speakers, 10 stutterers with no recent speech therapy, and 8 stutterers who had recently undergone intensive therapy including rate reduction strategies. Very little difference was found between the normal speaking subjects and the stutterers who had no recent therapy. Stutterers who had recently been through therapy demonstrated increased jaw movement durations and longer times to lip and jaw velocity peaks related to the acoustic onset of the vowel. The authors state that this finding implies that abnormalities of the physical aspects of a stutterers' fluent speech are the result of acquired modification of output rather than a problem with the speech neuromotor system.
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McClean, MD., & Runyan, CM. (2000). Variations in the relative speeds of orofacial structures with stuttering severity. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 43, 1524-1531.

This study focuses on the ideas that stuttering can be characterized in part as a disorder in the coordination of different muscle systems. To test this idea, an electromagnetic system was used to obtain measures of lip, tongue, and jaw speed in thirty-eight adults (29 PWS and 9 normally fluent speakers, NFS). The subjects repeated a simple speech utterance at a normal rate. The results indicated that by using the categorical rating of stuttering severity, ratios of tongue speed to jaw speed were significantly greater in PWS rated as severe, compared to NFS and other PWS. Sources of the speed differences are discussed in relation to underlying muscle activity, motor compensation processes in adults, and the development of orofacial motor control in children who stutter.
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McClean, M., Tasko, S., Runyan, C. (2004). Orofacial movements associated with fluent speech in persons who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 47, 294-303.

The purpose of the study was to replicate and expand on earlier studies that found differences in the opening and closing movement of the vocal tract in the fluent speech of people who stutter and people who do not stutter. This study was also interested with speed ratios among the articulators in relation to stuttering severity. This study did not replicate all of the previous findings, but it indicated some correlations. The study along with its predecessors was successful in supporting several means to measure speed and duration of vocal tract opening and closing.
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McDonough, A., Quesal, RW. (1988). Locus of control orientation of stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 97-106.

This study was completed to assess the validity of the Speech Locus of Control (SP-LOC) scale and what factors, if any, influence the speech locus of control in stutterers. Twenty-one adult stutterers and twenty-one adult nonstutterers were chosen as the subjects for this study. A 173-item scale was used as a testing instrument. All the subjects completed the battery of scales and engaged in conversation that was recorded and analyzed to determine stutterers percentage of stuttered words. The results showed that stutterers as a group tended to be more external in their locus of control orientation as it relates to speech. The SP-LOC was shown to differentiate between stutterers and nonstutterers. The results also showed that stutterers do not significantly differ from the general population on personality measures. This study provided evidence that the SP-LOC scale is a valid measure that does indeed differentiate stutterers from nonstutterers.
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McLaughlin, S. & Cullinan, W. (1989). Disfluencies, utterance length, and linguistic complexity in non-stuttering children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 17-36.

This investigation was to examine the relationship of disfluencies to utterance length and linguistic complexity, with several objectives. Ten male and ten female non-stutterers were used as subjects. A test battery was administered along with a spontaneous language sample and modeling procedures to elicit four sets of utterances representing two levels of utterance length and two levels of complexity. Higher rates of overall disfluencies occurred in the modeling tasks involving more complex utterances. Disfluency rates also appeared to increase based on the sex of subjects and length of utterances. Theoretical and clinical implications were also discussed.
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McKeehan, A. (1994). Student experiences with fluency facilitating speech strategies. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 19(2), 113- 121.

This article discusses the results of a study conducted on 16 graduate students who spent seven days speaking with fluency facilitating strategies, such as lengthening vowels, short utterances and frequent pauses. The students recorded perceived listener reaction, their own feelings and attitude towards speaking and how, as future clinicians, they benefited from experiencing commonly employed fluency facilitators. Among the findings were that a majority of listener's reactions were neutral, students avoided speaking and felt embarrassed or weird. Students reported developing respect for people in treatment while realizing how difficult it is to change speech behaviors. Discussion of the results focuses on preparing student clinicians to be effective therapists and on directions of future research.
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McKnight, R., & Cullinan, W. (1987). Subgroups of stuttering children: speech and voice reaction times, segmental durations, and naming latencies. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 217-233.

Speech and voice reactions times, speech segment durations, and object-naming latencies were obtained from a group of nonstuttering children and two subgroups of stuttering children: one subgroup (stuttering-plus) consisting of those who needed special education services for problems in addition to stuttering, and the other subgroup (stuttering-only) whose only apparent problem was stuttering. Each child was tested individually using a speech-language screening task, administered an experimenter. The total administration time for four tasks ranged from 1 to 2 hours with a break between each of the tasks. Results indicated the stuttering-plus child! ren had significantly longer speech and voice reaction times and naming latencies than did the stuttering-only and nonstuttering children. The stuttering-only children differed from the nonstuttering children only in voice termination times. The three groups did not differ in speech segment durations or in the variability of such measures. The results in the present investigation clearly demonstrate the importance of subgrouping stuttering children when making experimental comparisons with nonstuttering children.
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Medeiros de Britto Pereira, M., Rossi, J. P., & Borsel, J. V. (2008). Public awareness and knowledge of stutterin in Rio de Janeiro. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33, 24-31.

This article explained an investigation of the general public's knowledge and awareness of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results were obtained by a questionnaire given to 606 people recruited off the street. The results only represent the city of Rio de Janeiro and is should not be taken as a complete representation of Brazil. The results indicated that the knowledge about stuttering is still quite limited. The use of self-help groups in the area to raise awareness and publicly campaign for persons who stutter may help increase public knowledge. The study was compared to similar ones completed in other parts of the world. This study did not differ from the other studies rather it paralleled the other studies results.
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McLean-Muse, A., Larson, C., & Gregory, H. (1988). Stutterers' and nonstutterers' voice fundamental frequency changes in response to auditory stimuli. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 549-555.

An investigation analyzed stutterers' and nonstutterers auditory-laryngeal reflexes in hopes that it may provide a non invasive means of determining whether or not brainstem level reflex activity differs between stutterers and nonstutterers. This study presented compares adult male stutterers' and adult male nonstutterers' auditory- laryngeal reflexes by sustaining phonation at a constant pitch and intensity level while receiving bilateral auditory click stimuli. Each person's fundamental frequency signal averages were generated and measured. The data indicated that there were no differences between stutterers and nonstutterers frequency of reflex occurrence.
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Meltzer, A. (1992). Horn Stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 4. 257-264

This paper presents a case study of an adult male stutterer who also stutters while playing the French horn. The client attended an intensive precision fluency shaping program 7 hours a day for 1 month. Results indicate that respiratory, laryngeal , and oropharyngeal dysfunction perceived as stuttering can occur in activities with similar demands.
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Menzies, R., Onslow, M., & Packman, A. (1999). Anxiety and Stuttering: Exploring a Complex Relationship. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH- LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 8, 3-10.

Although there is a lot of evidence , it has not yet been proven that people who stutter demonstrate higher levels of anxiety than those who do not stutter. The authors describe the evidence that supports a positive relationship between the two, and explain reasons why it has not yet been proven. The authors state some biases that have occurred in research that have led to negative findings in the relationship between anxiety and stuttering. Some biases discussed are: the construct of anxiety, small subject numbers, treatment status of subjects, using only single-speaking tasks, and trait anxiety measures.
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Messenger, M., Onslow, M., Packman, A., & Menzies, R., (2004). Social anxiety in stuttering: Measuring negative social expectancies. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 2001-212.

This study looks at whether expectancy of social harm is associated with speech related anxiety in those who stutter. Two clinical measurements of anxiety, the Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) Scale and the Endler Multidimensional Anxiety Scales-Trait (EMAS-T), are administered to thirty-four stuttering and thirty-four control participants to determine how anxiety relates to expectancies of social harm in people who stutter. For chronic stuttering management, the management of anxiety must consider the extent and the precise details of the nature of the anxiety. The results indicate that those who stutter differ from control subjects in their expectations of negative social evaluations in the contexts of Social Evaluations and New/Strange Situations. Further, the FNE and the EMAS- T are demonstrated as appropriate psychological tests of anxiety for use with stuttering clients in a clinical setting.
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Meyers-Fosnot, S. (1995). Some contemporary approaches in treating fluency disorders in preschool, school-age, and adolescent children. LANGUAGE SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN THE SCHOOLS, 26 (2), 115-117.

This article is an overview and introduction to the entire April 1995 issue of LSHSS focusing on the treatment of preschool and school-age children who stutter. Current intervention strategies and procedures presented by experts in the field such as Starkweather, Ramig, Daly, Healey, Ratner, and St. Louis are highlighted in this introductory article. According to Meyers-Fosnot, fluency disorders can be managed effectively and efficiently with age-appropriate treatment refined to the individual needs of the client. Early intervention should be a pivotal focus, and clinicians should become proficient fluency specialists in the school environment through reading of recent literature, education, and workshops. It is also noted by the author that the information in this April 1995 issue is by no means exhaustive, and the reader in encouraged to review other approaches for treating fluency disorders.
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Meyers, S.C. (1986). Qualitative and quantitative differences and patterns of variability in disfluencies emitted by preschool stutterers and nonstutterers during dyadic conversations. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 293-306.

The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not there are quantitative and qualitative differences in disfluencies in children who do and do not stutter. There were twenty-four sets of children and mothers involved in the study. Each mother interacted with their own child, an unfamiliar child who stuttered and an unfamiliar child who did not stutter. The results show that the children who stuttered are quantitatively and qualitatively different from the children who did not stutter. Both had similar amounts of normal disfluencies however, the children who stuttered used more part word repetitions, prolongations and tense pauses. Another important result was that the frequency of disfluencies was not significantly affected by the identity of the child's conversation partner or by the child's familiarity with the testing room.
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Meyers, SC., Ghatak, LR., & Woodford, LL. (1989). Case descriptions of nonfluency and loci: Initial and follow-up conversations with three preschool children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 383-397.

This study compared disfluencies of three children, ages 3 years 8 months to 3 years 9 months. One child stuttered, one was language impaired and one had normal speech and language. The data was collected during child and mother play, on two occasions, six months apart. The child who stuttered was the only one to receive intervention services during the six month interval. The child who stuttered reduced dysfluencies (18% to 1%) and increased disfluencies (2.5 - 7.5%), with an overall decrease in nonfluencies from 20.5 - 8.5%. The language impaired child decreased dysfluencies (4 - 2%) and disfluencies (5.5 - 4.5%). The child who had no stuttering or language impairment remained consistent with dysfluencies (.5%) and reduced disfluencies (4.5 - 2%). For all children, a high percentage of the dysfluencies occurred on conjunctions and pronouns. Future studies will use larger groups to obtain more conclusive results.
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Meyers, SC., Strang, HR., & Hall, EL. (1989). Impact of Microcomputer Simulation Training on Student-Clinicians' Ability to Effectively Intervene with Preschool Stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 135-151.

This is a program that was developed to help future speech- language pathologists learn effective techniques to use with preschool stutterers. It was used with twenty graduate students with twenty subjects (ten control subjects, and 10 computer-defined stutterers). They were given eight intervention categories to use for coding measures. These measures include: explain/describe, slow talk, positive feedback, model, interrupt, fast talk, negative feedback, and inappropriate questions. The outcome of the computer training showed tremendous value. It provided the students with therapy experiences and more confidence.
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Miles, S. & Ratner, N. B. (2001). Parental language input to children at stuttering onset. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44 1116-1130.

This study examined the effects of parental linguistic input in relation to the onset of stuttering. Participants included twelve stuttering children, twelve non-stuttering counterparts, and the mothers of the children in each group. Spontaneous language samples were gathered for each parent-child dyad within the two groups. The language samples were analyzed in relation to the language samples lexical diversity, rarity, and syntactic complexity. Results indicated that there was not a significant difference between the two groups of parents on measures of syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, rarity, or conversational participation.
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Millard S., K., Nicholas A., & Cook F., M. (2008) Is parent-child interaction therapy effective in reducing stuttering? JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH, 51, 636-650.

The purpose of this article was to look at the efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy in the population of children who stutter. Therapy sessions were conducted on pre-kindergarten aged children who stutter with 6 sessions of clinic-based therapy and 6 weeks of parent lead intervention. Data collected during therapy and 12 months post therapy indicated that there was a reduction in stuttering behaviors in 4 of the 6 participants. Those that showed little or no improvement by the end of 12 weeks were said to require additional intervention. The number of participants was low due to it being a single subject design and it is suggested that future research be designed to represent larger populations of children who stutter.
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Miller, S., & Watson, B.L. (1992). The relationship between communication attitude, anxiety, and depression in stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 789-798.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between state and trait anxiety, depression, and communication attitude of PWS and nonstuttering subjects. Fifty Two PWS and 52 nonstutterers were involved in the study. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups on anxiety, or depression. The communication attitude was poorer for the PWS and become worse as self-ratings of stuttering were more severe.
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Mol Debes, N. M. M., Hjalgrim, H., Skov, L. (2008). Validation of the presence of comorbidities in a Danish clinical cohort of children with Tourette syndrome. JOURNAL OF CHILD NEUROLOGY, 23 (9): 1017- 1027.

The purpose of this study was to validate the presence of comorbid symptoms in people who have Tourette syndrome. Specifically, Mol Debes et al. looked at the following comorbid symptoms: ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), sleeping disorders, stuttering, anxiety, depressive symptoms and outbursts of extreme anger. The study had 314 participants, all of whom had Tourette syndrome. Of that population, 32 participants (10.2%) were determined to have Tourette syndrome with no comorbid symptoms, 39.7% had Tourette syndrome and OCD, and 37.1 % had Tourette syndrome and ADHD. Results from this study are reported to be similar to those previously found in research. It was also noted by Mol Debes et al. that the associated symptoms of Tourette syndrome often have a bigger impact on the quality of life than the tics.
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Molt, L.F. (1996). An examination of various aspects of auditory processing in clutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 21, 215- 225.

This study consisted of three male clutterers, aged 9:7, 11:4, and 12:6, and three male normal speaking subjects who were involved in an examination of auditory processing abilities. The first clutterer had ADD/H and was learning disabled. The second clutterer had ADD/WO, was learning disabled and had previously been classified as a stutterer. The third clutterer had ADD/WO. The subjects underwent a CAP battery including the SSW, LPFS, PPS, SRT, and a subtest of the SMMT. An AEP measure was also done. The cluttering subjects all should CAP and AEP deficits. Because the three subjects had diagnosis of ADD/WO or ADD/H, results of this study cannot be summarized to other clutterers.
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Moore, WH,. Jr. (1986). Hemispheric alpha asymmetries of stutterers and nonstutterers for the recall and recognition of words and connected reading passages: some relationships to severity of stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 71-89.

This study examined the presence of morphologic asymmetries of the two cerebral hemispheres in PWS, compared to NS. Thirty-six subjects (12 NS males, 12 NS females, and 12 PWS males) of all ages were asked to listen to a male voice recording while wearing an electrode cap. The participants were then asked questions to test recall and recognition. The results indicated right hemisphere alpha suppression was greater among stutterers in memory and stimulus tasks compared to NS whose left hemisphere showed greater alpha suppression.
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Morgan, M., Cranford, J., & Burk, K. (1997). P300 Event-Related Potentials in Stutterers and Nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 40, 1334-1340.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between adult stutterers and nonstutterers in the P300 event- related potential. The P300 response measures cognitive functioning in response to an unexpected event. P300's were recorded and analyzed to whether or not stutterers show patterns of interhemispheric activity that differ from nonstutters. Subjects were 16 adult males comprised of 8 stutterers and 8 nonstutterers. As a result of the study, all 8 nonstutterers showed a higher amplitude P300 activity in the right hemisphere for tonal stimuli. Five out of the 8 disfluent subjects showed a higher left hemisphere amplitude activity. Results of the study indicate that stutterers and nonstutterers may possess differences between hemispheres in processing some types of nonlinguistic stimuli.
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Moscicki, E. K. (1993). Fundamental methodological considerations in controlled clinical trials. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 183-196.

The purpose of this article is to present a discussion of fundamental issues that need to be addressed in any test of treatment efficacy. A major focus of this article is on the principles of experimental epidemiology. The authors intent of the article is to present the basic principles of randomized controlled clinical trials in a framework that can be used as a guide for future research on the efficacy of stuttering treatments. Some of the ground covered in this article will be familiar to the stuttering researcher; while other areas will represent unexplored territory.
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Mowrer, D. (1987). Reported use of a Japanese accent to promote fluency. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 19-39.

This article introduces an 18 year-old Caucasian man who used a Japanese accent to eliminate his stuttering symptoms. He apparently imitated the accent from a group of Japanese exchange students he had known in high school. Although this young man had never been labeled a stutterer, he felt he had communication problems throughout his life. The article examines the speech patterns and general speech characteristics of the subject. Speech samples are taken and analyzed to determine if he is a stutterer or a clutterer. The findings of the study revealed a difficulty to label him either of the two. In the final discussion of this young man, it was determined that his perceived communication difficulties may have stemmed from psychological needs rather than abnormal speech and language issues.
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Mowrer, D. (1998). Alternative Research Strategies for the Investigation of Stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 89-97.

This article promotes the use of many different research methods to find out more about stuttering. Mowrer describes some of the research methods as well as the pro's and con's of each. The research methods discussed are: expiremetal method, scientific research, behavioral research, and four types of observational designs. The observational designs are: case study, natural observation, simulation observation, and content analysis. This article strongly emphasizes the importance of clinical observation in the study of stuttering.
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Mowrer, D. (1998). Analysis of the Sudden Onset and Disappearance of Disfluencies in the Speech of a 2 1/2-year-old boy. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 103-118.

This is a case study about a 2 1/2 year old boy who experienced a sudden onset of disfluent speech, after being with a babysitter, that lasted for 10 days, disappeared and then came back again 12 days later at the mention of the babysitters name. The disfluent speech disappeared again after 18 days and never came back (followed for 5 years). The mother reported that her son has on several occasions been very upset when left with babysitters and is anxious for his parents return. There were two methods used to record and assess data. The mother kept a journal in which she recorded significant events before, during and after the time in which her son had disfluent speech. She also videotaped several conversations she had with her son. There are several factors that may have contributed to the boy's onset and disappearance of disfluencies. Personality characteristics of the child, characteristics of the parents and environmental factors may have all played a role.
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Murphy, W. & Quesal, R. (2002). Strategies for addressing bullying with the school- age child who stutters. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 23, 205- 211.

One of the factors increasing the challenge of treating stuttering in the school setting is the bullying experienced by the child who stutters. Bullying can diminish self-worth, reduce school performance, increase social rejection, and lead to depression and feelings of helplessness and loneliness. In addition to the impact on a child''s self-confidence, bullying can also aggravate stuttering behavior, increase negative thoughts, and reduce therapy progress. The intervention model proposed includes four components: (1) desensitize children to stuttering behaviors, (2) teach children who stutter to be assertive, (3) increase children's self-esteem, and (4) educate classmates about stuttering and bullying behaviors.
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Murphy, WP & Quesal, RW. (2004). Best practices for preparing students to work with people who stutter. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 31, 25-39.

This article considers the need for training of stuttering in the classroom and clinic settings. It has been reported that many clinicians do not feel prepared to work with or write treatment goals for clients who stutter. The authors talk about some suggestions for how to teach stuttering in the classroom, how to find clients who stutter so that students can have experience working with clients who stutter and how to supervise student clinicians who are working with clients who stutter. Murphy and Quesal discuss the characteristics of a good fluency clinician and supervisor. They say that a client who stutters should have the same supervisor throughout the duration of treatment. Murphy and Quesal recommend that supervisors should watch at least twenty minutes of every other session for a client who stutters. In this article, Murphy and Quesal discuss a formal model for supervision. They recommend both group and individual meetings with clinicians working with clients who stutter. Murphy and Quesal end the article with some additional advice for instructors, supervisors and students.
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Murphy, W.P., Yaruss, J.S., and Quesal, R.W., (2007). Enhancing treatment for school-age children who stutter: I. Reducing negative reactions through desensitization and cognitive restructuring. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, Vol. 32, Issue 2, 121-138.

This is a case study of an 8-year-old boy with a moderate-to- severe stutter who expressed self-awareness of his avoidance behaviors. He reported negative attitudes and emotions regarding his own communication, other students' comments, and therapy techniques. He had also experienced bullying related to his speech. Treatment included education about stuttering, desensitization to stuttering, cognitive restructuring, stuttering modification and fluency-enhancing techniques. The focus of therapy was on achieving good communication rather than fluency. Post-therapy scores on the CAT-R (measuring attitudes) and SSI-3 (measuring severity) were improved, and there was a reduction in frequency of disfluencies. Reported results included increased communication in the classroom, and use of speech modification techniques, although the client reported some apprehension about using the techniques in new situations.
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Murphy, W. P., Yaruss, J. S., & Quesal, R. W. (2007). Enhancing treatment of school-age children who stutter II: Reducing bullying through role-playing and self-disclosure. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32, 139-162.

This article discusses several strategies for handling bullying situations for children who stutter. These include learning about bullying, role-playing, and educating classmates about stuttering. When applied in a treatment program, these strategies gave Noah, the child in the case study, more confidence in dealing with bullies, and more knowledge on how to handle a bully-type situation. This knowledge helped his overall self-esteem and improved his negative feelings towards being bullied. Additionally, classroom education resulted in decreased negative reactions and comments by the child's classmates. Results suggest that including strategies for reducing bullying in therapy along with additional stuttering education and treatment may be beneficial to the child.
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Myers, F.L. (1996). Annotations of research and clinical perspectives on cluttering since 1964. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 21, 187- 199.

This paper includes 36 annotated bibliographies on almost everything that has been written about cluttering since Weiss's 1964 publication.
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Myers, F.L. (1996). Cluttering: A matter of perspective. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 21, 175-185.

This article gives a brief history on cluttering including views of the past. The article then discusses the "current trends" of cluttering. It goes on to say how clinical studies on therapy approaches are needed and that in the near future cluttering shouldn't be a disorder that is "lost in the woods."
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Myers, F.L., & St. Louis, K.O. (1996). Two youths who clutter, but is that the only similarity? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21 (3/4), 297-304.

This article presents similarities and differences for two young male subjects who clutter. Fluency, rate, language, articulation, and other factors are compared. As knowledge is gained on the nature and symptomatology of cluttering, it is concluded that clutterers are not constricted to a homogeneous population.
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Myers, F. L., & St. Louis, K. O., (2006). Disfluency and speaking rate in cluttering: Perceptual judgements versus counts. BULGARIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 1, 28-34.

This is a retrospective study focusing on an experimental therapy for people who clutter. The original study was conducted in 1996 and focused on 2 people who cluttered. The original study used DAF in oral reading, monologue and conversation or dialogue. During each task, each subject used the DAF at 4 different levels and was required to meet criteria for rate and fluency at each level. Nontreatment probes were recorded before treatment and after each stage. The current study compared scaled perceptual judgments and fluency counts for each of the probes that were conducted during the original study. The study found that a nine point perceptual scale was not accurate enough to replace time consuming rate and fluency counts.
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Nachman, G. (2006). Learning and discovering: A parent's journey with stuttering. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY AND RESEARCH, 1 (1), 111-113.

Gerrie Nachman begins by discussing her and her husband's initial finding of their son's articulation and phonological delays along with his dysfluencies. A SLP conducted free screenings at their son's preschool. The SLP suggested he be seen for further evaluation. After a difficult journey, they found an SLP who came to their home and helped their son. Gerrie sat in on lessons to discover ways to help him at home and within time he became significantly more fluent. When they began to tackle his articulation deficits it seemed his stuttering became worse. Their SLP suggested he take a break from therapy and just focus on fluency. They eventually found a young clinician at a private practice who worked with their son for 6 years. Gerrie discusses how her son eventually became more confident and engaged with others. She strongly believes this is due to the SLP emphasizing being a good communicator and the self-help community they joined which teaches parents to view stuttering in a different light. Their family engaged in many programs related to stuttering such as FRIENDS (The Association of Young People Who Stutter). With the help from their surroundings, Gerrie and her husband began to focus more on their son's life rather than his fluency difficulties. Her experiences with the clinicians, learning new skills to use at home with her son and participating in the stuttering community has had a remarkable influence on her journey with her son and his stuttering.
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Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar, Pascal van Lieshout, Luc De Nil. (July-August, 2008) Bite-block perturbation in people who stutter: Immediate compensatory and delayed adaptive processes, JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, Vol. 2, Issue 4, 372-394

This study takes a look at speech motor control in stuttering and the results of when bite-block perturbations are used. The bite block immobilizes the jaw and it is said that the subject can overcome this with motor equivalence. A subject must learn to adjust so that they can produce speech targets, which may take some time to do. The authors looked at 5 PWS and 5 PNS to take a look at their sensory _ motor mechanisms using stimuli from the EMMA protocol. Bite-blocks were inserted and the subjects were tested on five different test sessions. Results in the article are from two syllable non-words. Results showed that both the PWS and PNS groups had similar effects from the bite-blocks. In regards to the motor control of the subjects, the compensation caused both groups to have less variability. The results were different for fast rates of speech for the PWS and PNS groups. To have more control in faster rate situations, PWS need to rely on compensatory strategies learned to help with motor control. Since only a small amount of people were tested, more testing needs to be done to verify the results.
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Namasivayam, A. K. & van Lieshout, P. (2008). Investigating speech motor practice and learning in people who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33, 32-51.

The purpose of this study was to compare speech motor practice and speech motor learning of people who stutter (PWS) and people who do not stutter (PNS). Participants included five male PWS, ages 18-41, and five male PNS, ages 22-32. Participants were asked to repeat a series of nonsense words at both normal and fast rates during three sessions. The first two sessions (T1 and T2) occurred on the same day. Practice effects were measured by comparing data from T1 and T2. The third session (T3) occurred one week later. A comparison of T1 and T3 data was made in order to measure learning. Results indicated similar practice effects and learning for both groups in terms of individual movement variables, but reduced practice effects and learning for the PWS group as compared to the PNS group in regard to variables involving coordination of movement patterns. Results are discussed relative to a review of the literature indicating possible speech motor limitations of PWS.
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Natke, U., Grosser Karl, J., & Kalveram, T. (2001). Fluency, fundamental frequency, and speech rate under frequency-shifted auditory feedback in stuttering and nonstuttering persons. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26, 227-241.

The purpose of this study was to expose whether frequency shifting changes fundamental frequency in ongoing speech and whether these changes related to fluency enhancement. Two groups of ten stuttering and ten nonstuttering males, whose native language was German, participated in the study. The participants had to use spontaneous speech for five minutes under three conditions of auditory feedback: raised _ octave of frequency-shifted auditory feedback (FAF), lowered _ octave FAF, and non altered auditory feedback. The fluency-enhancing effect of FAF was measured by the percentage of discontinuous speech time (PSDT). Results showed that in persons who stuttered, the downward shift led to a fluency enhancement of twenty-five percent measured by the PSDT, while the upward shift led to a fluency enhancement of twenty-one percent. An effect on global fundamental frequency in nonstuttering persons was indicated between the non altered and the upward shift condition. Persons who stuttered, as a group, did not show a change in global fundamental frequency.
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Natke, U., Grosser, J., Sandrieser, P., & Kalveram, KT. (2002). The duration component of the stress effect in stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 305- 319.

This article gives information on language factors related to stuttering and the effects of stressed syllables with adults who stutter. A case study was described where 16 adults with a mean age of 33 who stutter mildly to very severely were tested to compare the instances of stuttering on stressed versus unstressed syllables of words. The German subjects read aloud from a text. The researches analyzed the stuttering instances on short and long stressed and unstressed syllables in the initial and medial positions of words. Data revealed stuttering events occurred more often on short first stressed syllable of words than on unstressed, long stressed, or intermediate stress syllables of words.
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Natke, U., Sandriese, P., Pietrowsky, R., & Kalveram, K. T. (2006). Disfluency data of German preschool children who stutter and comparison children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 165- 176.

This study compared disfluency types in German-speaking preschool children who stuttered (CWS) and age-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS). Speech samples recorded during play sessions in a research laboratory were transcribed and analyzed for disfluencies. Disfluencies were separated by type: prolongations, blocks, repetitions of sounds, syllables, and one-syllable words, and other disfluencies. Results showed that CWS produced significantly more stuttering-like disfluencies (prolongations, blocks, and repetitions) at any age than CWNS. The groups did not differ on measures of other disfluencies (interjections, revisions, interrupted utterances, multisyllabic word repetitions, and phrase repetitions). These results are concurrent with previous studies in that early stuttering is different from normal disfluency and that the presence of stuttering-like disfluencies should not be considered normal language development.
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Neiman, G.S. and Rubin, R.B. (1991). Changes in communication apprehension, satisfaction, and competence in foreign dialect and stuttering clients. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS 24, 353-366.

Research indicates that speech-impaired clients' attitudes and psychological predispositions significantly affect their therapy progress. This study looked at whether communication predispositions are altered as a function of speech therapy. The results indicated that there were significantly lower levels of communication apprehension and higher levels of communication competence after 30 months of therapy.
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Nelson, L.A. (1996). Critical review of the special edition on cluttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21 (3/4), 345-348.

This article provides a general overview of cluttering and its components. It focuses on what is known about cluttering, what has recently been learned about cluttering, and what has yet to be learned about cluttering.
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Neiman, G.S. & Rubin, R. B. (1991). Changes in communication apprehension, satisfaction, and competence in foreign dialect and stuttering clients. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 24(516): p353-366.

This is a study done on two groups of subjects, international graduate students and persons who stutter. The groups consisted of 15 male adults enrolled in accent reduction therapy and 13 male adults enrolled in stuttering therapy. The research design was set up to find out how the subjects perceptions of their communication competence, communication apprehension, and general satisfaction with their communication, developed over the course of their therapy. The results indicated that both groups had significantly lower levels of communication apprehension and perceptions of communication competence had increased after 3 months of therapy. The individual clients also improved significantly on the speech parameters that their therapy focused on.
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Neumann, K., Euler, HA., Giraud, AL., Lanfermann, H., Gall, V., & Preibisch, C. (2003). The nature and treatment of stuttering as revealed by fMRI: A within- and between- group comparison. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 381-410.

The purpose of this study was to use fMRI to identify changes in the activation patterns attributed to improved fluency resulting from an intensive fluency shaping therapy. Participants in this study included five male adults with developmental stuttering. The Kassel Stuttering Therapy, a modified version of the Precision Fluency Shaping Program, was used as the therapy model for this study. The participants underwent fMRI measures prior to starting therapy, immediately after therapy, and two years post- therapy. The results of the fMRI measures were compared within group and against a control group. Prior to therapy, the PWS group showed higher and more distributed activation than the control group during overt reading tasks. Immediately following therapy, the activation patterns were even more distributed and left-hemisphere focused. Functional MRI measures conducted two years after therapy indicated slightly reduced activation patterns, with a trend to more right-sided involvement.
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Neumann, K., Preibisch, C., Euler, H.A., Gudenberg, A.W., Lanferman, H., Gall, V., & Giraud, A. (2005). Cortical Plasticity Associated with Stuttering Therapy. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30(1), 23-39

Findings of functional neuroimaging studies have indicated disturbances between the left sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal speech regions (Broca's area), and temporal regions of the brain during speech production in persistent developmental stuttering (PDS). In addition (fMRI) images also reveal a systematic overactivation of the right frontal operculum (RFO) in PDS subjects. In this study comparisons of speech related neural activation patterns in nine stuttering and nonstuttering adults males during fluent reading and silent semantic decision making tasks have been studied before and with 12 weeks after fluency shaping therapy. Results indicate that there were higher and extended activations after therapy than before therapy, predominantly left-sided and bilateral temporal. Observations also reveal that the areas with increased activation post therapy were in the left insula and the left Rolandic operculum which were in the surrounding areas of the recently found white matter lesion (Sommer et al., 2002). In conclusion this study does support that successful fluency-shaping therapy shifts brain activity form right-hemisphere circuits to left hemisphere speech related regions with intensive treatment. Additionally, post-treatment activation supports a higher degree of compensation after a successful treatment.
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Newman, L. (1987). The effects of punishment of repetitions and the acquisition of "stutter-like" behaviors in normal speakers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 51-62.

This study uses punishment tactics with normally fluent speakers to try to elicit stuttering like behaviors. The punishing stimulus delivered to normally fluent speakers was contingent on repetitions. In an effort to avoid the punishing stimulus, the subjects changed their speaking behavior to decrease repetitions in their speech. This resulted in an unnatural way of speaking, characterized by reduced speech rate. Every normally fluent subject responded with some type of behavior. From this study, it appears that speech rate slows with awareness of speech mistakes, making speech less fluid and more effortful overall.
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Newman, P., Channel, R., & Palmer, M. (1986). A comparative study of the independence of unilateral ocular motor control in stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 105-116.

The purpose of this study was to determine if people who stutter and people who do not stutter have the same unilateral ocular motor control. The study involved nineteen people who stutter and nineteen people who do not stutter. Thirteen people who stutter were considered mild, four were considered moderate, and two were considered severe. Each person had photographs taken of their eyes wide open and also closed. This was done for measurement purposes. Next photographs were taken when they closed only the right eye, and also when they closed only the left eye. The results indicated a difference between people who stutter and people who do not stutter in their ability to close one eye and keep the other eye open.
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Newman, P.W., Fawcet, K. D., & Russon, K. V. (1986). Cognitive processing in stuttering as related to translating slurvian. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS. 11, 251-256.

The purpose of this research study was to compare the performances of stutterers and nonstutterers in translating slurvian. A slurvian consists of a meaningless phrase or sentence, which by the manipulation of juncture and stress patterns, can be rephrased or translated into a meaningful statement. The study consisted of 18 stutterers and 18 nonstutterers. Administration of the experimental task included 2 sets of slurvians, which the subjects had 30 seconds to translate each slurvian into a meaningful statement. Results of the experiment were variable, with the stutterers as a whole, performing more poorly than the nonstutterers. Results suggest that the population of stutterers is not homogeneous and that a relationship between stuttering and inferior performance in translating slurvians exists in some cases.
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Newman, PW., Harris, RW., & Hilton, LM. (1989). Vocal jitter and shimmer in stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 87-95.

This study focuses on the laryngeal dynamics of vocal jitter and shimmer in people who stutter. "Vocal jitter and shimmer are acoustic measures of those vocal perturbances obtained from sustained vowel phonations." ( p. 88). If the magnitude of either jitter or shimmer in stutterers is found to be greater than that of nonstutterers, it would provide a further basis for the hypothesis that stutterers may have less neurophysiologic control over their mechanisms of phonation and respiration. Subjects were told to phonate and sustain 4 different vowels 9 different times for at least five seconds each. A miniature accelerometer was used to record the subjects. The results showed that for both jitter and shimmer the mean percent was larger for stutterers than for nonstutterers. For jitter the percentage was not significant but for shimmer it was. These results suggest that "stutterers have less stable neuromuscular control over events regulating the aerodynamics of the laryngeal and respiratory systems during sustained fluent vowel articulations than nonstutterers" (p. 94).
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Newman, R.S., and Ratner, N.B. (2007). The role of selected lexical factors on confrontation naming accuracy, speed, and fluency in adult who do and do not stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 50, 196-213.

This study examines the effects of lexical features on word retrieval abilities in adults who stutter and those who do not. Participants entered into the study consisted of 25 adults who stutter and 25 adults who do not. Each of the 50 subjects completed 107 trails which targeted one of three lexical components: neighborhood frequency, neighborhood density, or word frequency. Each response was judged based on the subjects reaction time, fluency and response accuracy. Results of the study reveal a small but insignificant difference in the reaction times of individuals who stutter vs. those who do not on all three lexical components. Adults who stutter had lower accuracy rates on the confrontational naming tasks. However, with the exception of word frequency, the fluency of adults who stutter was not influenced by neighborhood frequency or density.
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Nippold, M. A. (1995). Parents' speech and children's stuttering: A critique of the literature. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38(5). 978-989.

The literature reviewed in this article finds little or no difference between parents of children who stutter and parents of children who do not stutter. The manner in which parents talk to their children, as well as the parents' speech behaviors, are the criteria upon which these conclusions are derived
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Nippold, M. (2002). Stuttering and phonology: is there an interaction? AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 2, 99-110.

Speech-language pathologists have been interested for many decades in the phonological skills of children who stutter. Many investigators have reported that children who stutter are often more likely to have a phonological disorder than their peers who do not stutter. It is commonly reported that 30%-40% of children who stutter have a co-occurring phonological disorder. Reports of this nature have prompted researchers to examine the possibility that stuttering and phonology may interact in some way. In the intervention literature, it is recommended that treatment for children who stutter and have a phonological disorder take an indirect approach. Many examinations of children were alluded to in the article but in the end the results indicated that children did demonstrate normal phonological development when being classified as a mild to severe stutterer, and that children with phonological disorders did not necessarily stutter more severely than those with normal phonological development.
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Nippold, MA., & Rudzinski, M. (1995). Parents' speech and children' s stuttering: A critique of the literature. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38, 978-989.

This article is a review of the literature concerning the role of parents in the onset and development, of their children's stuttering. This article examines the literature from three decades and suggests that although much research has been conducted concerning the roll of the parent, it still cannot be stated with confidence that a parent' s speech behaviors or modification of speech contribute to their child' s stuttering. Thus, the authors provide treatment and research implications.
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Nowak, WJ., Stone, ER. (1987). Acquired Stuttering and Bilateral Cerebral Disease. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 141-146.

Two cases of adult (females, ages 21 and 55) acquired stuttering are presented. Both patients best fit into the category of acquired, or cortical stuttering (ACS). The onset of ACS was abrupt in both cases and from neither patient, could a history of speech problems prior to now, be elicited. Both patients had an onset of ACS coincident with evidence of bi-hemisphere dysfunction. Speculation that ACS is due to a multiple series of insults to the brain, rather than a single, specific cerebral location is explored.
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Nuck, M.E., Blood, G.W., & Blood, I.M. (1987). Fluent and disfluent normal speakers' responses on a synthetic sentence identification (SSI) task. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 20, 161-169.

This study addresses the question of a relationship between fluency and central auditory processing. Prior research suggests a central auditory problem as a possible etiology in stuttering. This study examines any differences in tests of auditory processing for groups of male and female, fluent and disfluent normal speakers. It reports significant differences for speakers at this end of the fluency spectrum, suggesting that a momentary lapse in fluency may be attributed to a deficiency in central auditory processing at the time. No significant differences were found between genders.
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Nudelman, H.B., Herbrich, B.D. Hoyt, B.D. & Rosenfield, D.B. (1989). A Neuroscience Model of Stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 399-427.

This study considers stuttering using a theoretic two loop speech production model. In this model, an outer loop is responsible for formulating ideas, linguistic planning and monitoring. An inner loop is responsible for the phonologic production and monitoring. Analyzation of humming output of adults, who did and did not stutter, revealed wider variability in timing with those who do stutter. Timing in speech could increase in the outer loop due to time required for linguistic planning and for the inner loop with complex articulation or frequency changes required. Common methods to eliminate stuttering are explained by this multiloop theory. Slowing speech rate allows more time for the processing and executing speech movements. Rehearsal minimizes time needed for planning, increasing fluency (adaptation). Stuttering is the result of instability in the system, and the system's response to the instability.
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Nwokah, EE. (1988). The imbalance of stuttering behavior in bilingual speakers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 357-373.

This study looks at the varying incidence of stuttering from one culture to the next. The purpose of the study was to answer two questions: 1. "Do people who are bilingual or multilingual and stutter do so equally in each language?" and 2. "Do some stutterers speak totally fluent in one language but stutter in another?" Sixteen stutterers between the ages of 16 and 40 living in Anambra State, Nigeria were chosen as the subjects for this study. All of the subjects received a minimum of five years of high school education and were balanced bilinguals, meaning they are equally competent in both languages of English and Igbo. Each subject completed a questionnaire and read aloud a 300-word passage both in English and Igbo. The readings were tape-recorded and the tapes were analyzed for occurrence of stuttered words. The results showed that all but one subject stuttered more in one language than the other in both spontaneous speech and reading activities. Almost all of the stutterers were aware of which language they stuttered the most. Socio-cultural aspects of bilingual stuttering were also overviewed in relation to the findings.
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O'Brian, S., Onslow, M., Cream, A., & Packman, A. (2003). The Camperdown program: outcomes of a new prolonged speech treatment model. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 933-946.

This program is a prolonged-speech (PS) treatment which focuses on control of chronic stuttering. PS treatment can be used for mild to severe adults who stutter. It is a four stage intervention that focuses on individual teaching sessions, group practice, individual problem-solving, and performance contingent maintenance. Sixteen participants were involved in a limited, 20 hour clinic program. The intervention utilizes videos, from which the client imitates, and self-evaluation and self-monitoring, as opposed to traditional client-clinician instruction. The study found favorable outcomes and generally positive self-reported benefits.
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O'Brian, S., Packman, A., Onslow, M. (2004). Self- Rating of stuttering severity as a clinical tool. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 13(3), 219-227.

This study was conducted by employing 9 men and 1 woman adult stutterers to investigate the 9 point self-administering severity rating scale. The most important aim was to establish the extent to which clients' ratings of stuttering severity, made both within and outside of the clinic, agreed with those of treating clinicians. This procedure was carried out by rating 6 recorded samples in which each of the subjects and the clinician rated the severity, based on predetermined criteria. Results indicated that the ratings of the clinicians were in good agreement with the client's self-rating of stuttering severity by 78%. In conclusion this study reveals that the 9-point rating scale is a reasonably reliable tool for clients to judge or rate their severity in natural as well as in therapy environments.
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O'Brian, S., Packman, A., Onslow, M., O'Brian, N. (2003). Generalizability theory II: Application to perceptual scaling of speech naturalness in adults who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 718-723.

The purpose of this study was to test the Generalizability theory, which is a method for estimating the reliability of observational data. In this study, 15 unsophisticated raters utilized the Nine-Point Speech Naturalness Scale of R. R. Martin, S. K. Haroldson, and K. A. Triden (1984) to evaluate the speech of a group of people who stutter and an age and sex-matched group of people who don't stutter. The G-theory analysis provided a way to calculate how many raters and how many ratings are required to obtain a reliable rating from an observation scale. Results of this study suggest that this type of analysis is effective when used to evaluate observational scales on a case-by-case basis.
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O'Bian, S., Packman, A., & Onslow, M. (2008). Telehealth delivery of the camperdown program for adults who stutter: A phase I trial. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 51, 184-195.

This article explained a study conducted to find if Phase I of the Camperdown Program would still have success when delivered strictly by email and telephone. There were 10 adult participants included in the study that were unable to attend treatment due to schedule conflicts. The telehealth variation of the Camperdown Program still included the main ideas. The results indicated the telehealth model reduced stuttering short term. Since the participants could attend the program at home there were no drop outs and no missing data. The long term effects of the telehealth program are still unknown. The follow-up posttest indicated a slight increase in participants stuttering. Further observations of the telehealth model are still needed to study the benefits. Overall, this telehealth method of the Camperdown Program seems effective and helps clients to attain treatment that would not be able to.
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O'Brian, S., Packman, A., Onslow, M., & O'Brian, N. (2004). Measurement of stuttering in adults: Comparison of stuttering- rate and severity-scaling methods. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 47, 1081-1087.

This study investigated the comparative reliability of 2 stuttering measurement tools: percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) and a 9-point severity scale (SEV). These tools were compared in terms of (a) their distribution for a stuttering population, (b) their relative reliability, and (c) the degree to which scores on one tool predicted scores on the other. The participants included 90 stuttering adults and 10 non-stuttering adults. The judges were 12 speech- language pathologists experienced in the treatment of stuttering. The judges watched 3-minute videotapes of each participant and rated %SS and severity. Results indicated a very high intrajudge and interjudge agreement for both measures and a strong linear correlation between %SS scores and SEV scores. The authors concluded that the 2 measures are reliable and could largely be used interchangeably for the measurement of stuttering. Overall, the study supported the use of either a %SS measure or a 9-point SEV scale in research and clinical practice.
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O'Donnell, J.J., Armson, J., & Kiefte, M. (2008). The effectiveness of SpeechEasy during situations of daily living. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33, 99-119.

The purpose of the following multiple single-subject design study was to look at the effect of SpeechEasy on stuttering during spontaneous conversation and to determine subjective impressions about the effectiveness of the SpeechEasy of speech produced in situations of daily living (SDL). Participants of the study included seven adults and exhibited at least a 30% reduction in their stuttering while using the SpeechEasy device upon admission to the study. Data was recorded at several stages during the 16 week study with and without the use of the device in the laboratory and SDL, along with a questionnaire regarding the participants' ability to wear and use the device. Results indicated that all seven participants exhibited less stuttering with the device than without the device. Five participants demonstrated constant amounts of stuttering reduction during long term use of the SpeechEasy device. In conclusion, it is recommended that the long-term effectiveness of the SpeechEasy in SDL should be further investigated.
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Olsen, LT., Steelman, ML., Buffalo, MD., & Montague, J. (1999). Preliminary information on stuttering characteristics contrasted between African American and white children. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 32, 97-108.

The main purpose of this study was to determine if any behavioral or attitudinal characteristics differed between African American and white children who stuttered. More specifically, the authors examined whether there were differences in verbal and/or visual disfluency behaviors and whether attitudes towards various speaking situations varied between the groups. Fifteen African American children and fifteen white children participated in this study. Both conversational and reading speech were used as the speech sample. Verbal disfluencies and accessory (visual) characteristics were measured using a disfluency checklist. Each subject was also administered the Children's Attitude Test (CAT). Results showed no significant differences in verbal and/or visual behaviors for the reading speech. For the conversational speech, a significant difference was noted only in one category, but it was thought that this was due to a Type 1 statistical error and not a meaningful difference. Results of the CAT indicated that there were no significant differences in attitudes towards speaking situations between the groups. One question out of the thirty-five did have a significant difference, but again it was attributed to a Type 1 statistical error.
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Olson, E., & Bohlman, P. (2002). IDEA '97 and children who stutter: evaluation and intervention that lead to successful, productive lives. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 23, 159-164.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) '97 is an important component to developing appropriate evaluation and treatment programs for the child who stutters. There are unique needs of the child who stutters that are essential to the formulation of an effective Individualized Education Program (IEP). Information is provided concerning an appropriate evaluation process and determination of eligibility. IEP goals and benchmarks, therapy frequency and location, a transition plan, involvement of parents, and criteria for dismissal are provided.
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Olswang, L.B. (1993). Treatment efficacy research: A paradigm for investigating clinical practice and theory. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 125-131.

This article deals with the clinical and theoretical framework that is used in therapy. The author provides some questions that might be of use in assessment and intervention of stuttering clients. The author also stresses the importance of co-mingling practice and theory when providing assessment and intervention.
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Onslow, M. (1992). Choosing a treatment procedure for early stuttering: Issues and future directions. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 983-993.

The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the conceptual and practical aspects of the early stuttering treatments used and overview early intervention procedures and to investigate pros and cons and issues associated with each procedure. From this investigation, the authors concluded that all treatment showed deficits in one or more of the following areas: conceptualization, specificity and empirical verification. The use of prolonged speech is far less effective for children than it is for adults. The study found that operant methodology may be a potential early intervention technique.
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Onslow, M. (1992). Identification of early stuttering: Issues and suggested strategies. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, 1(4), 21-27.

This article addressed the need for strategies of early identification of stuttering. The major areas discussed are as follows: rational and empirical progress, positive identification of early stuttering, negative identification of early stuttering, false positives and false negative identification clinical strategies for identifying early stuttering, positive identification components, negative identification components (At risk register), and issues in early identification and service provision. The author comments on over identification and preventing it by placing questionable children on a At Risk Register where they can be observed regularly.
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Onslow, M. (2003). Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: IV. Empowerment through Evidence-based treatment practices. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 237-245.

This article discusses evidence-based treatments for stuttering and how the use of these treatments is beneficial to the professional development of clinicians. Onslow feels that evidence-based treatments are professional investments. It is an investment of growth within the profession and an investment not only for effective treatment for professionals now, but also for future professionals. Evidence-based treatments allow for professional development in two ways. The first is to be a scientist practitioner and the second is to develop and diversify professional activities. This article also discusses what effective treatments are to be based on the clients. Onslow states, "Evidence-based practice is about the clients getting better from their disorder." The final topic discussed in this article is professional empowerment. Since evidence- based treatment is an investment which provides professional development and diversity and ensures effective treatments it is thought to be professionally empowering for clinicians to use this treatment.
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Onslow, M. (2004). Advice to students of stuttering treatment. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATIN SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 31, 5-24.

This article offers advice to students regarding stuttering treatment. Students are advised to stay away from the notion of a continuum between normal disfluencies and nonnormal dysfluencies by using a system that counts the number of stuttering-like disfluencies, SLD's, in clinical practice. Students are also advised to be careful about their choice of treatments and not to do any therapy that is based solely on a theory of stuttering. The reasoning being that if a stuttering theory cannot account for the explanation of what is known about stuttering, the theory is probably wrong. Instead of theories, students are advised to look to evidence based practice clinical trials to establish treatment for their clients. Finally, students are advised to challenge themselves to be accountable for stuttering treatments by being specific about treatment goals, using speech measures to determine outcomes, and benchmarking clinical performance. Further, the benefits of accountability are argued and some questions are posed for reflection.
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Onslow, M., (2007). Oliver Bloodstein: Reflections on a career. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32, 330-337.

This journal article is a look into the life of Oliver Bloodstein. Via email interview between Mark Onslow and Oliver Bloodstein in February of 2007, Bloodestein's life is depicted through a number of specifically selected questions. It dives into his beginning days at the University of Iowa studying under Wendell Johnson, to the creation of his self written book "Handbook of Stuttering" which is in preparation of its 6th edition, to his personal views on many topics regarding stuttering. It is a personal account of the career of a very important figure in the stuttering world.
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Onslow, M., Adams, R., & Ingham, R.J. (1992). Reliability of speech naturalness rating of stuttered speech during treatment. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 994-1001.

This study evaluated the reliability of judges' repeated ratings on the same subjects, to compare the reliability of speech naturalness rating of experienced and inexperienced judges, and to examine the effect on reliability of duration of the rated interval of speech. The judges listened to speech samples of 10 clients in therapy whom were using prolonged speech. The intrajudge reliability was 72.4%. The interjudge reliability was 59.2%.
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Onslow, M., Costa, L., Andrews, C., Harrison, E., & Packman, A. 1996. Speech Outcomes of a Prolonged-Speech Treatment for Stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 39, 4 734-749

This study attempts to quantify the effects of an intensive prolonged speech treatment program. The study included 12 subjects who's speech was evaluated for stuttering severity, speech rate, and speech naturalness, prior to treatment as well as post- treatment. Results indicated that after 2-3 years the 12 subjects had reached zero to near-zero stuttering with speech considered "natural ".
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Onslow, M., Gardner, K., Bryant, K.M., Stuckings, C.L., Knight, T., (1992). Stuttered and normal speech events in early childhood: The validity of a behavioral data language. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 79-87.

A set of 200 utterances (each contained a disfluency) from stuttering and normally speaking children aged 2-4 years was obtained. Five sophisticated listeners, 10 clinician listeners, and 10 unsophisticated listeners rated the utterances using Johnson's eight disfluency categories. According to the results, it is concluded that it is justifiable to question the validity of the data, language used by researchers to describe stuttered and normal speech in early childhood.
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Onslow, M., Hayes, B., Hutchins, L., & Newman, D. (1992). Speech naturalness and prolonged speech treatments for stuttering: Further variables and data. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 274-282.

This study wanted to show that unusual speech quality may result from stuttering treatments that are based on prolonged speech. The results indicated that speech quality assessments of post treatment clients gave similar results regardless of whether they were based on monologues or conversations. Speech naturalness scale scores were presented for nonstutterers and post treatment stutterers and the data was compared with the existing findings.
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Onslow, M. & O'Brian, S. (1998). Reliability of clinicians' judgments about prolonged- speech targets. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 41, 969-975.

This article investigates a program which utilizes prolonged speech to establish fluency through soft contacts, gentle onsets, and continuous vocalization. The success of this type of therapy depends upon correct feedback and the skills of the clinician to recognize correct and incorrect productions. The purpose of this study was to determine intra-clinician and inter-clinician reliability when working to detect prolonged speech procedures. There is a lack of consistent terminology to explain prolonged speech measures; recognizing and learning these techniques is difficult without a manual or specific instruction. This study used clinicians who were familiar with the prolonged speech program. Their findings prove that both inter-clinician and intra-clinician measures were at inadequate levels. As a result of these findings, the authors suggest further research to investigate whether or not the feedback given in treatment affects relapse following treatment.
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Onslow, M. & A. Packman (1999). Treatment recovery and spontaneous recovery from early stuttering: the need for consistent methods in collecting and interpreting data. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH, 42, 398-402.

This letter was written regarding the issue of initiation of treatment in young stutterers. The article was written to focus attention on the presence and the subsequent absence of stuttering in preschool children. Some factors that should be addressed when considering therapy are: period since onset, extent to which the child's communication is disturbed, and the extent to which the condition distresses the child and family. The critique also emphasizes different ways of collecting data. Onslow and Packman critique the study done by Yairi and Ambrose. A particular aspect they critiqued was the infrequent speech sampling and their methods of measuring recovery and follow-up. Onslow and Packman claim there is currently no scientific data to support that any child has spontaneously recovered from stuttering.
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Onslow, M., & Packman, A. (2001). Ambiguity and algorithms in diagnosing early stuttering: Comments on Ambrose and Yairi (1999). JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 3, 593-594.

Mark Onslow and Ann Packman wrote this article in response to the Ambrose and Yairi (1999) report on diagnosing early stuttering. The authors drew attention to three issues that they believe undermined the conclusions and the recommendations for differentiating stuttering from non-stuttering children. The issues are as follows: 1) the criterion that was used was to high so that the likelihood that borderline or ambiguous cases were left out of the study, 2) the authors used their weighting procedure in such a fashion so as to make unexplained overlap between the two groups disappear, and 3) the authors failed to differentiate between stuttering and disfluency.
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Onslow, M., VanDoorn, J., & Newman, D. (1992). Variability of acoustic segment durations after prolonged speech treatment for stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 529-536.

This study used young clients with no history of treatment based on prolonged speech. The investigators obtained pretreatment and posttreatment acoustic measures from spontaneous speech samples. The acoustic measures showed no significant posttreatment increases in durations of acoustic segments. The posttreatment speech samples showed significantly reduced variability for the acoustic measure of vowel duration and articulation rate measure.
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Onslow, M., & Yaruss, J. S. (2007). Differing perspectives on what to do with a stuttering preschooler and why. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 16, 65-68.

This was a debate regarding which stuttering treatment is more appropriate or effective for children. Onslow and Yaruss asked questions of each other related to stuttering therapy and responded to the other's questions. Yaruss was in support of a more individualized approach while Onslow preferred to use the Lidcombe therapy method. Yaruss argued that the Lidcombe approach relies on the child's parents to take on an important and integral role in treatment but this type of parental involvement is not always realistic. Onslow eluded that the Lidcombe approach may be seen as the better approach because it contains better evidence regarding its effectiveness. Onslow also mentioned that he believed that stuttering could be related to a neuroanatomical problem. Yaruss refuted the idea of stuttering being related solely to a neuroanatomical problem but rather that stuttering is related to multiple factors.
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Osborne, C., (2006). Student participation in the international stuttering awareness day 2006 online conference. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY & RESEARCH, 2, 16-19. http://www.journalofstuttering.com/ListofArticles.html.

This journal article illustrates how the Online Stuttering Conference can be used effectively in university curriculum. Charlie Osborne describes how The University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point involves student participation and involvement in an assignment given for his students. Additionally, the article introduces and explains what the Online Stuttering Conference is, as well as providing the purpose and a brief history about it.
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Osawa, A., Maeshima, S., & Yoshimura, T. (2006). Acquired stuttering in a patient with Wernicke's aphasia. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE, 13, 1066-1069.

The authors present a case study of an individual who was shown to demonstrate the occurrence of acquired stuttering after developing Wernicke's aphasia as a result of a left posterior temporal and parieto-occipital lobe cerebral infarction. The individual's non-fluent speech was characterized by repetition of the initial syllables of words, which persisted beyond four weeks after onset even though the impairments resulting from aphasia gradually improved. The authors also review the history of reported cases that involved the occurrence of acquired stuttering as a result of cerebral infarction.
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Packman, A., Onslow, M., & Van Doorn, J. (1994). Prolonged speech and modification of stuttering: Perceptual acoustic and electro- glottographic data. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37(4), 724-737.

This study looks into prolonged speech and its use as a therapy tool in stuttering. It investigated speech patterns in individuals who were not given specific instructions in its use. Some of the findings suggest that some subjects achieve natural sounding, stutter free speech after brief exposure to prolonged speech. The study uses acoustical wave form analysis and EGG studies to support their findings. They also believe that variability is an important issue in stuttering. the relationship in unclear.
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Paden, EP., Yairi, E., & Ambrose, NG. (1999). Early Childhood Stuttering II: Initial Status of Phonological Abilities. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH. 42, 1113- 1122.

Research has been done linking stuttering and phonological deficits. However, because a child has difficulty with correctly producing a sound doesn't affect the probability of it being stuttered on. One study found that at a younger age, those who stuttered were found to have fewer articulation errors than older children who stutter. These poor phonology results suggest that children who are showing initial signs of stuttering should be monitored for permanent stuttering.
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Paico, J., Healey, E.C., Brouwer, K., & Susca, M. (2005). Listener perceptions of stuttering across two presentation modes: A quantitative and qualitative approach. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30, 65-85.

The purpose of this study was to determine if listeners' showed differences in their quantitative and qualitative perceptions of mild, moderate, and severe stuttering without secondary behaviors. Each participant was presented with various speech samples in either audio or audiovisual modes. They were then asked to complete a six-item Likert scale and were asked four open-ended questions. The comments made by the participants were divided into positive and negative comments and then further divided into five other clusters. The results revealed no statistically significant differences across the participants Likert Scale ratings. There were also non- significant differences in the positive and negative comments, which suggest that the type of presentation mode (audio and audio-visual) does not appear to affect listeners' perceptions of stuttering. However, the results did provide some support for the view that as the frequency of stuttering increases, listeners tend to make more negative comments about the speaker.
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Paul-Brown, D. (1990). Consumer corner national stuttering project. AMERICAN SPEECH AND HEARING ASSOCIATION, p. 35.

The article provides a description of the National Stuttering Project and its purpose. The NSP is a support group whose purpose is to educate and support people who stutter. Information about how to contact the NSP is provided.
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Pellowski, M. W., & Conture, E.G. (2002). Characteristics of speech dysfluency and stuttering behaviors in 3- and 4-year-old children. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 45, 20-23.

This study sought to quantitatively and qualitatively characterize stuttering behaviors in relationship to time since onset of stuttering, within separate groups of 3- and 4-year-old children who stuttered. It also compared the disfluent behavior of these children to normally fluent children of the same age and gender by utilizing measures of speech disfluency. Participants consisted of thirty-six children who stuttered and thirty-six children who did not stutter. A spontaneous speech sample of at least three hundred words was collected during a thirty-minute conversational speech task between the child and his/her mother. Each child's speech dysfluencies were measured according to total disfluencies, other disfluencies, stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD), number of repetition units, and weighted SLD. Results showed a significant overall difference between the two groups in regards to total disfluencies, percentage of stuttering-like disfluencies, weighted SLD measure, and mean number of repetition units. There was not a significant difference between the two groups for other disfluencies. A within-group analysis was also completed to determine if there was a relationship between a child's chronological age and time since onset of stuttering. Results showed a significant relationship between the time since onset and the percentage of stuttering-like disfluencies.
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Pellowski, M.W., Conture, E.G. (2005). Lexical priming in picture naming of young children who do and do not stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 48, 278-294.

The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship between semantic priming and childhood stuttering. The study involved 46 children; 23 who stutter and 23 typically-fluent peers. They were matched on the basis of age (range 3;0- 5;11). Children were placed into the stuttering group if he or she had more than three disfluencies per 100 words of conversational speech, and if he or she was rated higher than 11 on the Stuttering Severity Instrument for Children and Adults, Third Edition (SSI), and placed into the non-stuttering group if the child exhibited fewer than three disfluencies per 100 words of conversational speech, and if he or she was rated lower than 8 on the SSI. The task consisted of naming pictures on a computer screen, whereas there was a no-prime, related-prime, or unrelated-prime condition. Children who stutter were found to have slower reaction times than their typically fluent peers during the related-prime condition. There was no significant difference between reaction time in the other two conditions. For children who do not stutter, speech reaction time decreased as receptive vocabulary scores increased. Findings of the study propose a relationship between linguistic variables and childhood stuttering.
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Perkins, W.H., (1992). Fluency controls and automatic fluency. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY: A JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, 1, 9-10.

The article contains William Perkins' view on automatic fluency promotion with fluency controls. Perkins' did not believe that fluency controls ever become habitual or automatic, and he briefly justifies why a stutterer cannot control fluency day in and day out, because the nature of speech does not operate that way.
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Perkins, W. H. (1992). Stuttering prevention: Academic exercise or clinical relevance?. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 33-38.

This article is a critical commentary on an article presented by Hamre. Hamre argues that parents and clinicians identify stuttering by two prototypical characteristics: Multiple repetitions and prolongations. He argues that prototype theory offers an appropriate basis for distinguishing stuttering from non-stuttered speech, and that perceptual features alone can readily identify stuttering. The author believes that it is true that listeners identify stuttering in this manner. However, he suggests that this theory has no clinical relevance in treatment of stuttering, since this is not how people who stutter themselves distinguish their moments of stuttering. He provides evidence that people who stutter typically identify moments of stuttering by the loss of control, and that overt stuttering (or lack thereof) does not always reflect these moments. He argues that treatment focused on conditions resulting in loss of control is appropriate.
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Perkins, WH. (1992). "Stuttering prevention II:" Plaudits with problems. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 1 & 2, 89-94.

This is a commentary by William Perkins in response to Curt Hamre's article Stuttering Prevention II: Progression which is contained in this same issue. Perkins expresses concern that Hamre has misrepresented his position and hopes that this has not occurred with quotes of others. Perkins suggests that there are flaws and alternatives to Hamre's arguments but credits him for confronting "unsupported positions".
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Perkins, W. H. (1993). The early history of behavior modification of stuttering: A view from the trenches. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 1-11.

William Perkins addresses how behavior modification became so prevalent in the field of stuttering through four personal experiences. He comments on psychoanalytic and psychotherapy techniques that did not prove successful with his clients. However, one client in particular triggered his conversion to the behavior approach while incorporating Goldiamond's approach of the DAF. He also states fluency skills are powerful tools in therapy because they are the reason for seeking therapy.
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Perkins, W.H., Kent, R.D., & Curlee, R.F. (1991). A theory of neuro- psycholinguistic functioning in stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 734-752.

This article proposes a neuropsycholinguistic theory to define stuttering. It is an explanation of the stuttering behaviors, not the stutterer. The neuropsylinguistic theory views stuttering as a breakdown in two areas: the signal system (paralinguistic system) or the symbol system (linguistic system). Stuttering is a result from dyssynchrony in these systems. The basis of the theory is that when stuttering occurs, these systems are not functioning together properly. How the speaker reacts to the dyssynchrony determines whether they will experience stuttered or nonstuttered dsyfluency.
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Peters, H., Boves, L. (1988). Coordination of aerodynamic and phonatory processes in fluent speech utterances of stutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31(3), 352-361.

This research investigation examines the relationship between respiration, phonation and articulation between people who stutter (PWS) and non stutterers. It describes the observations of aerodynamic, laryngeal and acoustic processes in 2 non random groups of subjects. Data was collected and analyzed on 10 PWS and 7 controls. Three conclusions were drawn between these two groups. PWS are significantly different from controls in the build up of subglottal pressure. According to the EGG analysis PWS used abrupt voice onset more often than nonstutterers. Finally, findings indicate that the levels of the process of speech production are independent to varying degrees, one level does not necessarily predict the outcome of another level.
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Peters, H. G., & Starkweather, W. (1989). Development of stuttering throughout life. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 5, 303- 321.

This article discusses the stages of stuttering development. They classify them into 5 stages with the increments of 2-6 years, 6- 12 years, 12-17 years, 18-30 years, 30+ years. The five stages are assumed in the development of three aspects of human development: motor behaviors, language competency and performance, and social/emotional and cognitive behaviors. They discuss both normal and abnormal development in the aspects of human development and how it relates to stuttering. This article suggests that stuttering behaviors are influenced by a great number of internal and external factors. It is also stated the phase discrimination will be helpful for the assessment of stuttering.
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Pill, J. (1988). A comparison between two treatment programs for stuttering: a personal account. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 385-398.

Jaan Pill, a person who stutters (PWS) and the author of this article has featured a personal evaluation of two treatment methods for stuttering, the Precision Fluency Shaping Program (PFSP) in Roanoke, Virginia and the Comprehensive Stuttering Program (CSP) at the Institute for Stuttering Treatment and Research in Edmonton, Alberta. The CSP helps the PWS speak in smooth phrases rather than the word by word approach promoted by the PFSP. The author was particularly impressed by the Institute's staff clinician asking his expectations of the program and sharing her thoughts that his goals appeared realistic. Equipment used at the Institute included skilled clinicians to do the work rather than the use a voice monitor used in the PFSP and learning how to clock syllables. The author also liked being able to independently calculate the rate of a recorded passage. Video equipment was used in pre- and post-treatment assessments at the Institute. The CSP provided individualized instruction as compared to the PFSP in which instruction consisted of a written description in the manual. The CSP emphasized speech naturalness, a structured approach toward transfer, and systematic instruction for after treatment for maintenance. At the Institute, clinicians rotated from one client to the next, which helped the author, maintain a level of interest and to focus on the content of the instruction. The author does offer suggestions on how the treatment program may be improved. In the conclusion, the author states that his fluency skills, as a controlled stutterer, have developed as a result of both programs.
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Plexico, L., Manning, W.H., & DiLollo, A. (2005). A Phenomenological Understanding of Successful Stuttering Management. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30(1), 1-22.

The primary intention of this study was to investigate and understand, form the speaker's perspective, the essential structures that helped selected individuals to successfully manage their stuttering. The experiences of stuttering before and after successful management have also been addressed across three temporal stages. A total of six adult males and one adult female each with a history of stuttering participated in this study. There were three levels of analysis conducted in order to understand the individual's experiences, common themes and finally the phenomenon that describes those essential structures. The six recurring themes that emerged during the transition stage form unsuccessful to successful management are: (1) support, (2) Successful therapy, (3) self therapy and behavioral changes, (4) cognitive changes, (5) utilization of personal experience, and (6) and high levels of motivation /determination. The other recurring themes (1) gradual awareness, (2) negative reactions of listeners, (3) negative emotions, (4) restrictive life style, (5) avoidance, and (6) inadequate therapy were related with previous experiences of unsuccessful management. The five predominant themes of the present experience in which stuttering was effectively managed were: (1) continued management, (2) self acceptance and fear reduction, (3) unrestricted interactions, (4) sense of freedom, (5) and optimism. The reader of this article can gain insight into (1) the common experiences of this particular group of people with stuttering and the significant themes interrelated with both successful and unsuccessful management of stuttering, (2) give details as to how this group of seven individuals achieved successful management of their stuttering, (3) and clarify the rationale and procedures associated with phenomenological analysis.
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Pointdexter, M., Rosenfield, D., & Viswanath, N. (1999). Overt phonological errors during part-word repetitions: Some theoretical implications. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 24, 107-117.

This article focuses on a single-subject study of a male stutterer who produces systematic overt phonological errors only during part-word repetitions. Two different studies were done to determine linguistic competency and also to evaluate several aspects of the Covert Repair Hypothesis (CRH). Results indicated a deficiency in the production processes since there was no evidence of linguistic incompetence. The study also attempts to look at where possible breakdowns occur on the CRH, which is difficult to determine (ie. Overt errors originating at the phonetic vs. phonological stage).
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Postma, A., & Kolk, H. (1993). The covert repair hypothesis: Prearticulatory repair processes in normal and stuttered disfluencies. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 36, 472-487.

This study was done to examine the Covert Repair Hypothesis. It states that PWS have an auditory and internal monitoring process involved in their speech before the onset of speech. The PWS is constantly monitoring the speech that is to occur, attempting to repair the speech in anticipation of a stutter (this is internal, i.e. not consciously controlled by the PWS). The constant repair processes are what cause the articulatory error. The same is true, to a lesser extent, in the speech of nonstuttering speakers. The article describes the major premises behind the hypothesis in great detail. The article does not, however, provide empirical evidence for the hypothesis and the authors recognize the need for such further research.
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Postma, A., & Kolk, H. (1992). Error monitoring in people who stutter: Evidence against auditory feedback defect theories. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 1024-1031.

Theories of speech-auditory feedback hypothesize that PWS have defects in speech auditory feedback and predict that PWS performance on error defection is poorer than normal speakers. The purpose of the study was to investigate if there are differences between PWS and those who do not in detecting phonemic speech errors while speaking in normal auditory feedback and auditory feedback masked by white noise. It was found that error detection in the two above situations did not significantly differ between PWS and those who do not. False alarm rates and detection latencies of the PWS were the same as people who do not stutter. These findings are contradictory to the auditory feedback theories.
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Poulos, M., & Webster, W. (1991). Family history as a basis for subgrouping people who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 5-10.

The subjects of this study were 169 adolescents and adults seen for assessment and treatment of stuttering at the Ottawa Rehabilitation Center between May 1982 and February 1989. Of the subjects, 87% were male and 13% were female. Family history information was gained through either direct interviews or personal telephone interviews. Sixty-six percent of the respondents were aware of one or more family members who stuttered, while 34% were not aware of any family member who stuttered. Of these results, 68% of the relatives were male, and 50% were female. The authors of this study also discussed that through this retrospective investigation of family history, adult PWS could be subgrouped into those who had genetically inherited a predisposition for stuttering, and those who had sustained early brain damage which caused stuttering.
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Prasse, J. E., & Kikano, G.E. (2008, May). Stuttering: An overview. AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FAMILY PHYSICIANS, 77(9), 1271-1276.

Prasse and Kikano discuss the central issues relating to and describe the different forms of stuttering. The authors discuss aspects such as the contributing factors that may lead to stuttering, the importance of parental involvement in children who stutter, assessment, the severity of stuttering, and examples of common treatments. Included is a description of the three classifications of stuttering; developmental, neurogenic, and psychogenic, with developmental noted as the most common.
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Preibisch, C., Neumann, K., Raab, P., Euler, H., von Gudenberg, A., Lanfermann, H., & Giraud, A. (2003). Evidence for compensation for stuttering by the right frontal operculum. NEUROIMAGE, 20, 1356-1364

In this study, the researchers were looking for evidence to support the hypothesis that the right frontal operculum displays compensation for stuttering in people who stutter. Thirty-six male subjects, ranging from 19-51 years of age, participated in the study. Sixteen of the subjects stuttered and sixteen were fluent, as assessed by a trained speech-language pathologist. Two experiments were performed in the study. The subjects read 78 short sentences aloud in the first experiment. In the second one, the subjects participated in a passive visual semantic decision task. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on the subjects during the tasks; the resulting images were then compared and contrasted. The combined results indicated that the role of the right frontal operculum is not restricted to the final stages of the production of speech; rather, it serves a compensatory role that is nonspecific.
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Preus, A. (1996). Cluttering upgraded. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21 (3/4), 349-357.

This article presents information on the relationship of cluttering to other speech and language disorders, the etiology of cluttering, and nature of cluttering. It also presents encouraging advances in assessment and treatment of cluttering. Recommendations for further research and development are suggested.
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Prins, D. (1993) Models for treatment efficacy studies of adult stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 333-349.

The author of this article describes a defensive behavior model for the nature of stuttering in adults using social cognitive and self- efficacy theories to explain this behavior and it's resolution through treatment. A review of the literature pertaining to these theories as well as a discussion on how they can be used to guide the questions, designs, and measures used to study the treatment efficacy for adult stutterers is presented. The author also gives some guidelines for the future course of efficacy studies with an emphasis in discovering "why" a procedure yields a certain outcome.
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Prins, D, & Hubbard, C. (1988). Response contingent stimuli and stuttering: Issues and implications. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 696-709.

This article evaluates past issues concerning effects of response contingent stimuli (RCS) on stuttering and speech disfluency, which was published about 45 years ago. Research on RCS flourished until about 1980 and few studies have been reported since. RCS was composed of two differentiating purposes; to explain the nature of stuttering and to define procedures that modifies its frequency. Conclusions concerning procedures that modify stuttering frequency indicate that some individuals' stutterings may be either decreased or sometimes increased when stimuli closely follow the occurrence of the RCS behavior. Conclusions about the nature of stuttering are less certain. The purpose of this paper is to examine these conclusions in relation to certain unresolved issues and to suggest directions for future study.
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Prins, D., Hubbard, C.P., & Krause, M. (1991). Syllabic stress and the occurrence of stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 1011-1016.

Throughout stuttering literature, it has been stated that stuttering occurs on stressed syllables in connected speech. However, there has been no conclusive data to prove this. This study was conducted to identify if connected speech coincides with stuttering and syllabic stress. There were 10 stutterers in the study who were observed for stuttering on stressed and unstressed syllables in connected speech. Results from the study indicated a relationship between stuttering and syllable stress. In addition, stuttering occurred most frequently between on the first three words of the sentence. However, these results are independent of syllable stress.
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Prins, D., & Hubbard, C. (1990). Acoustical durations of speech segments during stuttering adaptation. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 33, 494-504.

The authors of this study examined 4 acoustical durations of stutter-free speech segments taken from Readings #1 and #5 in an adaptation series. Subjects included 4 who were determined to be highly adaptive, 4 who were determined to be low adapters and 4 non-stuttering subjects. The acoustical durations chosen for measurement include: intervocalic interval with and without stop consonants; stop gap; voice onset time and vowel duration. Results indicate that all three groups of subjects demonstrated no distinguishable change in durations from Reading #1 to Reading #5. The authors conclude then that stuttering frequency in adaptation trials declines independently of change in duration.
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Prins, D., & Hubbard, C.P. (1992). Constancy of interstress intervals in the fluent speech of people who stutter during adaptation trials. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 799-804.

In a previous study, the constancy of interstress intervals (ISIs) was measured in stutter-free speech of 4 PWS. Two of the subjects in the study served as the subject in this follow-up study because they had high levels of adaptation whether ISIs increased from reading 1-5. the results found that the PWS ISI duration was constant through all readings, PWS had less rhythmic syllabic stress than nonstutterers, and ISI duration was longer with complex speech motor movements for PWS than nonstutterers.
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Prins, D., & Ingham, R. (2005). Reviewing the literature: Comments on "the Camperdown program: Outcomes of a new prolonged- speech treatment model" for stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 48, 1025-1028.

The purpose of this letter was to discuss an article previously written by O'Brian, Onslow, Cream, and Packman (2003) about the effects of the Camperdown Program. The previous article introduced a prolonged speech (PS) model that had similar results to an earlier program that consisted of a more traditional approach that required more time. Prins and Ingham agreed with O'Brian et al. (2003) in that modeling is successful, but the authors of this letter thought it was important to provide the readers with rationale for modeling in the form of evidence from previous studies. The authors of this letter also stated that by replacing traditional target responses with "perceptually faithful reproduction," O'Brian et al. avoided the issue of operationalization. O'Brien et al. made a bold conclusion without empirical support when they decided that programmed instruction is not necessary with PS therapy. Prins and Ingham believed that self- regulation may have actually led to the success of the new program. The main concern of the authors was that, based on their research, O'Brian et al. should not have decided what was not necessary in a PS program, and that more extensive use of current literature would have made their study more favorable.
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Prins, D., Main, V., & Wampler, S. (1997). Lexicalization in adults who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 40, 373- 384.

Recent theories have implicated lexical processing failures as a possible source of fluency disruption in persons who stutter. This paper reports two studies. Experiment one investigated whether naming latency, which is dependent on parallel processing, would increase more for persons who stutter than for normally fluent speakers. Subjects performed a picture-naming task generated on a computer screen in which they said the name of the action displayed (e.g. dog run) as quickly as possible. Results indicated that longer latencies were evident in the stuttering group. Experiment two tested the hypothesis that in relation to normally fluent speakers, persons who stutter differ in the relative effects of word frequency and number of syllables on their naming latencies. The results also supported this hypothesis. Implications of these outcomes are discussed.
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Prosek, R., Montgomery, A., & Walden, B. (1988). Constancy of relative timing for stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 654-658.

The purpose of this study was to examine the relative timing of stutterers' speech in two fluent utterances of the same phonetic content of a 120-word passage five times in succession compared to nonstutterers. In one utterance, first reading, the surrounding speech material included instance of stuttering; the second utterance, fifth reading, was produced in a fluent environment and at a faster rate than the first one. Four separate relative timing ratios were defined by measuring an acoustic period and an acoustic latency and dividing the period by the latency. The results revealed no significant differences between the group's rate changes that occurred between the readings. The data indicated that not all aspects of a stutterer's speech are affected by the stuttering and the relative timing may be a critical parameter of the production of fluent utterances.
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Prosek, R.A., Montgomery, A.A., & Walden, B.E. (1990). Letters to the editor. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 406- 407.

This is a reply to DiSimoni's comments from Prosek and his colleagues. DiSimoni claims that the Prosek study measured unrelated segmental durations and that averaged durations were compared. However, Prosek states that durations were not evaluated in the study; but timing relations among articulatory events were addressed. Other points concerning equating theory with fact and interpretation of data are also discussed.
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Prosek, R.A., Montgomery, A.A., Walden, B.E., Hawkins, D.B. (1987). Formant frequencies of stuttered and fluent vowels. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 30 (3), 310-305.

This study compared normalized and unnormalized formant frequencies of persons who stutter and persons who do not stutter, formant frequencies of vowels produced fluently and nonfluently by persons who stutter in an adaptation task, and the formant frequencies of vowels produced fluently by persons who stutter and persons who do not stutter in an adaptation task. 15 subjects (13 males, 2 females, all persons who stutter) were asked to produce a list of words and read a 120-word passage five times in succession. Vowels that were selected for analysis were vowels that the persons who stutter produced nonfluently on the first reading and fluently on the fifth reading. Results indicated that vowels produced by persons who stutter were no more centralized than those produced by persons who do not stutter. Results also indicated no significant difference between fluency and formant frequency of persons who stuttered or between persons who stuttered and person who did not stutter. The authors conclude that these results do not support the use of vowel centralization to control the speech of persons who stutter.
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Quesal, R. W. (1989). Have we forgotten the stutterer? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14(3), 153-164.

In this journal article Robert W. Quesal discusses research in the area of stuttering. In this age of new technology research is focused primarily on the physiological aspects of stuttering. He notes that much of the previous research in the area of stuttering has been questioned and scrutinized. This article points out the need for more research to focus on the stutterer and the psychological aspects of stuttering. Many reasons are given as to why this is not currently happening which range from the field of Speech Pathology trying to distance itself from the field of Psychology, to the difficulty involved with trying to objectively quantify emotions. In any case, Quesal points out that it is necessary to analyze the disorder of stuttering from all possible perspectives.
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Quesal, R. W. (2002). Book review. [Review of the book Foundations of stuttering]. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 27, 353-355.

The information in Wingate's book is based on theories from many decades ago, mostly derived from his previous books in which the information is no longer paramount. He states false information which dates his knowledge. The writing style is uneven at times as he spends whole chapters defining simple terms, but quickly moves through complex topics such as neurological aspects of stuttering. The tone of his writing suggests egotism as he ridicules other's work and their mistakes. Little information is given on the stuttering as a human condition because he concentrates more on observable behaviors of stuttering.
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Quesal, R., & Yaruss, J. (2002). Academic and clinical education in fluency disorders: an update. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 43-63.

In recent year, many researchers and clinicians in the field have become concerned about the academic and clinical training that is being provided to graduate students in training programs that are accredited by ASHA. Thus ASHA sent a survey to 239 accredited programs seeking information about; the courses and clinical experiences they require their students to complete, the expertise of their faculty and supervisors, any changes they had made in their requirements since the 1993 modification of requirements, and what, if any preliminary plans have been made in their program in preparation of the 2005 standards. Results indicated that one-third of the programs that responded allowed their students to graduate without course work in the area of fluency disorders, and two-thirds allowed their students to graduate without any clinical experience in fluency disorders. The findings of this survey suggested that there will be a growing trend toward fewer classes taught in fluency disorders, less experienced faculty teaching in this area, fewer clinical hours will be required, a fewer and fewer students will graduate feeling inadequate to provide services to this population.
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Ramig, P.R. (1993). High reported spontaneous stuttering recovery rates: Fact or fiction? LANGUAGE, SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 24, 156-160.

Previous investigations report the spontaneous recovery rate for stuttering to be in the 50%-70% range. This study surveyed families of 21 children that had been diagnosed 5-8 years ago as having a severe stuttering problem and found 19 of the 21 still stuttered (90.5). These findings cause SLP's to question the reliability of previous studies in this area. Invalid findings cause concern because early intervention for children who stutter is key due to the greater chance of reversing and limiting the growth of the development of stuttering in early years.
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Ramig, P.R. (1993) The impact of self-help groups on persons who stutter: A call for research. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 351-361.

This article gives a definition of, description of, and problems pertaining to self-help groups for people who stutter, including some national organizations. Self-help groups address two major functions, providing social support and maintaining fluency. The author states that there is virtually no systematic research on the efficacy of these groups. However, the few studies that have been done are reviewed, and indicate that most stutterers and researchers perceive the groups as being a positive and beneficial experience. The need for further, more in depth, systematic studies to assess the impact of these groups on the lives of those who stutter is discussed and suggestions to strengthen the validity and reliability of future research are provided.
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Ramig, P. R., & Bennett, E. M. (1995). Working with 7-to 12- year old children who stutter: Ideas for intervention in the public schools. LANGUAGE SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN THE SCHOOLS, 26 (2), 138-150.

This article is written for the school SLP. Topics covered include assessment, therapy continuum, parent involvement, teacher involvement, fluency-shaping, attitudes and feelings of the school- age child who stutters, addressing concomitant disorders, grouping and scheduling for therapy, developing clinical skills in working with school-age children who stutter, future trends in the public schools, transfer maintenance, and treatment efficacy. Specifically included are examples of normal nonfluencies and stuttering symptoms, principles to be used in conjunction with fluency-shaping procedures, a conceptual model of stuttering modification therapy, and suggestions for the clinician to assist children experiencing teasing and negative thinking. A representative sampling of programs is included. Mentioned in this sampling are the Fluency Development System for Young Children, the Stuttering Intervention Program, Systematic Fluency Training for Young children, Easy Does It 1 &2, Personalized Fluency Control Therapy, the Successful Stuttering Management Program, Extended Length of Utterance Program, the Fluency Rates Program, and the Easy Relaxed Approach-Smooth Movement procedure.
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Ramig, P., Winkler, L. (1986). Temporal characteristics in the fluent speech of child stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 217-229.

The two purposes of this study were to examine the speech timing of children who stutter, and to examine the effects of simple and complex speech on speech timing in children who stutter and children who do not stutter. The subjects were nine boys who stuttered compared to nine boys who did not stutter. The boys repeated a sentence, 10 times in a normal speaking style, and completed a story-retell task. The results provided that people who stutter have longer pauses between words and different speech timings. The children who stutter and do not stutter exhibited longer pauses as the speech task difficulty increased.
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Ramig, P., & Wallace, M. (1987). Indirect and combined direct-indirect therapy in a dysfluent child. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 41-49.

This study compares the efficacy of an indirect and a direct-indirect intervention approach in a young dysfluent child. The results of the study support the idea that a direct-indirect approach is appropriate for the young child who stutters. Indirect therapy methods were used for the first two treatments, and direct intervention was used in treatment two. Direct intervention revealed a decrease in dysfluencies after treatment two. Several variables including parental involvement, type and schedule of reinforcement, treatment environment and the use of generalization techniques also contributed to the success in this study approach.
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Rastatter, M.P., Dell, C.W. (1987). Reaction times of moderate and severe persons who stutter to monaural verbal stimuli: Some implications for neurolinguistic organization. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 30 (1), 21-27.

The purpose of this study was to measure the reaction times of the left and right hands while stimulating the left and right hemispheres of persons who stutter. Subjects used included 14 persons who stutter (seven males, seven females) and 14 matched normal- speakers. Stimuli used included 24 monosyllabic words (12 minimal pairs) with manner and voice held constant and place of articulation varying among pairs. The stimulus word was presented visually in the form of a picture as well as auditorily in the form of spoken word. Subjects were asked to move their left or right hand to the correct picture (on the left or right) after hearing the word (presented to only one ear). The stimulus words, ear stimulated, and direction of hand movement were presented an equal number of times in a random block design. Results for normal speakers indicated left hemisphere dominance for language processing, with the right hemisphere not being as efficient in processing auditory-visual information. Results for persons who stutter did not indicate a right or left hemisphere dominance (bilateral model of neurolinguistic organization).
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Rastatter, M.P., Dell, C. (1987). Vocal reaction times of stuttering subjects to tachistoscopically presented concrete and abstract words: A closer look at cerebraldominance and language processing. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 30 (3), 306-310.

This study investigated interhemispheric interactions for visual language processing in a stuttering population using tachistoscopic procedures. 14 subjects were presented with the same randomized series of 90 four-letter words: 30 concrete words, 30 abstract words, and 30 nonsense words. The subjects were asked to phonate the vowel /a/ when an actual word was presented, not to phonate when a non-word was presented, and report the number that appeared on the screen after the presentation of the stimuli. Results indicated that there was no significant difference among groups, across visual fields, stimuli, or sex. Authors do suggest that the results obtained for the persons who stutter show that the right hemisphere was capable of more efficient language processing for concrete words while the left hemisphere was more efficient for processing abstract words.
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Rastatter, MP., Harr, R. (1988). Measurements of plasma levels of adrenergic neurotransmitters and primary amino acids in five stuttering subjects: a preliminary report (biochemical aspects of stuttering).JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 127-139.

This study was conducted to measure plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and amino acids in five stutterers ages 19-29 to determine whether any abnormality was present in these neurotransmitters or amino acid precursors. This study was the first of its kind attempting to test more directly a neurotransmitter theory of stuttering using state-of-the-art medical technology. The results showed that each subject demonstrated an abnormal result for epinephrine, norepinephrine or dopamine. Plasma glutamine was significantly elevated in every case exceeding +4 SD of the mean adult glutamine level, possible indicating an increase in left hemisphere GABAergic activity.
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Rastatter, MP., Loren, CA. (1988). Visual coding dominance in stuttering: some evidence from central tachistoscopic stimulation (tachistoscopic viewing and stuttering). JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 89-95.

This study looks at a previous study on hemispheric information processing and its relationship to linguistic dominance for written material in stutterers. The current study was done to assess central information processing style in a stuttering population using a tachistoscopic viewing procedure employing letter confusion and vocal reaction time. Sixteen stuttering subjects and sixteen nonstuttering subjects were matched. All subjects had normal hearing and were right handed. Eleven capital letters were used as stimuli and were presented centrally by the tachistoscope. Adjusted letter-naming reaction times were obtained for stimulus detection condition. The mean simple vocal reaction times were calculated and subtracted from the mean letter naming response time for each subject. These results indicated that the stutterers showed increased latencies when responding to letters. Each subject produced an approximately 90% error rate. Results also showed that a significant interaction existed between the group and visual confusion variables. The stuttering subjects evidenced significantly more errors that were characterized by auditory confusions while nonstutterers produced errors that were visually based. These finding suggest that when the left and right hemispheres of stutterers were simultaneously stimulated by the tachistoscope, the processing strategy employed by the right hemisphere proved dominant in completing the perceptual task.
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Rastatter, M. P., Loren, C. & Colcord, R. (1987). Visual coding strategies and hemisphere dominance characteristics of stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12(5), 305-315.

This study examined the relationship between coding strategies and linguistic dominance for written material in people who stutter. Normal and stuttering subjects were presented with visual stimuli in the right and left visual field in order to obtain vocal reaction times and data for an analysis of errors. Results found that reaction times for the stimuli presented in the left visual field were not significantly different than the reaction times for stimuli presented in the right visual field for the normal subjects. However, stimuli presented in the left visual field indicated slower reaction times for the stuttering individuals. In addition, stimuli presented in the left visual field showed a higher degree of auditory confusions whereas the right visual field had a higher degree of visual errors. The slower reaction time of people who stutter when presented with stimuli to the left visual field, in addition to the increase in auditory confusion suggests coding deficits in the right hemisphere of stuttering individuals.
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Ratner, N. (1995). Treating the child who stutters with concomitant language or phonological impairment. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN THE SCHOOLS, 26, 180-186.

This article outlines several considerations that surround the treatment of coexisting fluency and other speech and language disorders and provides guidelines for determining treatment objectives. Prior to therapy, these considerations include which area to target first, what order to sequence the goals, and what distinguishes normal developmental disfluencies from stuttering. Other considerations discussed in this article are the variations in attack strategies and parental involvement in the therapeutic process. The author provides descriptions of these different approaches, such as sequential, concurrent, blended and discrete, and how each can be used to facilitate development in the areas of language development, phonology and fluency.
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Ratner, Nan Bernstein. (2003). Effective treatment of childhood stuttering. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 24, 1-3.

This brief introduction provides readers with an outline of topics including information technology in stuttering, multicultural concerns in stuttering assessment and treatment, self-therapy techniques including self-regulation, information on how to achieve generalization of treatment objectives as well as other topics of interest. With the increasing number of children coming from cultural diverse backgrounds, clinicians must be prepared to respond differently to each case. This particular issue of Seminars includes advice for building a strong and effective family-teacher-clinician partnership.
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Ratner, N., B. (2004). Caregiver-child interactions and their impact on children''s fluency: implications for treatment. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 35, 46-56.

This article discusses the possible consequences of changing parental language patterns and interaction styles as it relates to parents that have children who stutter. The article discusses the difference between older therapy techniques( such as modifications to speech rate and turn taking) as opposed to newer ones( such as the Lidcombe program). The limitations of current research and the direction of future research is also addressed.
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Ratner, N.B. (2005). Evidence-based practice in stuttering: Some questions to consider. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30 (3), 163-188.

This article re-evaluates the level of support that is available for a number of popular stuttering therapy approaches that were recently evaluated in the Journal of Fluency Disorders (Vol. 28, Issue 3, 2003). This article also questions the value placed on some types of programs supported by the forum. The author discusses how to evaluate the status of evidence-based practice in fluency disorders, points out concerns about the impact of narrow interpretation of EBP research and practice in the field of fluency disorders and other non- medical interventions. The role of theory in evaluating treatment approaches is discussed along with potential barriers to gathering clinical evidence and its implication by practitioners. The Lidcombe program is also evaluated.
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Rastatter, M.P., McGuire, R.A., & Loren, C. (1988). Linguistic encoding dominance in stuttering: some evidence for temporal and qualitative hemispheric processing differences. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 215-224.

The study measured naming reaction times of stuttering and nonstuttering subjects to pictures presented unilaterally and tachistoscopically. Data indicated that significant interaction between the stuttering vs. nonstuttering groups and left vs. right visual field variables were existent. Post-hoc analysis of visual field, error types and reaction times are discussed.
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Reardon, N. & Reeves, L. (2002). Stuttering therapy in partnership with support groups: the best of both worlds. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 23, 213-218.

The stuttering support organization can play a significant role in treatment and is a powerful adjunct to formal therapy. One of the most important advantages of a support group is the opportunity to connect with individuals who share common issues. Children are able to share experiences and feelings in a safe and supportive environment that can help them gain a sense of belonging. Parents involved in organizations find much needed support and often become more involved in their child's treatment. School-based SLPs gain support and insight as well as validation from other colleagues. Support groups add a new level to treatment and a partnership among everyone involved.
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Reed, P., Howell, P. C., Davis, S., & Osborne, L. A. (2007). Development of an operant treatment for content word dysfluencies in persistent stuttering children: Initial experimental data. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY AND RESEARCH, 2, 1-13.

This study was implemented to explore a type of operant treatment for persistent stutterers. It has been found that children who exhibit normal disfluencies tend to stutter on function words rather then content words. Adults and children that exhibit persistent stuttering tend to display disfluencies on content words. Children with high content word disfluencies have a poor prognosis for recovery. The current study aims to use operant conditioning to reduce content word disfluencies using negative reinforcement. Function word disfluencies were rewarded with positive reinforcement. Results found that even though function word disfluencies were rewarded with nonverbal praise, communication was still disrupted and function word disfluencies decreased in frequency. Content word disfluencies also decreased for these children.
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Reilly, J., & Donaher, J. (2005). Verbal working memory skills of children who stutter: A preliminary investigation. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 32, 38-42.

This study focuses on exploring the relationship between working memory and stuttering in children. Participants included five children who stutter and five children who don't stutter, matched for age to the children who stutter. All ten children's memory recall was tested using a computer program, while the clinician kept track of verbal responses. Results showed that children who stutter had significantly higher recall than children who don't stutter.
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Reitzes, P. (2006). Five fun activities to practice pausing with children who stutter. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY AND RESEARCH, 1, (3), 202-210.

The main objective of this article is to inform the reader about the effectiveness and use of pausing within therapy activities. It is important that children who stutter know how to pause between words rather than within the word as a whole. The following article lists several activities to help reduce the rate of speech which in turn will potentially reduce the frequency of stuttering. The five activities include: Map Land, Tell Me a Joke, Simon Says, Guess What I am, and Tell Me a Story. The previous activities also may be included into language goals with include: following directions, complete and complex sentences, new vocabulary, expressing objects within a category, comprehensive and expressive language and sequencing events.
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Reitzes, P. (2006). Pausing: Reducing the frequency of stuttering. JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY & RESEARCH, 1, 64- 78. http://www.journalofstuttering.com/ListofArticles.html

One method of a speaking strategy that helps people move through moments of stuttering and also helps reduce stuttering behaviors is pausing. While most strategies prolong speech within words, this article looks at the use of pausing when a speaker uses a pause between words to reduce the occurrence of overt stuttering behaviors. Pausing also helps reduce speaking rate without modifying articulation. It is suggested that pausing be used both with other types of speaking strategies and while working on the client's negative thoughts and attitudes about stuttering. This article also includes strategies to help incorporate pausing into therapy for both children and adults.
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Reitzes, P. (2007). Teaching graduate and undergraduate students to model stuttering behaviors. JOURNAL OF STUTTERING, ADVOCACY & RESEARCH, 2, 26-31. from http://www.journalofstuttering.com/ListofArticles.html.

Teachers help graduate and undergraduate speech-language pathology students learn how to model stuttering. This is called learning how to pseudostutter. First, the teachers help the clinicians desensitize themselves to stuttering. To help them the teacher will show a film of people who stutter. This will give them an idea of what it is, and different ways people stutter. Next, there will be discussion about stuttering behaviors and normal disfluencies. The teacher will then model different types of stuttering and secondary behaviors, so the student gets an idea of how stuttering might sound. After learning the different characteristics of stuttering, the clinician's try psudeostuttering in small classroom groups, and eventually the clinicians will be psuedostuttering in public. These clinicians learn this because it helps them desensitize themselves to stuttering and helps them understand what it is like to be a person who stutters. A client will appreciate the clinician's time and effort in the future.
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Riaz, N., Steinberg, S., Ahmad, J., Pluzhnikov, A., Riazuddin, S., Cox, N., & Drayna, D. (2005). Genomewide significant linkage to stuttering on chromosome AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, 76 (4), 647-651.

This article hypothesizes that there is a genetic involvement related to stuttering. The study focused on highly inbred families from the city Lahore, Pakistan. They analyzed 199 genotyped individuals, 144 persons who stutter and 55 persons with normal fluency. The results for this sample suggest evidence of linkage on chromosome 12q. The study notes, however, that given the complexity of stuttering numerous loci contribute to this phenotype.
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Riley, G. D., & Ingham, J. D. (2000). Acoustic duration changes associated with two types of treatment for children who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH, 43(4) 965-978.

This study a.) examined the effects of Speech Motor Training (SMT), in young children, on temporal acoustic durations related to their speech motor programming, b.) compared the effects of SMT therapy to the effects of a Extended Length of Utterance (ELU) therapy which did not incorporate speech motor control training, and c.) reviewed the relationship of a reduction in stuttering to changes in acoustic duration. Twelve children who stutter were divided into 2 treatment groups SMT (n=6) and ELU (n=6). Recordings were made of the children repeating "pa" and "taka" before and after their training. Researchers also had a matched reference group of children who did not stutter. Tokens for acoustic measurement were syllables that began with /p/ and /t/. The five measures used to show the temporal aspects of speech motor performance included: vowel duration, stop gap duration, voice onset time, stop gap/vowel duration ratio and total token duration. Results indicated that after SMT training many children displayed measurable increases in vowel duration and small reductions in stop gap duration. Although stuttering was reduced more with the ELU therapy than with the SMT training, the researchers did not find significant effects on the temporal acoustic measures. It is proposed that increased vowel duration provides more time for speech motor planning and that stuttering is decreased because of that longer vowel duration.
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Riley, G.D., Riley J. (1982). Evaluating stuttering problems in children. JOURNAL OF CHILDHOOD COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 6, 15-25.

This article presents criteria to help determine if young children who stutter will outgrow their stuttering habits or if their stuttering will become chronic. The article gives guidelines to differentiate the two groups of young stutters in the following categories. Child's complicating behaviors and attitudes. Listeners complicating behaviors and attitudes. Concomitant speech or language problems including Receptive Language, Expressive Language and Oral Motor Coordination. Treatment and implications including Environment Modification, Attitude Modification and Direct Modification of Stuttering.
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Riley, G. & Riley, J. (1986). Oral motor discoordination among children who stutter, JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 335-344.

There is growing research in the area of oral motor discoordination (OMD). This study hopes to provide support that OMD can be reliably defined and improved by a program that targets aspects of syllable production. This study also looks at the relationship between OMD and perceived stuttering. First, practice tapes were created so that clinicians could practice judging oral motor errors. Next, a treatment program was developed to improve oral motor abilities by controlling the number of syllables, the number of different consonants, the number of unvoiced consonants and the syllable shapes of the targets. Finally, two possible relationships between OMD and stuttering were explained. The first is that of a reciprocal relationship. When either OMD or fluency are targeted and improved, the other is improved as well. The second idea is that oral motor training is a direct modification of stuttering.
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Riley, GD. & Riley, J. (1989). Physician's Screening Procedure for Children Who May Stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS. 14, 57-66.

This study was developed to formulate a data based screening protocol. Management of children's disfluencies as soon as they show abnormalities. By enrolling the child into therapy, their risk of social punishment is decreased. There were two purposes of this study, one was to develop a useful procedure for doctors and other professionals to refer a child. The second is to develop criteria for making a referral. Symptoms were developed and divided into six areas. A child is rated and is referred depending on the symptoms that are reported for them. It is yet to be seen if doctors and parents can recognize the symptoms on the referral form.
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Riley, J., Riley, G., & Maguire, G. (2004). Subjective screening of stuttering severity, locus of control and avoidance: research edition. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 51-62.

The purpose of this study was to determine which individuals who stutter retain anticipatory anxiety and feared word substitution after achieving fluency. Sixteen adults who stutter participated in the study. The Subjective Screening of Stuttering (SSS) was used to assess perceived severity, perceived locus of control, and perceived avoidance. In the SSS the severity, locus of control, and avoidance is based on the percent of syllables stuttered. The results indicated that the percent of stuttered syllables correlated with stuttering severity, and locus of control, but not with avoidance.
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Riva-Posse, P., Busto-Marolt, L., Schteinschnaider, A., Martinez-Echenique, L., Cammarota, A., & Merello, M. (2008). Phenomenology of abnormal movements in stuttering. PARKINSONISM AND RELATED DISORDERS, 14, 415-419.

This study analyzes the abnormal movements of PWS in order to examine the incidence and phenomenology of those movements in regards to stuttering behavior. All movements observed were either classified as voluntary or involuntary. Results revealed that involuntary movements accounted for 45.5% more of the abnormal movements than voluntary movements.
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Robb, M. and Blomgren, M. (1997). Analysis of F2 transitions in the speech of stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 1-16.

An Acoustical examination of lingual articulation in the fluent speech of stutterers and nonstutterers was done. The slope of the second formant(F2) was found following consonant release, which was used to assess coarticulation. Motor speech skills were discussed characterizing fluent speech production. Because of quicker dimensional changes in vocal-tract behavior stutterers were found to show larger slope coefficients, when compared to nonstutterers.
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Robb, M., Blomgren, M., & Chen, Y. (1998). Format frequency fluctuation in stuttering and nonstuttering adults. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 73-84.

This article investigates the purpose and clinical use of Format Frequency Fluctuation (FFF) measures of people who stutter. This study examined the steady-rate portion of format 2 (F2) of people who stutter who had been treated for stuttering, people who stutter who have not been treated for stuttering, and normals. The group of untreated people who stutter had the greatest FFF measures while the normal population and treated people who stutter and the most F2 stability. The researchers predict these differences in FFF are due to effects of therapy which emphasizes controlled speech rate, light articulatory contacts, and continuous phonation. FFF may serve as a sensitive measure of fluency, detecting dysfluency which isn't noticed perceptually. A further study could compare FFF when dysfluencies are identified perceptually and FFF measures when there are no perceptual signs of dysfluency.
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Robey, R. R. (2004). Reporting point and interval estimates of effect- size for planned contrasts: fixed within effect analyses of variance. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 307-341.

This article reviews the state of statistical science regarding effect-size, discusses the importance of effect-size in all forms of research, and shows how effect size can be easily reported. The article includes sections pertaining to: Why the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association recommends that researchers report estimates of effect-size and confidence intervals around them, what an effect size is, What the appropriate confidence intervals for effect-sizes are, what the various measures of effect-size are and how they differ, which measures of effect-size should be reported in a manuscript, how point-estimates and confidence intervals for effect-size are obtained, how they should be reported in a manuscript, and how to interpret the results.
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Robinson, TL., Jr, Crowe, TA. (1987). A Comparative Study of Speech Disfluencies in Nonstuttering Black and White College Athletes. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 147-156.

57 college athletes (28 black and 29 white) age 19-24 were screened in the areas of articulation, voice, fluency, and hearing. A 100-word conversational sample and a 200-word reading sample were elicited from each subject. Both samples were rated for disfluency. Results indicated that the black athletes displayed significantly more disfluencies in reading than did the white athletes, particularly in word and phrase repetition. In conversation, there were no remarkable differences found between the groups. The group of white athletes did, however, exhibit significantly more hesitations in conversation than did the group of black athletes.
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Robinson, TL. Jr. & Crowe, TA. (1998). Culture-based considerations in programming for stuttering intervention with African American clients and their families. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 29, 172-179.

A model for evaluating and treating stuttering in African American children is presented in this article. This model includes six levels of counseling and therapy which address decisions regarding multicultural programming. They are pre-intervention, intake, evaluation, counseling, treatment, and carryover. Each of these levels takes into consideration cultural variables as well as individual differences within the culture. Although this model was designed for African Americans, it can be applied easily to multicultural populations in general.
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Rosseau, I., Onslow, M., Packman, A., & Jones, M. (2008). Comparisons of audio and audiovisual measures of stuttering frequency and severity in preschool-age children. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 17, 173-178.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there was a difference in the results of stuttering frequency and severity through audio or audiovisual measures. The author's were more concerned with pre-school aged children, as much of the research indicating that the type of measure used has little influence on severity ratings, has been conducted with adults. In this study, the author's question was answered and determined that there were differences in the scores for stuttering frequency between the audio-only and audiovisual mode. The author's explain that because stuttering behaviors are both seen and heard, an audio-only measure may underestimate the severity.
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Rousseau, I., Packman, A., Onslow, M., Harrison, E., & Jones, M. (2007). An investigation of language and phonological development and the responsiveness of preschool age children to the Lidcombe Program. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 40, 382-397.

This study focuses on the treatment for early stuttering and uses variables such as language and phonology to predict treatment time of preschool aged children who stutter. The variables of stuttering frequency and severity have previously been used when predicting the time it takes a CWS to complete Stage 1 of the Lidcombe Program. In this study the children were evaluated based on MLU and CELF scores. Only one of 34 children didn't complete Stage 1 of the Lidcombe Program because of a lack of progress. Typically, children with a higher MLU had shorter treatment times and children with higher CELF receptive scores took longer during treatment.
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Ruscello, D. M., Schmitt, J.F., & Pannbacker, M.D. (1994). Special educators' perceptions of stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS,19(2), 125-132.

This article presents the results of a questionnaire completed by special educators about their perceptions of people who stutter. They listed the adjectives which most accurately represent four groups of stutterers; a male child, a female child, a male adult, and a female adult. The results indicated that a majority of perceptions were negative and described the person's personality, and that the male child received more descriptors than any other group. Implications of these findings in the relationship between special educators and their students who stutter and professional development that addresses the impact of stereotypical behaviors and the stuttering personality are discussed.
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Rustin, L., & Cook, F. (1995). Parental involvement in the treatment of stuttering. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN THE SCHOOLS, 26, 127-137.

The authors provide a thorough review of the literature supporting their view that parental involvement is the key to effective management of children who stutter. Assessment procedures are presented which encourage complete parental involvement from the beginning. Three therapeutic phases, separated according to age rather than stuttering severity, are presented. Each therapy phase suggests differing degrees of parental involvement, with Phase 1 (2- 6 years) requiring the most involvement of parents.
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Ryan, B.P. (1992). Articulation, language, rate and fluency characteristics of stuttering and nonstuttering preschool children. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 333-342.

Articulation, language and fluency tests were given to 20 stuttering and 20 nonstuttering male and female preschool children to examine their performance differences between the two groups. The children's speaking rate was also measured. The results between the two groups of children were presented and interpreted. More research is needed to demonstrate the functional relationship between language and stuttering.
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Ryan, B.P. (2001). A Longitudinal Study of Articulation, Language, Rate and Fluency of 22 Preschool Children Who Stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26:2, 107-127.

This is a longitudinal study that focuses on speech and language of preschool children who stutter, and was originally studied by Ryan (1992) The present study consisted of 22 children who stutter, ranging in age of 2 to 5. 16 of these children were from Ryan's group (1992), and 6 new children. The children were given the Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale (AAPS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) - alternating forms M & L, Test of Language Development (TOLD), and the FI. 30 trained supervised graduate students over a 10 year period did the testing, computed the scores and were observers. The findings were: (1) Articulation and language test scores showed no significant differences between those recovered and those who persisted. (2) No significant correlation's between articulation and language tests and stuttering. (3) All children showed improvement in articulation and language. (4) 68.2% recovered from stuttering without treatment (5) there was little value in identifying persistent or transient stuttering problems with the measurement of articulation and language skills.
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Ryan, B.P., & Ryan, B.V. (1995). Programmed stuttering treatment for children: Comparison of two establishment programs through transfer, maintenance, and follow-up. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38(1), 61-75.

Two programs were compared: The delayed auditory feedback (DAF) and Gradual increase in length and complexity of utterance (GILCU). The programs were carried out by 12 clinicians under supervision with 24 clients in a school setting. The study concluded that the results from the 2 programs were similar with the exception of generalization where it appeared the GILCU program produced better generalization of fluency.
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Sacco, P.R., & Metz, D.E. (1987). Changes in stutterers' fundamental frequency contours following therapy. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 1, 1-8

This article examines the fundamental frequencies of the utterances of stutterers versus non-stutterers. Evidence from previous studies citing normal changes in fundamental frequency and laryngeal tension associated with the voicing characteristics of the stop consonant are discussed. The study included 45 male and eight female stutterers ranging in age from ten to fifty-four years. Stuttering frequency was measured and calculated. Each subject received both group and individual therapy daily for a period of 5 weeks. The principle finding of the study was that stutterers' fundamental frequency declination in pre and post therapy conditions was statistically the same. There was no definitive evidence that therapy has any influence on altering abnormal laryngeal tensions sometimes associated with dysfluency.
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Sahin, H. A., Krespi, Y., Yilmaz, A., & Coban, O., (2005). Stuttering due to ischemic stroke. BEHAVIOURAL NEUROLOGY, 16, 37-39.

This article describes acquired stuttering with left parietal infarction. The article describes two cases in which the person suffered a stroke which affected either the supramarginal gyrus or the supramarginal and angular gyrus. As a result of their strokes both people exhibited stuttering behaviors. After both cases were treated with pharmacological agents their speech returned to normal. Acquired stuttering usually results from a lesion in the left hemisphere, but acquired stuttering has appeared with damage the right hemisphere. With damage to or disconnection of the supramarginal and angular gyrus may be the cause of transient episodes of stuttering.
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St. Clare, T., Menzies, R. G., Onslow, M., Packman, A., Thompson, R., and Block, S. (2008). Unhelpful thoughts and beliefs linked to social anxiety in stuttering: Development of a measure. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, V, 1-14.

The purpose of this study was to describe the development of a 66-item scale of Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS). In the development of the scale, three phases were utilized. Phase 1 outlines the initial formation of the scale. Phase 2 describes the construct validity and sensitivity of the scale and Phase 3 describes the reliability of the scale. Initial results show that this scale is reliable and sensitive and may be able to distinguish between stuttering and non-stuttering actions.
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St. Louis, K.O. (1996). A tabular summary of cluttering subjects in the special edition. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21 (3/4), 337-343.

This article presents tables summarizing results of questionnaires for 29 clutterers. A second table summarizes targets, procedures, and results of therapy for 15 of the clutterers.
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St. Louis, K. O. 1988). Nonstutterers' perceptions of stuttering and speech difficulty. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 375-384.

The subject of this paper is Woolf's Perceptions of Stuttering Inventory (PSI) which is an index of self-perception of stuttering abnormality for adolescent and adult stutterers. Among stutterers and nonstutterers, PSI scores are not only influenced by stuttering but also the effects of knowledge or interest in speech pathology and the perception of whether or not one who "stutters" is a "stutterer'. To take into consideration the latter, for the purpose of this paper, the word "stuttering" in the PSI was replaced with "speaking difficulty" and the inventory was renamed the Perceptions of Speech Inventory (PSpI). Three investigations on responses of nonstutterers on the PSI and PSpI were completed. The first experiment compared the performance of nonstutterers in two basic speech pathology classes on the original and revised versions of the PSI. The second experiment involved more carefully controlled comparison of scores of two groups of undergraduate students on the PSI and the PSpI. The third experiment determined the influence of a course devoted entirely to stuttering on self-assessment of speech pathology majors. Knowledge of or the attention to "stuttering" or "stutterers" as well as speech pathology or public speaking course work affected nonstutterer scores. Results of these experiments suggest "normal" scores have not been established.
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St. Louis, KO. , Hinzman, AR. (1988). A descriptive study of speech, language, and hearing characteristics of school-aged stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 331-355.

This study was conducted to find out if stuttering usually occurs in isolation or if it tends to coexist with other communication disorders. Previous research on this topic was reviewed and showed that stutters are likely to manifest associated communication disorders particularly articulation deviations and language delays. The data pool was taken from the National Speech and Hearing Survey from 1968-1969. Three groups were formed each having 24 subjects to represent grades 1-12. Two groups of stutterers were chosen to sample stuttering severity levels in two different populations. The third group consisted of nonstutterers and was used as control subjects. Two children were selected to represent each grade level in each group. Various tests were administered to document data in the areas of disfluency, articulation, voice, language, and hearing. The results showed that many school-aged children/adolescents who stutter are likely to have co-existing communication disorders, especially in the areas of articulation, language, and voice. These results were compared to a previous study completed on children who stutter but have no other communication disorders.
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St. Louis, K., & Hinzman, A. (1986). Studies of cluttering: Perceptions of cluttering by speech- language pathologists and educators. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 131-149.

The purpose of this study was to determine how much knowledge and how comfortable SLPs and educators are with cluttering. It also intended to focus on the amount of people who clutter that also have learning disabilities. 500 questionnaires were sent out to SLPs and 156 were returned. 500 different questionnaires were sent to educators and 169 were returned. Results showed that many SLPs and educators are aware of cluttering and have children who clutter to work with. SLPs showed knowledge in the area of the cause and symptoms of cluttering. Most SLPs and educators felt that they did not have enough training and felt inadequate in the area of treating cluttering. The study also determined that many people who clutter also have learning disabilities.
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St. Louis, K. O. & Myers, F. L. (1995). Clinicial management of cluttering. LANGUAGE SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN THE SCHOOLS, 26 (2), 187-195.

St. Louis and Myers present the most recent definitions of cluttering. The authors present six working assumptions concerning the disorder of cluttering. The assumptions are hypothetical; they are selected from clinical experience of practicing clinicians. The assumptions include: 1) Cluttering and stuttering are related but separate disorders. 2) Clutterers manifest a primary disorder of rate and frequently have concomitant disorders of articulation and language. 3) Fluency problems in clients who clutter typically are remediated indirectly. 4) Clutterers have difficulty in self- monitoring. 5). Cluttering therapy should involve the family. 6) Cluttering therapy should involve professionals in allied health and educational fields. Clinical strategies are also presented within this framework. St. Louis and Myers present logical ideas in support of further research into "the orphan of speech pathology" -cluttering. The authors present the available research and also challenge clinicians for more study and answers to the questions cluttering continues to present.
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St. Louis, K.O., Myers, F.L., Cassidy, L.J., Michael, A.J., Penrod, S.M., Litton, B.A., Coutras, S.W., Olivera, J.L.R., & Brodsky, E. (1996). Efficacy of delayed auditory feedback for treating cluttering: Two case studies. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21 (3/4), 305-314.

Two case studies are reported to determine the extent to which a delayed auditory feedback (DAF) treatment program was effective in reducing disfluencies and rate anomalies in two young male cluttering subjects. Although both subjects met predetermined fluency criteria during treatment, both clutterers had difficulty transferring gains. Differences in cluttering severity, coexisting disorders, clinical techniques, and results of DAF treatment are examined.
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St. Louis, K., Myers, F., Faragasso, K., Townsend, PS, & Gallaher, A., (2004). Perceptual aspects of cluttered speech. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 213-235.

This descriptive investigation compared perceptual judgments of speech naturalness with four other attributes of speech-language production (articulation, language, disfluency, and speaking rate) using speech samples of two youth clutterers (ages 11 and 12 years) who differed in cluttering severity. Perceptual impressions are nearly always the first and often the strongest evidence that a person has a fluency disorder. The global measure of naturalness captures important aspects of all of these attributes and should augment the "objective" measures obtained during clinical evaluations, as well as be monitored during treatment. Among the five attributes investigated, rate and naturalness were perceptually least acceptable for both clutters followed by articulation. Disfluency and language were most acceptable. Also, the multi-dimensionality of naturalness judgments is highlighted in this study.
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Samar, V.J., Metz, D.E., & Sacco, P.R. (1986). Changes in aerodynamic characteristics of stutterers' fluent speech associated with therapy. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 29, 106-113.

This report obtained data on four aerodynamic variables (peak volume velocity, voicing offset to oral release, volume-velocity rise interval, peak volume velocity to voicing onset) from 15 people who stutter (PWS) ranging in severity from mild to severe. All participants received identical individual and group therapy on a daily basis for five weeks. Measurements of the four variables were taken pre and post treatment. Results of the study indicated motor control processes directly influenced the volume-velocity rise interval. These results lead to the conclusion that volume-velocity rate is exclusively related to the frequency of stuttering in individuals.
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Sasisekaran, J., & De Nil, L. (2006). Phoneme monitoring in silent naming and perception in adults who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 284-302.

Ten males who stutter and 12 males who do not stutter (ages 18 to 48) participated in a study that hypothesized the males who stutter would perform more poorly on phoneme monitoring on silent naming tasks than those who do not stutter, but would perform similarly on auditory perception tasks. This would support the theory of a phonological encoding deficit in people who stutter. The Stuttering Severity Index (SSI) categorized two participants as moderate, two as mild, and six as very mild. The words presented in the silent naming and auditory perception tasks were compound words and noun phrases. For the silent naming task, the participants were presented with the picture and a reading of the word. They were asked to silently name the word and push a green button if the target sound existed in the word and a red button if not. The responses were timed. Then the participants were asked to say the word out loud. Finally, for the auditory perception, participants were instructed to push the button when they heard the target phoneme while listening to the stimuli, which was also timed. Outliers were excluded, but results showed the participants who stutter performing significantly slower on the silent naming task. The participants who stutter performed slower on the auditory perception task, but not to statistical significance. The study supported the hypothesis for difference between groups on silent naming tasks related to phonological monitoring.
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Sasisekaran, J., De Nil, L. F., Smyth, R., & Johnson, C. (2006). Phonological encoding in the silent speech of persons who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 1-21.

This study examined phonological encoding skills during silent speech in people who stutter (PWS) and people who do not stutter (PNS) using a phoneme-monitoring paradigm. The participants (11 PWS and 11 PNS) completed five tasks: a familiarization task, a picture naming task, a phoneme-monitoring task, and auditory monitoring tasks, and a simple motor task. Results showed that PWS were significantly slower than PNS on the phoneme-monitoring task, but had scores similar to the PNS on the other tasks. These findings support theories of stuttering that associate delayed phonological encoding with the occurrence of moments of stuttering.
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Savage, C. & Lieven, E. (2004). Can the usage-based approach to language development be applied to analysis of developmental stuttering? STAMMERING RESEARCH, 1, 83-100. Retrieved from http://www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk.

Children learn vocal sounds shortly after birth, which provide the basis for most language development and develops over the course of three years from single words to simple, more complex grammatical utterances. Any difficulties that a child experiences while learning language may result in a different type of fluency problem. This article provides a developmental perspective on stuttering and speech production in general. It is broken into seven sections discussing the following topics: The nature of children's early linguistic knowledge and how it relates to on-line speech production, the mechanisms of speech production and how disfluencies could arise, a specific theory about the development of stuttering (EXPLAN) and how this theory might relate to the language development models, and future directions of research.
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Savage, C. & Howel, P., (2008). Lexical priming of function words and content words with child who do, and do not stutter. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS. 41, 459-484.

The specific mechanisms that underlie childhood stuttering is still somewhat a mystery. This study was conducted in attempts to gain a better understanding by comparing the effect on fluency of priming different components of a short sentence. Twelve children who stutter (CWS) and 12 children who do not stutter (CWNS) were observed during this study. The results showed that there was a significant effect of priming in that all children produced fewer function word disfluencies after content word primes than after function word primes. It was also determined that there were more disfluencies on functions words than on content words that were produced bye the children in either group.
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Savelkoul, E. M., Zebrowski, P. M., Feldstein, S., & Cole-Harding, S. (2007). Coordinated interpersonal timing in the conversations of children who stutter and their mothers and fathers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32, 1-32.

Coordinated interpersonal timing is essentially a measure of how two people in a conversation are "in tune" with each other. This study focused on the relationship of conversations of mothers and fathers of children who stutter compared to children who speak fluently. Some recording procedures were utilized to simultaneously measure sounds and silences of the mother's and father's speech with their child's speech. The behaviors that the researchers recorded in mother's/father's and the child's speech were vocalizations, pauses, turn switching pauses, interruptive and noninterruptive simultaneous speech. Results showed that the speech of children who stutter may be more influenced by time issues during conversation.
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Sawyer, J., Chon, H. & Ambrose, N.G. (2008). Influences of rate, length, and complexity on speech disfluency in a single-speech sample in preschool children who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 33, 220-240

This article analyzed the influences of rate, length, and complexity on speech disfluency in preschool children who stutter. The study included 14 participants ages 33-57 months. Speech samples were analyzed looking specifically at the disfluencies at the end of a long-speech sample. The factors analyzed included length [measured in Mean Length of Utterance(MLU)], grammatical complexity (measured by the number of clauses and clausal constituents per utterance), and articulation rate (measured acoustically in the number of syllables/second). The interaction between the above factors were then explored. The article includes results providing detailed information concerning the influences of rate, length, and complexity on speech disfluency. Additional information in the article includes clinical implications, caveats, and future research directions. A continuing education section to support the educational objectives is also provided in the article.
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Sawyer, J. & Ehud, Y. (2006). The effect of sample size on the assessment of stuttering severity. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 15, 36-44.

This study examined the effects of speech sample size on the frequency of disfluency and disfluency length in 20 preschool children who stutter. The 20 participants were aged 33 to 58 months and represented a range of stuttering severity levels. A1200 syllable speech sample was elicited and videotaped for each participant. The number of stuttering-like-disfluencies per 100 syllables was calculated for each sample. In addition, the length of disfluency was calculated by counting the number of repetition units. The disfluency counts were analyzed for the first consecutive 300, 600, 900, and 1200 syllables. A significant difference in the number of stuttering- like-disfluencies was seen between the sample sizes of 300 and 1200 syllables. In addition, when the size of the sample was greater than 300 syllables, a 20% increase in stuttering-like-disfluencies was seen for half of the participants. The effect of sample size on disfluency length was not found to be significant. The researchers conclude that longer speech samples may be necessary for the identification of fluency disorders in preschool children. However, further research is needed before more precise recommendations regarding speech sample size can be made.
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Schaeffer, N. & Eichorn, N. (2001). The effects of differential vowel prolongations on perceptions of speech naturalness. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26, 335-348.

This study examined which durations and in which contexts prolonged speech (prolonged vowels, prolongation throughout utterances) as judged by 52 college students was perceived to be unnatural. Prolongation was narrowed to a vowel in the middle of a single syllable word. Results indicated that the length of the utterance, and possibly the context, did influence the perceived naturalness of the word.
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Schiavetti, N., Martin, R.R., & Metz, D.E. (1994). Psychological analysis of audiovisual judgments of speech naturalness of nonstutterers and stutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37, 46-52.

The purpose of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of Equal-Appearing Interval (EAI) rating and Direct Magnitude Estimation (DME) scales when measuring speech naturalness of PWS. Forty students were randomly assigned to use one of the two scales to rate speech naturalness of audiovisual recordings. Group reliability was high for both scales, but individual rater reliability was higher for EAI. Both scales were considered to be valid measurement tools.
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Schloss, P. J., Freeman, C. A., Smith, M. A., & Espin, C. A. (1987). Influence of assertiveness training on the stuttering rates exhibited by three young adults. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12(5), 333-353.

This study examined the effects of assertiveness training on the stuttering rates of three adult male subjects. The subject's responses and instances of stuttering in relation to three different types of conversational styles: disagreeable, impatient, and patronizing were measured prior to and after training procedures. The training procedures consisted of instruction, modeling, behavior rehearsal, feedback, social reinforcement and homework. Results indicated that all three subject's responses regarding the different types of conversational styles increased following treatment. In addition, a decrease in stuttering following assertiveness training occurred for two of the three subjects.
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Scott, L.A., Healey, C., & Norris, J.A. (1995). A comparison between children who stutter and their normally fluent peers on a story retelling task. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 3 279-292.

The purpose of this study was to determine if children who stutter produced less sophisticated narratives when compared to their normally fluent peers. In addition, the authors wanted to determine if the number of disfluencies produced during a story-retelling task were related to the sophistication of the narrative structure. The results of this study show that the narrative abilities of children who stutter are not significantly different from those of their normally fluent peers. The authors acknowledge that the literature now reveals accumulating evidence supporting this view. Of interest within this study, is the identification of three subgroups of children who stutter. Identification of such subgroups indicates that for some of these children, subtle language impairment may be a component of the fluency disorder. The authors suggest additional research efforts be done to determine if the subgroup patterns identified in their investigation exist in other samples of children who stutter.
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Schwartz, H.D. (1993) Adolescents who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 289-302.

This article discusses typical approaches in adolescent stuttering therapy and highlights the need for further research and modification of current practices. There are few treatment approaches that target the adolescent stutterer. Current treatment approaches typically group the adolescent with either older children or adults, but these models fail to consider the unique behavioral and emotional characteristics of puberty. Discussion focuses on concerns related to the relationship between emotions and stuttering, transfer and maintenance of fluency, service delivery models, and the need for specialty certification.
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Schwartz, H.D., & Conture, E.D. (1988). Subgrouping young stutterers: Preliminary behavioral observations. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 62-71.

In this study, 43 children who stutter were videotaped during conversations. Their associated speech and nonspeech behaviors, as well as speech disfluency types were identified and quantified for a sample of their stuttering events. The behaviors and disfluency types were grouped and described in an effort to subgroup the individuals who stutter. Five cohesive clusters of children who stutter were identified and described based on the associated speech and nonspeech behaviors and within- word disfluency type. Future research can consider similarities within the groups and differences between groups in order to better understand the nature of stuttering and its onset and development.
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Schwenk, K. A., Conture, E. G., Walden, T. A. (2007). Reaction to background stimulation of preschool children who do and do not stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 40, (2), 129-141.

This study examined attention maintenance and environmental adaptation of both children who stutter and children who did not stutter. A total of 36 children between the ages of 3 and 5 were selected to participate. In order to judge attention maintenance, the children were observed interacting with a caregiver. Eye gaze breaks were measured for number of instances and duration of the break. In order to judge environmental adaptation, the children's reaction to camera movement was recorded. Findings indicated that children who stutter were more likely to shift attention by breaking eye gaze and were more sensitive to environmental changes. This may suggest that children who stutter are highly aware of their environment and changes to it which may cause them to compensate for their disfluencies by using physical tension and increased rate.
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Seery, C. H., Watkins, R. V., Mangelsdorf, S. C., & Shigeto, A. (2007). Subtyping stuttering II: Contributions from language and temperament. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32(3), 197- 217.

This article focuses on language abilities and temperament variables that may be related to subtypes of young children who stutter. The article is second in a series of two papers discussing areas in which research may be conducted to differentiate subtypes of stuttering. Language and temperament were the focus of the research conducted for this article because when stuttering onset is most likely to happen there are significant changes in both areas, both areas have been studied extensively throughout time, and the research that has been conducted pertaining to both areas has not addressed developmental stuttering. The authors of this article go into great detail about subtypes in language disability and in temperament, the review of literature concerning stuttering and child temperament, and the common insights from the domains of language and temperament. The authors also integrate language and temperament for further research pertaining to subtyping stuttering. This research would include a larger group of children, relative strengths and weaknesses of development, and observing linguistic gaps between language, temperament, and disfluencies.
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Shames, GH. (1989). Stuttering: An RFP for a Cultural Perspective. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS. 14, 67-75.

Stuttering has been given much attention. Most data however comes from the majority of the American population. There have been a high number of errors and questions about overgeneralizing our information to minority groups. Researchers need to develop appropriate demographic information about stuttering for all groups. There are beliefs that a cultures way of life or stresses can influence their speech and health. Treatment for fluency disorders can be helpful, however the outcome of the therapy can range due to numerous cultural factors. Clinicians and researchers need to take a close look at the responsiveness and sensitivity given to an individual. Cultural dissimilarities need to be evaluated when treating a stutterer.
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Shields, Lynne W., Kuster, Judith Maginnis. (2003). Finding good resources for treating school-age children who stutter. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 24, 7-12.

Clinicians working in the school systems often have a difficult time locating appropriate resources in treatment for children who stutter. There are many options available for clinicians. Four of these resources include the Stuttering Foundation of America, the National Stuttering Association, another self-help organization called FRIENDS and The Stuttering Homepage. These resources are open to adults and children who stutter. It is important that clinicians tailor the available material to fit the needs of the client. By researching these sites thoroughly, clinicians are able to find appropriate materials to help their students succeed in stuttering treatment.
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Shirkey, E. (1987). Forensic verification of stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 197-203.

The subject of this report is a 33 year-old man who was accused of child molestation, and whose speech was a decisive issue in an earlier trial. In his previous trial, he was found not guilty due to indications that he is a person who stutters and no reports indicated the attacker to be a stutterer. The subject was later arrested for attacking six girls, ages 4-11, and one adult woman. A speech-language pathologist was brought in to determine if this subject was an actual stutterer or pseudostuttering stuttering. The results of a speech assessment indicated that the subject was probably a stutterer, although there was no feasible means to determine his actual severity. It is suggested that, for several reasons, he probably could have been fluent during the criminal circumstances described by the victims. In such a situation the speech pathologist could only attempt to determine whether the defendant was, at the time of the assessment, a normally fluent speaker. If speech were used as the sole determinant of guilt or innocence, it would be difficult for the speech pathologist to determine whether the defendant had faked the stuttering at the time of the crime.
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Siegel, GM. (1992). Prevention of stuttering: A response to Hamre. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 1 & 2, 113-120.

This is a commentary by Gerald Siegel in response to Curt Hamre's articles Stuttering Prevention I: Primacy of identification and Stuttering Prevention II: Progression which are contained in this same issue. Regarding Hamre's rejection of the diagnosogenic theory of stuttering, Siegel criticizes Hamre for going to the extremes. Siegel disagrees with Hamre on several points but also compliments him for looking critically at the prevailing views of stuttering which will ultimately stimulate more discussion on this subject.
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Siegel, G. M. (1993). Stuttering and behavior modification: Commentary. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 109-114.

This article provides an overview of behavioral modification through explaining the history, detailing the research, and predicting what the future holds. Even thought behavioral modification has been studied for over 20 years many aspects have been left unsolved. However, behavior modification has had a lasting influence by providing a framework for single-subject research as a prototype for effective data-driven clinical practice. One question remains, will the trend move to physiological studies or will the emergence of behavioral modification make another appearance in up and coming research?
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Silverman, F.H. (1997). Telecommunication relay services: An option for stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 63-64.

This article is to inform individuals who have anxiety about talking on the phone that there is a telecommunication service available that can enable them to communicate by telephone without having to speak.
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Silverman, FH., (1988). Impact of a T-shirt message on stutterer stereotypes. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 279-281.

This study was designed to provide data on how people are likely to react to a stutterer wearing a T-shirt on which is printed, "I stutter. So what!" The results indicate that the stutterers wearing the shirt were judged to have better sense of humor and self- concept, less frightened, more aggressive, brave, calm, interesting, talkative, and uninhibited than the stutterer who was not wearing one. The findings of this study suggest that a T-shirt with an appropriate message is a practical strategy for bringing stuttering out into the open.
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Silverman, F.H. (1988). The "monster study". JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 225-231.

An unpublished thesis project was conducted in the late 1930s under the direction of Wendell Johnson. The study is reported to have turned normally fluent children into children who stutter. Implications are discussed.
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Silverman, F. H. and Bohlman, P. (1988). Flute stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 427-428.

This is a case report that addresses stutter-like disturbances in motor functioning for an adult stutterer while playing the flute. The subject of this report had been playing the flute for six years and gradually moved to smaller bands and orchestras. As a junior in high school, fierce competitions in the flute section developed and "challenges" occurred almost weekly. As she would start to play her flute, her throat would tense, facial muscles freeze, and her entire body would stiffen for a total duration of 15 to 30 seconds. Blocking did not occur in her speech; the stuttering exhibited in her speech consisted mostly of repetitions. After the competition lessened, the stuttering while playing flute disappeared. The subject of this case report did not pursue her music interest at the college level.
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Silverman, F.H. and Bongey, T. A. (1997). Nurses' attitudes toward physicians who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 61-61.

Questionnaires were given to 20 nurses, ten rating "a physician' and ten rating "a physician who stutters." A 20 item scale was used on the questionnaire to find how members of a certain health field judged the competence of another who stuttered. Results of this study showed that physicians who stutter are regarded as being less competent than their peers.
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Silverman, F., Hummer, K., (1989). Spastic Dysphonia: A Fluency Disorder? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 285-291.

This study focused on spastic dysphonia and if it should be classified as a fluency disorder. A study was conducted to determine whether listeners judge the speech of a person with spastic dysphonia as having deviant fluency and how they react to a person with this disorder. Twenty people were selected from "the general public" to listen to a tape of a women with spastic dysphonia and then rate her on 81 scales. The results indicated that listeners judge spastic dysphonia as being deviant in fluency and a person with spastic dysphonia is likely to be perceived negatively. The findings suggest that classifying spastic dysphonia as a fluency disorder may give new direction for research on stuttering.
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Silverman, S., & Ratner, NB. (2002). Measuring lexical diversity in children who stutter: Application of vocd. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 289-304.

This article compares the language abilities of children who stutter with those of fluent children. It includes a case study comparing standardized test results from three vocabulary tests on 15 CWS and 15 fluent peers around 3 years of age. Results were concluded from the standardized tests, Type Token Ratio, and vocd. They showed subtle differences between the two groups, yet enough to indicate that CWS score lower on standardized vocabulary tests than those who are fluent.
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Sisskin, V. (2002). Therapy planning for school-age children who stutter. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 23, 173-179.

Treatment planning for school-based therapy, including careful selection of goals is both required by law and an essential component of the assessment process. The goals of an effective treatment program for school-age children who stutter should address all aspects of the problem and lead to skills that are both lasting and usable in daily life. Characteristics of appropriate therapy goals as well as tools to aid in treatment planning are explored.
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Smits-Bandstra, S. & De Nil, L. F. (2007). Sequence skill learning in persons who stutter: Implications for cortico-striato-thalamo- cortical dysfunction. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32(4), 251-278.

There has been research conducted showing relations to basal ganglia dysfunctions and stuttering. People who stutter (PWS) generally, after practice, have learning skill achievement deficits, on non-speech sequencing tasks. Production on speech sequencing tasks tends to be slower and more imprecise. Patients with impaired basal ganglia function and impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical connections tend to have limited ability to develop automaticity after practice and reduced ability in learning sequencing skills. Four recent studies were reviewed and discussed. Results from studies one and two indicated that PWS, when compared to fluent speakers (PNS), exhibit reduced sequenced finger taping skills as well as the reduced ability to sequence nonsense syllables after practice. Results from studies three and four explain that on a double task such as color recognition and simultaneous sequencing, PWS tend to have a slower or more erroneous performance after practice, when compared to PNS. In conclusion, PWS can have automatization and sequence skill learning insufficiencies therefore; this supports the theory that the dysfunction of the basal ganglia and cortico-striato- thalamo-cortical connection may be a factor in the etiology of stuttering.
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Smits-Bandstra, S., De Nil, L., & Rochon, E. (2006). The transition to increased automaticity during finger sequence learning in adult males who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 31, 22-42.

This study further investigates the ability of people who stutter (PWS) to learn new motor tasks and acquire high levels of automaticity with practice by comparing twelve PWS to a control group of 12 fluent speakers. This was implemented by having the subjects use a finger tapping pattern and a color identification task either separately or concurrently. Results for finger tapping tasks indicated that control subjects improved at a faster rate and had less variability with practice compared to PWS, who demonstrated slower improvement in automaticity and more variability. Overall, PWS benefited from practice but did not improve at the same rate as the control group of people who did not stutter.
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Smits-Bandstra, Sarah, De Nil, Luc F., & Saint-Cry, Jean A. (2006). Speech and nonspeech sequence skill learning in adults who stutter. JOURNAL OR FLUENCY DISORDERS, Volume 31, issue 2,116-136

This motor sequence learning focused on two areas: finger tapping and sequence of nonsense syllables in reading exercises. The premise of the authors is that there is a difference between PWS and PNS in motor skill acquisition and on transfer and retention. The results supported other findings of differences in their skill learning abilities. The differences in sequencing performance with practice were significantly different for finger tapping reaction time than in syllable sequencing. Further studies need to be done to determine the significance of this difference in response and its implications on stuttering.
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Smith, A., Denny, M., Shaffer, L. A., Kelly, E. M., & Hirano, M. (1996). Activity of intrinsic laryngeal muscles in fluent and disfluent speech. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 39, 329- 348.

The authors state that many textbooks and articles on stuttering frequently state that disfluency is associated with high levels of activation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles as if this were a widely accepted, empirically demonstrated fact about stuttering. The purpose of this study was to determine if stuttering is associated with unusually high levels of activity in laryngeal muscles. Levels of laryngeal muscle activity of normal speakers and stutterers was determined by EMG measurements. The measurements were based on the following activities: singing an ascending scale, singing a descending scale, phonation of the vowel /i/ as long as possible, maneuver (requires adduction of the vocal folds), quiet breathing at rest, and swallowing water. The results showed no support for the claim that laryngeal muscle activation during disfluent speech is higher than that during normal speech.
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Smith, A. & Kleinow, J. (2000). Kinematic correlates of speaking rate changes in stuttering and normally fluent adults. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 43, 521-536.

This study focuses on how the speech movement patterns of adults that stutter are effected by the rate of speech. It has been the clinical impression that reduced speaking rates enhance fluency. However, the brain mechanisms for this enhancement are not clear. This study used spatiotemporal stability (STI) to assess whether or not changing the speech rate of adults who stutter would affect the stability in the same way that it effects normally fluent speakers. Subjects were asked to fluently repeat the phrase "Buy Bobby a puppy" 20 times at normal (habitual), fast and slow rates. Phrases that contained dysfluencies were not counted. Results of the STI analysis show that both stutterers and nonstutterers show lowest stability at slower than normal rates. In general the results suggest that stutterers and nonstutterers show similar speech movement patterns, although there were subtle differences observed in some of the stutterers when they were asked to repeat at a habitual rate.
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Smollen, J. (2006). Stuttering celebration. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY AND RESEARCH, 1, 29-32.

It is common for children who stutter to get teased or bullied. In stuttering therapy, it is important to address this issue, and one way to do this is to facilitate classroom discussion about stuttering. The client can make a newsletter with facts or even a quiz about stuttering and present it to their classmates. This article displays an excellent example of a classroom stuttering presentation called the "s-s-s-stuttering celebration." The celebration encouraged discussion of how it is okay to be different. The Speech-Language Pathologist also discussed teasing and bullying and how being teased makes you feel. The celebration helped the client's classmates see her for who she is, and not as the girl who stutters.
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Snyder, G.J. (2001). Exploratory Research in the Measurement and Modification of Attitudes Toward Stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26:2, 149-160.

The introduction to this study discusses various studies that tried to change peoples perception of a stutterer and their findings. The present study consisted of 55 first year speech/language pathology graduate students that were involved in this study over a two year span. 21 students completed the first year, and the remaining 34 completed the second year. 2 opted not to complete the research. The graduate clinicians were given the CATS inventory, which consisted of 50 statements with a wide range of beliefs regarding stuttering. Then the first group viewed the documentary "Speaking of Courage", which involved both emotional and informative content. The second group watched a narrated version of "Effects of Altered Audio Feedback on Stuttering Frequency at Normal and Fast Speaking Rates", which showed people who stutter speaking with and without altered auditory feedback. The clinicians were to wait 24 hours, then complete the post video CATS and return the forms within 72 hours. The findings were: (1) The documentary strengthened the belief of operant therapy. (2) The narrated version found two perceptual changes from pre and post testing. (3) There were a few subtle perceptual changes, which indicates that perceptual changes, in regards to stuttering are possible. (4) This research doesn't support pervious findings that persons perceptions of stuttering are stable and resistant to change. Future research findings were also discussed.
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Snyder, G., Reitzes, P., & Jackson, E.. (2008, October 14). THE ASHA LEADER. Digital audio and self-help for people who stutter, Vol. 13, No. 14, p. 19

The purpose of this article was to introduce a new self-help support-group option, StutterTalk. StutterTalk is a self-help podcast, similar to an archived radio program, which can easily be downloaded to computers or portable devices. StutterTalk allows people who stutter (PWS), speech-language pathologists (SLPs), and family members of PWS the opportunity to talk or listen freely about stuttering. This podcast includes a wide range of topics, such as: covert stuttering, acceptance, and perspectives from teenagers who stutter. The podcast also holds interviews with well known professionals in the field of fluency disorders as well as with PWS themselves.
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Sommers, R.K., & Caruso, A.J. (1995). Inservice training in speech- language pathology: Are we meeting the needs for fluency training? AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY,3 (4), 22-28.

Supervisors of SLP's in the schools and directors of university training programs were surveyed regarding inservice training requirements in speech-language pathology. Findings indicate preferences of speech and language disorders by SLPs regarding intervention, and the identification of a lack of specific training as perceived by the supervisors and directors. Fluency training seems to be unmet in inservice training for SLPs. The article identifies particular components for successful inservice programs to improve SLP's competence and learning.
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Sparks, G., Grant, D. E., Millay, K., Walker-Batson, D., Hynan, L. S. (2002), The effect of fast speech rate on stuttering frequency during delayed auditory feedback. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 187-201.

This study compares the speaking performance of two mildly disfluent subjects and two severely disfluent subjects on reading passages under three DAF conditions (55, 80, and 105 ms delays) and under a no DAF condition. The results show that fluency improved remarkably in the severely disfluent subjects from no DAF to DAF condition in both normal and fast reading. The mildly disfluent subjects' fluency, however, did not improve remarkably from no DAF to DAF condition. These results contradict Wingate's hypothesis that fluency-enhancing effects of DAF can be attributed to reduced speech rate. The authors discuss possible reasons for this result and the need for further research on this topic.
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Stager, S.V., Calis, K., Grothe, D., Bloch, M., Berenson, N.M., Smith, P.J., & Braun, A. (2005). Treatment with medications affecting dopaminergic and serotonoergic mechanisms: Effects on fluency and anxiety in persons who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30, 319-335.

The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which medications with dopamine antagonist properties (pimozide) and serotonin reuptake inhibitor properties (paroxetine) improve fluency. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. The participants were medicated for six weeks, then given a placebo for six weeks, and then medicated again for six weeks. The study was stopped early due to side effects from the withdrawal of the medication paroxetine. Even though the study was terminated early, the results show that dopaminergic mechanisms are more likely to reduce symptoms of stuttering than serotonergic mechanisms, but the side effects of pimozide may outweigh the ability it has to reduce stuttering behaviors.
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Stager, SV., Denman, DW., & Ludlow, CL. (1997). Modifications in Aerodynamic variables by persons who stutter under fluency- evoking conditions. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 40, 832-847.

This study was designed to determine a) the relationship between speech intensity and changes in aerodynamic variables of a person who stutters; b) if persons who stutter change aerodynamics in fluency-evoking conditions and if these changes are similar to the speech changes of persons who do not stutter; and c) if aerodynamic variables are related to changes in fluency. Ten subjects ranging in age (22-52) and stuttering severity (moderate to severe) participated in the study. Intraoral air pressure, airflow, electroglottograph (EGG), and acoustic signals were measured under the fluency evoking conditions of choral reading, delayed auditory feedback, metronome-pacing, and masking noise. Data was collected on vowel duration, speech rate, maximum vowel intensity, peak pressure, flow rise time, pressure rise time, and closure duration. Results revealed that the aerodynamic changes that occur under fluency-evoking conditions were related to fluency changes. These changes included a decrease in airflow and intraoral air pressure during fluency-evoking conditions.
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Stager, SV., Jeffries, KJ., & Braun, AR. (2003). Common features of fluency-evoking conditions studied in stuttering subjects and controls: An H215O PET study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 28, 319-336.

This study used H215O PET to compare brain activation patterns during fluency- and dysfluency-evoking tasks. The participants in this study were seventeen adults, aged 23- 50, who stutter. The results of their PET scans were compared to those of age- and gender-matched controls. Experimental and control group members were scanned during two fluency- and two dysfluency-evoking tasks, as well as during a resting state. In addition, the presence/absence of dysfluent symptoms and phonation time were measured. Results indicated that increased phonation time evoked fluency in PWS during singing, but not during paced speech. In addition, results were evaluated for common areas of brain activation in both PWS and the controls. Participants in the experimental group showed greater activation of the auditory and motor regions in the left hemisphere of the brain during fluency-enhancing tasks. The authors suggested that more effective self- monitoring (in PWS) may allow motor areas that control the speech mechanism to better modify speech.
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Stager, S.V., & Ludlow, C.L. (1993). Speech production changes under fluency-evoking conditions in nonstuttering speakers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 36, 245-253.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 4 fluency evoking conditions on the speech of people who do not stutter. The authors wished to discover whether speaking under fluency-evoking conditions reliably alters speech production in nonstuttering speaker (changes in fundamental frequency, intensity, word/sentence duration, & vowel formant frequencies). The 4 fluency-evoking conditions were: choral reading (CR), metronome pacing (MET), DAF, and masking noise (NOISE). The authors discovered that nonstuttering speakers had timing variation across all conditions, showed different peak flow and pressure velocities. Vowel durations increased under MET, DAF, and NOISE. Pressure rise time increased under MET, flow rise time increased under NOISE, speech rate decreased under DAF and NOISE. The authors concluded that if similar changes occur in PWS, the changes may be important contributors to enhanced fluency. They suggest that the determination of this is the next plausible step.
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Stager, SV., & Ludlow, CL. (1998). The effects of fluency-evoking conditions on voicing onset types in persons who do and do not stutter. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 31, 33-52.

This study had the four purposes of (1) determining whether speaking under fluency-evoking conditions resulted in producing more breathy than hard onsets by people who stutter and those who do not, (2) determining whether dysfluent words produced by people who stutter in control conditions were associated with hard onsets, (3) determining whether words that changed to breathy onsets under fluency-evoking conditions were previously produced dysfluently under control conditions, and (4) determining whether changes in vowel duration and intensity, which are known to occur under fluency-evoking conditions, were related to changes in voice onset type. Twelve nonstuttering people and ten stuttering people participated in this study. Sentences read in conversational style were used as the speech sample. The results were (1) more breathy than hard onsets were not produced when speaking under fluency- evoking conditions by any of the subjects, (2) hard onsets were not related to dysfluent words by people who stutter at control conditions, (3) changes from hard to breathy onsets were not noted in words that changed from dysfluent in control conditions to fluent in fluency-evoking conditions, and (4) an onset changed in type between conditions was not associated with changes in vower intensity or duration.
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Stansfield, J. (1995). Word-final disfluencies in adults with learning difficulties. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(1). 1-101.

The speech of four dysfluent adults with learning difficulties are analyzed revealing several word-final dysfluencies. Although many speech characteristics and communication disorders are noticed, this article focuses on the word-final dysfluencies discovered by the differential diagnosis.
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Starkweather, C.W., (1982). Stuttering in children: an overview. JOURNAL OF CHILDHOOD COMMUNICATION DISORDERS. 6, 5-14.

This article gives a general overview about stuttering. The author defines stuttering, differentiates it from normal childhood dysfluencies and also gives statistics on age and sex ratios of children who stutter. Starkweather also gives some insight on the capacities demand model which may play a role in why some children stutter. He also gives a brief overview of some treatment options for children who stutter including direct and indirect therapy methods.
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Starkweather, C. W. (1992). Response and reaction to Hamre: Stuttering Prevention I. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17 (1-2) 43-55.

The article provides a general summary of the author's belief system about stuttering prevention strategies before countering Hamre's position on stuttering prevention. In supporting his arguments against Hamre, the author describes a variety of complex events that can precipitate stuttering behaviors and the level of concern parent's exhibit when their child has fluency difficulty. Finally, Starkweather argues that Hamre has ignored some of the literature that supports preventive strategies and his position on 'Iowa School' is a false premise.
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Starkweather, CW. (1992). Responses and reactions to Hamre, "Stuttering prevention II: Progression". JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 1 & 2, 95-106.

This is a commentary by C. Woodruff Starkweather in response to Curt Hamre's articles Stuttering Prevention I: Primacy of identification and Stuttering Prevention II: Progression which are contained in this same issue. Starkweather criticizes Hamre's logic beginning with the abstract and admonishes Hamre for misrepresenting his position in a quote. Starkweather also disagrees with Hamre's suggestion that most children who are beginning stutterers will recover spontaneously and therefore do not need treatment. These are a few of the points where Starkweather disagrees with Hamre.
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Starkweather, C.W. (1993). Issues in the efficacy of treatment for fluency disorders. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 151-168.

The purpose of this article is to simply identify some of the important issues in the efficacy of treatment. The author outlines eleven goals for therapy and provides rationale for each one. There are also tips on issues ranging from getting a representative speech sample to assessing the client's environment to identifying stuttering behaviors. Throughout the article the author addresses issues that need to be resolved before efficacy can be assessed.
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Starkweather, C.W. (1994). First world congress on fluency disorders: Abstracts Munich, Germany, August, 1994. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 19(3) 147-225.

In this issue of the JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, C. Woodruff Starkweather has compiled all of the abstracts of papers, posters, mini seminars, and short courses that will be offered at the congress. He believes this Congress is a landmark event which is the first of its kind. Participants will come from all of the continents and nearly every developed country in the world. The views and approaches to the problems of cluttering, stuttering, and acquired neurogenic and psychogenic stuttering will be, as these abstracts show, very diverse. The diversity will reflect differences in education and training, culture, language, and the history of treatment for speech disorders in each country. Such diversity of knowledge and perspective provides an extraordinary opportunity for all of us to see these problems in ways that perhaps have never been thought of before.
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Starkweather, W. (1995). A simple theory of stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2 (2), 91-116.

The theory presented in this paper states that stuttering is caused by elevated muscle activity. Starkweather provides examples of how this theory explains the many variations in stuttering. These include variations in timing, amplitude and duration of muscle activity, focus of tension (glossal vs. laryngeal), and secondary reactions. Starkweather discusses related data on stuttering which can be explained by this simple theory. These include reaction time, sex ratio, fluency enhancement effects, emotional effects, expectancy, adaptation, and nonspeech incoordination in stutterers. He also discusses related data which are not well explained by this muscle tension theory. These include choral speech, metronomic pacing, easy "stuttering" in children, and the laterality phenomena. In summary, the value of this theory is that it explains much of the data known about stuttering with few constructs.
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Starkweather, W. (2002). The epigenesis of stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 269-288.

This paper examines the various ways genetics plays a factor on stuttering relating to the Demands and Capacities Model. It explains how stuttering is polygenetically influenced at the behavioral, physiological, and cultural levels. The stages of development regarding fear, avoidance, and frustration are explained.
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Stephenson-Opsal, D., & Bernstein Ratner, N. (1988). Maternal speech rate modification and childhood stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 13, 49-56.

Therapists often recommend that parents of children who stutter decrease their conversational speech rate. The paper reports on the effects of slowed maternal speech on the fluency of young children. The study focuses on two mother-child dyads and recorded a number of occasions both before and after a clinicians suggestion that a slowed maternal speech rate might decrease their child's stuttering. The results of the study confirm that the decreases in maternal speaking rate can produce beneficial changes in children's fluency, and can be maintained over additional observations of the child's speech.
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Stewart, R. and Brosh, H. (1997). The use of drawings in the management of adults who stammer. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 35-50.

Two case studies are presented in order to see the benefits of incorporating drawing in the clinical management of individuals who stammer. Basic requirements of using art therapy are outlined and specific advantages are listed.
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Stewart, T. (1996). Good maintainers and poor maintainers: A personal construct approach to an old problem JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21, 33-48.

This study, taken from a larger study, attempts to explain reasons for the success of maintaining fluency in one subject and failure of not maintaining fluency in another subject within the same study. Both were participants in a fluency program which utilized Personal Construct Theory techniques, a strategy for gaining a self-perception of being a fluent speaker. Although it was agreed that the two subjects had different starting points in regard to speech behavior, the comparative analysis of data revealed significant differences in their responses. The following were listed as three major differences: first, during the loosening phase, both achieved an attitude which produced a loosening of their systems, but the unsuccessful subject "tightened" soon afterward while the successful one was found to maintain this into the second phase of treatment; second, the unsuccessful subject did not elaborate the "ideal self" element to the same extent as the successful subject; and third, the successful subject was able to elaborate his self-perception of fluency much earlier than the other.
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Stewart, T., Richardson, G. (2004). A qualitative study of therapeutic effect from a user's perspective. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 2, 95-108.

This article looks at a qualitative study taken to examine clients who have completed stuttering therapy. Although the client sample was small, the clients discuss in an interview their personal feelings about their stammering therapy after they have completed it. Various themes were identified and analyzed including, current status of communication, covert features, coping strategies, details of content or stages of therapy process, comments on SLP's involved in therapy, support issues, immediate effects of therapy, long term outcome, and suggestions on how therapy programs may be modified.
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Stidham KR, Olson L, Hillbratt M, Sinopoli T. (Nov. 2006) A new antistuttering device: treatment of stuttering using bone conduction stimulation with delayed temporal feedback. LARYNGOSCOPE. 116(11):1951-5

Authors combined the use of DAF and bone conduction as a form of therapy for stuttering. SSI-3 results for the nine subjects tested found reduced scores with wearing the device. These subjects wore the device for four hour time periods over a span of four weeks. Two weeks after the ASD was removed some benefit was still noted. Those tested also found that their confidence went up with their improvements in speech. However, some subjects were uncomfortable wearing the device in public. This is a preliminary test of this device. There have been no long term studies done to see if the effects or benefits will last. A positive note, however is that none of the subjects thought their stuttering was worse or that the device was of no help.
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Stigora, J., DiSimoni, F., (1989) Resolution of Opposing Forces: An Approach to the Understanding and Clinical Management of Stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 293-302.

This article focused on understanding clinical management of stuttering by viewing it as an opposing muscular force or in other words problems organizing/sequencing motor speech events. It is hypothesized that these forces are potential cause for the dysfluency of stuttering including, increased tension in all areas of the speech mechanisms. It is thought that if these opposing muscular forces are balanced the dysfluencies will fade. This has been attempted in many stuttering therapy techniques including "pull out" or the gliding method, easy onset, and " low energy speech." The article states that this discoordination is the stuttering itself and not the cause of stuttering and the therapies effectively balance the muscular forces.
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Strang, H., & Meyers, S. (1987). A microcomputer simulation to evaluate and train effective intervention techniques in listening partners of preschool stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 205-215.

A microcomputer-based simulation is being developed to assist parents and speech clinicians-in-training in intervening effectively with a stuttering child. The experience centers on the participant's maintenance of an active verbal dialogue with a computer-generated preschool stutterer whose speech-synthesized fluency level can be directly linked to the participant's verbal behavior. In an initial test of the system's evaluation efficiency, the intervention behaviors exhibited by a group of eight experienced speech pathologists were compared with those exhibited by a group of eight entry level speech pathology students. The experienced group showed superior intervention particularly on rate-of-speech variables. All clinicians and students rated their participation as enjoyable and as helpful to new students in becoming more skillful in intervening with preschool stutterers. On a personal level, the inexperienced students unanimously agreed that exposure to the simulation positively impacted their confidence as therapists. It is anticipated that the reinforcement, practice, and feedback aspects of the current simulation will produce similar results in speech-language pathology training applications.
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Strum, J., & Seery, C. (2007). Speech and articulatory rates of school-age children in conversation and narrative contexts. LANGUAGE SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 38, 47-59.

"An inappropriate rate of speech can interfere with a person's ability to communicate effectively." The purpose of this study was to present an introduction on speech rates in words per minute, speech rates in syllables per minute, and articulatory rates in syllables per minute in conversational and narrative speaking situations. This study was done with 36 typically developing children ages 7, 9, and 11. The questions were: what were the speech rates for these ages, was there a developmental trend, and was there a significant difference in the rates compared to conversational and narrative speaking situations? The results determined that the speaking rate increased significantly between the ages of 7 and 9, and the rates were similar across the procedures. Also, the narrative speaking rate was found to be significantly faster then the conversational speaking rate. This information will allow a clinician to determine what the appropriate speaking rate is for children with communication disorders. This will also help the clinician make an appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic decision for their client.
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Stuart, A., Frazier, C.L., Kalinowski, J., & Vos, P.W. (2008). The effect of frequency altered feedback on stuttering duration and type. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51, 889-897.

This article analyzed the use of Altered Auditory Feedback (AAF), specifically Frequency Altered Feedback, as a way to reduce disfluencies. Previous studies and self reports have shown FAF reduction in the frequency of stuttering. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using FAF in order to reduce the duration as well as the types of stuttering in adults during oral reading. An analysis of data, which had been collected prior to this study, from 12 adults who stuttered, was performed. Speech samples were recorded of the participants reading orally for 20 minutes in an ABA time-series design, 10 minutes with FAF and two 5 minute segments of NAF. These videos were reviewed and the stuttered syllable instances were classified by type and measured for duration. The researchers calculated individual mean values of total duration of stuttering events, duration of stuttering events and proportion of stuttering events. Mean group values were calculated from the individual values. The results of the study showed the average duration of stuttering was reduced by approximately 20% regardless of the stuttering type. The total duration of stuttering was significantly decreased with the FAF by 50%. However there was no difference reported in the type of stuttering with the FAF. Overall, the research concluded FAF improves stuttering by decreasing the proportion of stuttering events as well as reducing the duration of residual stuttering events and total stuttering time during oral reading.
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Stuart, A., Kalinowski, J., Armonson, J., Stenstrom, R., and Jones, K. (1996). Fluency effect of frequency alteration of plus/minus one- half and one quarter octave children in auditory feedback of people who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 39, 396-401.

This study investigated the effects of frequency alterations in auditory feedback on stuttering frequency. The subjects, 11 adults and 1 adolescent, were asked to read aloud under nonaltered auditory feedback and four conditions, plus/minus one-half and one- quarter octaves, at normal and fast speech rates. Stuttering frequency was found to be significantly higher while reading aloud with nonaltered auditory feedback relative to all four frequency altered feedback conditions. No differences in stuttering frequency between the four frequency altered feedback conditions were found. The reduction in stuttering frequency was approximately 50% to 60% less than that found with the nonaltered frequency auditory feedback. It is suggested that slight alterations in the frequency of auditory feedback are fluency enhancing.
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Subramanian, A., Yairi, E., Amir, O. (2003). Second formant transitions in fluent speech of persistent and recovered preschool children who stutter. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 36 (1), 59-75.

This study looked at the frequency of change and duration of second formant (F2) transitions in perceptually fluent target segments (syllables embedded in words) recorded close to stuttering onset of preschool children. Subjects used were 30 preschool children: 10 known to eventually persist in stuttering, 10 known to recover, and 10 normally fluent controls. Syllables were divided into three groups based on the placement of their initial consonant: bilabial, alveolar, and velar. Results indicated that the three subject groups produced similar transitions and similar duration measurements for the different places of articulation. The results indicated no signification interactions between place of articulation and group of subjects on any measure. The authors did find a significant difference between the frequency changes in the three groups: near stuttering onset, those children that eventually persisted stuttering had a significantly smaller frequency change of F2 transitions than the children who eventually recovered.
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Susca, M. (2002). Diagnosing stuttering in the school environment. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 23, 165-171.

Stuttering is a multidimensional communication disorder which requires multilevel assessment and evaluation. It is often appropriate to include observations and information from all those involved, including the child, teachers, parents, and any others who may interact with the child. An assessment should also explore the effects of stuttering on the child's social communication with peers and adults. Evaluations of functioning in other communication skills such as language, cognition, and articulation are advised. A thorough and complete assessment is key to the development of an appropriate intervention.
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Susca, M., & Healey, EC. (2001). Perceptions of simulated stuttering and fluency. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 61-72.

This study was conducted to examine issues regarding listener perceptions of simulated stuttering. The questions that were asked, "How does a listener react to one of three levels of simulated stuttering or one of three levels of fluency?" and "How does a specific level of fluency or stuttering affect listener's perception of a speaker's fluency and ease of reading a passage, as well as the listener's comfort and ease in understanding a passage?" The results of the study established that the levels of simulated stuttering and fluency affected the unsophisticated listener's judgments and perceptions about a disfluent speaker's performance.
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Susca, M & Healey, EC (2002) Listener perceptions along a fluency-disfluency continuum: A phenomenological analysis. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 27, 135- 161

This study looks at the listeners' perception of fluent and non-fluent speech. Sixty individuals were asked to listen to one sample chosen from three levels of fluent or disfluent speech. The listeners were interviewed after listening to the sample and the listeners' comments were analyzed for their perception of the speaker's communicative effectiveness. The results indicate that listeners' perception of a speaker's communication effectiveness is affected by a variety of information not just fluent or disfluent speech.
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Teigland, A. (1996). A study of pragmatic skills of clutterers and normal speakers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 21, 201-214.

This study involved 12 students, ages 13:7 to 16:1. Two students faced each other, one with a complicated map marked with arrows showing two routes. The other student also had a complicated map but without the markings. The first student explains the routes to the other student and that student would mark the route on his map. Students were compared with a normally speaking group. Results show that it is recommended pragmatic skills should be given higher attention in the therapy of clutterers.
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Tellis, Glen & Cari. (2003). Multicultural issues in school settings. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 24, 21-26.

Currently, the caseloads of ethnically and culturally diverse students is increasing at an extensive rate. With this large increase, many clinicians have voiced feelings of uncertainty when dealing with these populations. It is important to incorporate not only the so-called minority groups in this description, but people who are deaf, people from various religious backgrounds, people from different regions of a country are included. It is important to be sensitive to the attitudes and cultural beliefs of the specific culture as well. One must also take into consideration the perceptions of someone's cultural background. This article focuses on perceptions among people who stutter in different cultures and assessment and treatment issues amongst cultures.
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Tellis, G., Gabel, R., Smith, D., & Tellis, C. (2002). Information about stuttering internet: A resource for school speech-language pathologists. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 29, 165-172.

The article reviews information directed towards school SLPs about Web sites that address various issues pertaining to stuttering, but the information can be used for all SLPs in any setting. The article provides suggestions for using these sites to improve treatment for students who stutter along with their parents, family, and friends. Various Web sites are addressed and outlined in the review which include the Stuttering Home Page, national and international fluency organizations, support groups, chat rooms, pen pal opportunities and forums. Also mentioned are Web sites for children and teenagers, sites that direct viewers to books, research, and journals about stuttering, and sites that contain information on different treatment techniques and therapy programs.
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Telson, K., Packman, A., & Onslow, M. (2003). The Lidcombe behavioral data language of stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 46, 1009-1015.

The Lidcombe Behavioral Data Language (LBDL) does not attempt to identify or measure stuttering or its severity. It presents behavioral terminology for research and clinical purposes. This study investigates intrajudge and interjudge agreement for the LBDL among ten speech-language pathologists who currently work with PWS and ten undergraduates who have not received any formal instruction in the area of stuttering. After given instruction on the classification system, the participants observed videos and were asked to describe the stuttering behaviors of the various PWS from the videotapes. The findings indicate high levels of agreement in describing the behavioral characteristics of stuttering using the LBDL system.
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Tetnowski, J.A., & Damico, J.S. (2001). A Demonstration of the Advantages of Qualitative Methodologies in Stuttering Research. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26:1, 17-42.

This article discusses methodologies in regards to stuttering. A brief description of qualitative research (it's purpose and objectives) and qualitative research in communication disorders is addressed, as well as an example qualitative methods in conversational speech. The implications for its advantages discussed were (1) Authentic data will be able to be collected by researchers, that will show how stuttering impacts individuals in the real world. (2) A better description of what stuttering is, focus on actual behaviors, strategies, and resources employed by the PWS before, during and after moments of stuttering will be determined by the researcher. (3) The impact of stuttering on individuals and the ability to collect data from the perspective of the individual person who stutters will be focused upon by the researcher. (4) The PWS and their collaborations with the co-participants within the social context will be looked into by the researcher. (5) Phenomenon will be addressed more by the researcher. -- how it operates, how PWS attempt to reduce its impact in social contexts
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Thacker, A.J., and Austen, S. (1996). Cluttered communication in a deafened adult with autistic features. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 21, 271-279

This case study describes a 36 year old man who is profoundly deaf and has presented with autistic features. Because his speech behaviors cannot definitely be defined as a particular syndrome or condition, the relationship between speech disorders and auditory processing disorders cannot be examined.
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Thacker, R.C., and DeNil, L.F. (1996). Neurogenic cluttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 21, 227-238.

This study involved a 61 year-old woman with acquired symptomatic clutterhng and numerous neurogenic problems. This article describes the test findings and results, and the clinical observations of this woman. Treatment that was used is also explained. This woman's case and others with acquired symptomatic cluttering are compared to idiopathic cluttering.
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Theys, C., Van Wieringen, A., & De Nil, L.F. (2008) A clinician survey of speech and non-speech characteristics of neurogenic stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS. 33:1-23.

The main purpose of this study is to educate the reader on neurogenic stuttering following a survey of 58 Dutch speaking patients with neurogenic stuttering and numerous specialists who have experience within the area of neurogenic stuttering. The questionnaire included the following information: personal and medical information prior to the onset of stuttering; onset of neurongenic stuttering; cause of the stuttering; localization of the neurological injury; disfluency-related characteristics and; co-occurring disorders. This article also gives an in-depth overview of the speech and non-speech characteristics, as well as up-to-date therapeutic techniques to use when working with individuals with this type of stuttering.
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Thirumalai, S., Gray-Holland, S., & Shah, N.S. (2007). Are we overlooking Tourette syndrome in children with persistent developmental stuttering? JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY, 5, 111-115.

This article's research was based upon observation of nine severe child stutterers during speaking periods and quiet periods to look at whether tic-like behaviors characteristic of Tourette syndrome (TS) could be differentiated from secondary stuttering behaviors. Results of this article suggest that it might be beneficial for a severe chronic stutterer with tic-like behaviors to have a neurological exam in order rule out TS due to the common co-occurrence of TS and stuttering.
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Thomas, C, & Howell, P. (2001). Assessing efficacy of stuttering treatments. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26, 311-333.

This report discusses how to study efficacy studies with a specific discussion on key determinants of efficacy: measurement, treatment integrity and design issues. These determinants are discussed in the scope of stuttering and specifically, a meta- analysis is performed on a using a specified set of criteria on eight stuttering studies performed since 1993 on whether they met the criteria. In most cases, it was found that treatment research did not provide strong experimental evidence.
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Throneburg, R., & Yairi, E. (2001). Duration, proportionate, and absolute frequency characteristics of disfluencies: a longitudinal study regarding persistence and recovery. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 38-51.

This study was done to understand the differences between two groups of young children who stutter, those who persist and those who recover. This was done by comparing the groups when they were first evaluated soon after stuttering onset. The primary findings of the study found that soon after onset there were few significant differences in disfluencies between children who persist and those who recovered from stuttering. The study also found that in the very early stage of stuttering, the overall level of stuttering like disfluencies is not an indicator of risk for persistency.
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Throneburg, R.N., Yairi, E., & Paden, E.P. (1994). Relation between phonologic difficulty and the occurrence of disfluencies in the early stage of stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37, 504-509.

The purpose of this study was to determine if the occurrence of disfluencies in preschool aged children is influenced by the phonologic difficulty of the disfluent word. Twenty-four preschool children who stutter were randomly selected from a group of 75 children. Five trained examiners transcribed speech samples for each subject. The results of the study indicated that phonologic difficulty was not an influencing factor on the occurrence of stuttering - like disfluencies.
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Tutuncuoglu, S., Serdaroglu, G., Kadioglu, B. (2002). Landau-Kleffner syndrome beginning with stuttering: Case report. JOURNAL OF CHILD NEUROLOGY, 17, 785-788.

Landau-Kleffner syndrome is a childhood disorder resulting in a sudden or gradual loss of receptive and expressive language. It is thought to surface from an epileptic disorder in the auditory-speech cortex. This article looks at a 3:5 year old girl who had begun treatment of seizures with valporic acid and corticotropin (ACTH) at the age of 3:5 months after being diagnosed with benign myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. Her seizures were controlled and her EEG returned to normal. This treatment was discontinued two years after a seizure-free period. Three months after the suspension of the antiepilepsy drugs, she began to stutter. An EEG showed multiple spike and wave discharges. She was then diagnosed with Landau-Kleffner syndrome. ACTH and intravenous immunoglobulin was administered and her speech showed improvement within 2 months and was completely normal after 3.5 months of using the medication. This information proposes that Landau-Kleffner should be a consideration if a child who has had previous epileptic activity, with normal language function begins to stutter. The information from this study also implies that the use of medications can help a child with Landau-Kleffner syndrome discontinue stuttering that may occur.
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Van Borsel, J. (1997). Book review of The Neuropsychology of developmental stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 69-70.

Hartman's (1994) book on the etiology of stuttering was "disappointing" to the author of this review. He feels that Hartman's presentation of his neuropsychological theory of stuttering is short on scientific data, and used inaccurate bibliographic listings. The author of this review feels that this book would not be useful in the classroom or to clinicians.
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Van Borsel, J. (2006). Fluency in genetic syndromes. BULGARIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 1, 38-50.

Information regarding the association between certain syndromes and stuttering is limited. This article explored the association between several genetic syndromes and stuttering prevalence. The syndromes discussed were Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Turner syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I. The most current known information regarding each syndrome is included.
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Van Borsel, J., & Eeckhout, H. (2008). The speech naturalness of people who stutter speaking under delayed auditory feedback as perceived by different groups of listeners. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS. 33(3), 241-251.

The purpose of this study was to determine how natural the speech of people who stutter using delayed auditory feedback (DAF) sounded to people who stutter, speech-language pathologists and the na‘ve listener. There is little past research on the issue of speech naturalness using the DAF, and the results from these studies don't seem to agree. This study used three different groups of judges to compare the way that each group would rate the naturalness of the participant's speech. Although there were differences in the severity of the judge's ratings, overall, the results revealed that the slower a person who stutter's rate of speech was, the less natural it was judged to sound.
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Van Borsel, J., Maes, E., & Foulon, S. (2001). Stuttering and bilingualism: A review. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26, 179-205.

This article reviewed the available literature on stuttering and bilingualism. According to the literature, there is some suggestion that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. In addition, stuttering can affect one or both languages of bilinguals. Studies have shown that when stuttering does occur in both languages, they may be equally affected, but it is more likely that one language is affected more than the other. The article also discussed the diagnostic and therapeutic considerations of bilingual clients who stutter.
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Van Borsel, J., & Medeiros de Britto Pereia, M. (2005). Assessment of stuttering in a familiar versus an unfamiliar language. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30, 109-124.

This article investigated how well undergraduate students in the field of communication disorders , who have completed a class in fluency disorders, were able to identify individuals who stuttered and individuals who did not stutter in their native language and in a foreign language. The students and subjects either spoke Dutch or Brazilian Portuguese. Results of the study indicate that the students correctly identified more subjects, and felt more confident in their decision in their native language. Students also gave more detail regarding why they felt a particular subject was a person who stuttered if that individual spoke their native language. Even though students did better in their native language, they were still able to correctly distinguish if a person stuttered or did not the majority of the time in the foreign language. The authors suggested that a clinician must rely on more than just the symptoms of a foreign speaking client. They must use their knowledge about stuttering, such as onset, family history, and emotional or cognitive components. The clinician may also want to include the assistance of a reliable native speaker.
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Van Borsel, J., Sunaert, R., & Engelen, S. (2005). Speech disruption under delayed auditory feedback in multilingual speakers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30, 201-217.

This study compared the effect of delayed auditory feedback (DAF) in a group of normally fluent multilingual speakers to confirm the existence of the language familiarity effect, first hypothesized by Mackay (1970). Mackay stated that multilingual subjects are more likely to speak faster and stutter less under DAF when speaking their most familiar language. A second purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there are any gender differences in DAF effect. Thirty men and women participated in reading tasks with both meaningful and nonsense words in three different languages. Results indicated that subjects required more time per reading task and had significantly more speech disruptions under DAF while using later acquired languages. In addition, reading time and number of speech disruptions was significantly higher for the nonsense tasks for all three languages. These results confirm the existence of the familiarity effect. Significant gender differences in DAF effect were not discovered.
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Van Borsel, J., & Tetnowski, J.A. (2007). Fluency disorders in genetic syndromes. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32, 279-296.

Genetic syndromes such as Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome have a primary characteristic of stuttering (fluency disorders) associated with them. Many of these syndromes have other characteristics such as mental retardation, speech and language difficulties, and abnormal physical appearance. Research has closely linked fluency disorders with Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Tourette syndrome. For the other syndromes mentioned, the knowledge available is incomplete and unscientific. There is a small amount of data available on the frequency of occurrence and specific disposition of the related fluency disorders. It is often unclear as to how the data was collected, size of sample, type of speech task studied, and the criteria used to diagnose the fluency disorder during many research studies.
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Van Borsel, J., Van Coster, R., & Van Lierde, K. (1996). Repetitions in final position in a nine year-old boy with focal brain damage. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21(2), 137-146.

This study investigated a "Dutch-speaking" 9 year-old boy with a history of cerebral head trauma and the repetitions in his speech which occurred at the ends of words, and utterances. As a result of a fall at age 3:10, patient was possibly presented with palilalia. At age 8:11, it was determined that phonology, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics was affected. An unusual pattern of final repetitions of an entire syllable (on polysyllabic words) and the terminal words of utterances was present. However, no disfluencies occurred during repetition tasks or during singing tasks. Presumably, this form of stuttering is neurogenic stuttering.
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Van Borsel, J., Van Lierde, K., Van Cauwenberge, P., Guldemont, I., Van Orshoven, M. (1998). Severe acquired stuttering following injury of the left supplementary motor region: a case report. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 49-58.

This case study reports on a 69-year-old male who began experiencing "stutterlike speech" at approximately two months post CVA of the supplementary motor region. This client displayed different symptoms of neurogenic stuttering than other similar cases (each syllable of multisyllabic words was affected- including final position; dysfluencies were present during spontaneous speech, sentence repetition, and while reading aloud). The authors presented this case to prove acquired neurologic stuttering caused by damage to supplementary motor region doesn't result in a specific set of symptoms as previously thought.
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VanLieshout, P.H.H.M., Peters H.F.M., Starkweather, C.W., Hulstyn, W. (1993). Physiological difluencies between stutterers and nonstutterers in perceptually fluency speech: EMG amplitude & duration. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 36, 55-63.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not people who stutter had higher levels of EMG (electromyograph) signals of the orbicular oris and longer EMG durations in their perceptually fluent speech. They also hoped to compare the results of this study with previous similar studies. The study was based on the notion that stuttering has various speech motor aspects. The results replicated the results of many previous studies. The authors found significant differences between stutterers and nonstutterers for EMG amplitude at speech onset as well as for the mean EMG amplitude within a 1000 msec interval. Little differences between the two groups were noted in EMG amplitude before speech onset. The authors concluded that EMG response recording appears to have potential in the differential diagnosis and evaluation of stuttering.
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Van Lieshout, P. H. H. M., Starkweather, C. W., Hulstijn, W., & Peters, H. F. M. (1995). Effects of linguistic correlates of stuttering on EMG activity in nonstuttering speakers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 38(2). 360-372.

Linguistic factors influencing stuttering, of twelve Dutch male nonstutterers is studied. The researchers look at changes in upper and lower lip integrated electromyographic (IEMG) amplitude and temporal measures, revealing that production of stress, vowel- rounding gestures of words in initial position, longer words, and words in longer sentences, produces IEMG results showing increased speech motor demands.
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Van Lieshout, P., Hulstijn,W., & Peters, H. 1996. From Planning to Articulation in Speech Production: What Differentiates a Person Who Stutters From a Person Who Does Not Stutter? JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 39, 3 546-564

The purpose of this study was to compare abilities to assemble, plan and execute muscle plans between people who stutter and people who do not stutter. Subjects were 12 adult male stutterers and 12 adult non-stutters. Results that electromyographic peak timing amplitudes differ in lower and upper lip measures between stutterers and non-stutterers refute claims that stutterers have deficits in abstract motor planning for speech.
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Van Riper, C. (1992). Some ancient history. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17 (1-2) 25-28.

The article presents a historical summary of Charles Van Riper's 2- year investigation of the onset of stuttering, where 30 children were studied 2-to-3 times at varying intervals. Van Riper supports the view that children are not misdiagnosed. However, he does not agree with Hamre's assertions that stuttering does not emerge from normal disfluencies-or-that it does not grow in severity.
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Van Riper, C. (1992). Stuttering? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17 (1-2) 81-84.

The article presents a historical summary of Charles Van Riper's and Wendell Johnson's search for the cause of stuttering. The two of them acted as "experimental lab animals" during tests that investigated a variety of theories that range from cerebral dominance tests to taking pharmacological drugs. Van Riper relates how they both became disillusioned with the cerebral dominance theory and the primitive therapy that accompanied it then. In addition, Van Riper provides a summary of how each of them had differing attitudes, behaviors, and even ideas about what to call the event known as stuttering.
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Vanryckeghem, M., (1995). The communication attitude test: A concordancy investigation of stuttering and nonstuttering children and their parents. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20 (2), 191- 203.

This study challenges use of parents opinion in assessing a child's attitude towards his speech. Fifty five stutterers, ages 6-13, their parents and 55 nonstutterers and their parents estimated the child's attitude toward his/her communication ability. The results showed that the parents of the stutters viewed their child's speech to be worse than the stutterer reported. The parents of the nonstutterers saw their child's attitude more positively than the child themselves viewed it. Parent-child agreement was not achieved at neither the younger (6-9 yrs) nor the older (10-13) age. Based on these results, the author concludes that parents cannot be used to adequately predict the attitude of their child towards his/her speech. The author encourages developing a test that can assess a young child's attitude that does not rely on reading ability.
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Vanryckeghem, M. & Brutten, G.J. (1997). The speech-associated attitude of children who do and do not stutter and the differential effect of age. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 6, 67-73.

This study was designed to determine if the attitudes of grade school children who stutter are more negative than their nonstuttering peers. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT) was administered to 55 Dutch-speaking Belgian grade schoolers who stuttered and 55 who did not stutter. The results are consistent with previous CAT studies, in which the attitudes of children who stuttered were more negative than children who did not stutter. It was also found that as children who stutter mature with age, their negative attitudes towards speech becomes increasingly more apparent.
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Vanryckeghem, M., & Brutten, G. J. (1996). The relationship between communication attitude and fluency failure of stuttering and nonstuttering children. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21(2), 109-118.

This study investigated grade school stuttering and non stuttering populations to determine the relationship between speech beliefs (attitudes) and fluency failures. The C.A.T. (Communication Attitude Test) was given to 55 age matched Belgian students. Fluency was correlated between 3 oral reading categories and 3 conversation categories. Spearman Rank Order Correlation's indicated that stuttering children held a speech associated belief system that is significantly more negative than their nonstuttering peers. Methods in this study may be beneficial for differential diagnosis, behavior assessment, and therapy determination purposes.
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Vanryckeghem, M. & Brutten, G. (2001). IFA news. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26, 349-352.

This paper is a summary of a review by Vanryckeghem and Brutten of determining the reliability and validity of three self-report measures: Speech Situation Checklist (SSC), Behavior Checklist and the Communication Attitude Test (CAT). They found that for the SSC, while both stutterers and nonstutterers report concerns about their speech and fluency failures, the SSC scores for children and adults who stutter are significantly higher than for those who do not stutter. In reviewing the Behavior Checklist, they found that both children and adult stutterers use behaviors! with much greater frequency that help them speak better than those who do not stutter. Finally, in reviewing the CAT, they found a correlation of speech attitude and the severity of stuttering.
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Vanryckeghem, M., Brutten, G.J., & Hernandez, L.M. (2005). A comparative investigation of the speech-associated attitude of preschool and kindergarten children who do and do not stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 30, 307-318.

This study focuses on the differences in self-perceptions in young children who stutter and young children who don't stutter. The study used 108 children between the ages of three and six, 45 were children who stuttered and 63 were children who did not stutter. The KiddyCAT was used to measure the children's self- reports on the way they perceive the way they talk and the way they think others perceive the way they talk. The purpose was to compare the two groups of children to see if very young children have an awareness of their stuttering and also if they hold any negative attitudes about their speech. The results show that young children who stutter are more likely to report a negative attitude about the way they talk. From the results it can be inferred that children who have negative beliefs about their speech are more aware of the way they talk.
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Vanryckeghem, M., Brutten, G., Uddin, N, & Von Borsel, J., (2004). A comparative investigation of the speech-associated coping responses reported by adults who do and do not stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 29, 237-250.

This is a comparative investigation looking at the number, frequency, and nature of responses that are employed to cope with the anticipation and/or presence of speech disruption made by those who stutter and those who do not. Stuttering moments are made up of combinations of involuntary speech disruptions (e.g., silent and oral repetitions and prolongations of simple) and voluntary coping responses of avoidance and escape that are secondary to stuttering (e.g., head turn, arm swing, interjection, and circumlocution) rather than part of it. The Behavior Checklist (BCL), a self-report test procedure, was administered to 42 adults who stutter and 76 adults who do not stutter, (all were ages 17 to 50 years old). The stuttering group reported a significantly greater number of speech-associated coping responses (3 SD above the mean) and a greater use of them than in the non- stuttering group. Between-group differences were reported in the type and nature of coping responses. The findings suggest that the difference between those who stutter and those who do not involves more than the number of coping responses, it involves the frequency, the type, and the under lying nature of the coping responses. These differences are potentially useful with respect to differential diagnostic and therapeutic decision making.
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Vanryckeghem, M., Glessing, J., Brutten, G., and McAlinden, P. (1999). The Main and Interactive Effect of Oral Reading Rate on the Frequency of Stuttering. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY: A JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, 2, 164-170.

The study includes 24 adult participants all previously diagnosed by a speech, language pathologist as persons who stutter. The purpose of the study was to determine if, and to what extent, fluency was affected by speech rate during oral reading. Rate was controlled by "The Paced Reading Program", a computer program which presented the subjects with text at rates 30% slower and 30% faster than their predetermined, normal, reading rate.The results indicated the frequency of stuttering increased significantly in all the participants as the oral reading rate increased from slow to fast and from normal to fast.
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Vanrychkeghem, M., Hylebos, C., Brutten, G.J., & Peleman, M. (2001). The Relationship Between Communication Attitude and Emotion of Children Who Stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 26:1, 1-15.

This article addressed mal-attitude and negative emotion that stutterers may demonstrate during their act of speaking. The Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB), Communication Attitude Test (CAT) and the Speech Situation Checklist (SSC) are evaluations that assist the clinician in assessing the stutterers behavior, emotion, and interrelated attitude. It is believed that negative attitude of stuttering children increase with age while nonstuttering peers attitude decrease significantly. A study, using the updated CAT, was conducted on 143 young stutterers ages of 7-13 years old. This assessment consisted of 35 questions related to their speech associated attitude and emotional reaction to those responses that were indicative to negative attitude. Its therapist assessed each child individually. The findings point out: (1) There is a strong relationship between mal-attitude and negative emotion among children who stutter. (2) Mal-attitude and negative emotion tend to influence each other. (3) Speech associated mal- attitude of those children who stutter significantly increase with age. (4) There was an increase in both speech associated mal-attitude and negative emotion to a significant extent with age and stuttering severity. (6) There is a need to assess attitude early to avoid increased negative emotion later on. (7) The CAT may also provide as a useful tool in evaluating stuttering severity.
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Venkatagiri, H.S. (1999). Clinical measurement of rate and discourse in young adults. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 24, 209-226.

Rate of speech has been found to correlate with stuttering because frequency and/or duration of stutters result in reduced speech output. Venkatagiri performed a study to determine the differences in rate during talking about a picture or describing a picture. It also looks at SPM vs. WPM when calculating rate. The study also compared males vs. females and whether or not they differ in rate of reading and discourse. Sixteen college students participated in the study. Each student performed three tasks: description of a picture, talking about themselves, and reading the rainbow passage. The study found that rates of children are much different than those of adults; rates of reading, conversation, and picture description were varied between all ages. Pauses were included when calculating the rates, however, there is some disagreement in this area. The study also found that routine utterances were spoken at a very fast rate.
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Venkatagiri, H. S. (2005). Recent advantages in the treatment of stuttering: A theoretical perspective. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 38(5), 375-393.

This article discussed research performed at the Australian Stuttering Research Center pertaining to two behavioral treatment approaches. The Lidcombe program, meant for children, involves a home-based treatment approach where parents/caregivers are trained to administer verbal praise, request fluent speech after disfluencies, and rate stuttering severity through a ten-point scale upon each day. The Camperdown program, meant for adults, is a systematic approach to nearly stutter-free speech initiating with clinician-directed exercises including modeling slow speech, gentle voice onset, continuous vocalization, etc., and concluding with the ability to self-monitor without specific clinician instructions. Through clinician-directed and client-directed behavior modifications, a program that relies on self-monitoring (cognitively driven speech construction) rather than focusing directly on motorically driven speech construction will provide the client with faster and ongoing success.
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Viswanath, N. S., (1989) Global - and Local - Temporal Effects of a Stuttering Event in the Context of a Clausal Utterance. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 245-269.

This article had two main purposes. The 1st was to study the total articulation time (TAT), and the total pause time (TPT) and to compare it to the frequency of stuttering events during adaptation. The 2nd was to look at the duration of words near stuttering events in the context of clausal utterances. Four PWS were included in the study: the reduction of TAT and TPT was paralleled with the reduction of stuttering events. It was found that PWS decreased the TAT and TPT more when reading than normal speakers. The 2nd study results are: there are anticipatory and carry over effect near stuttering events and the anticipatory effects were more pronounced that the carry over effects.
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Wagovich, S. A., & Ratner, N. B. (2007). Frequency of verb use in young children who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32(2), 79-94.

This study was conducted to determine whether or not CWS tend to utilize general all-purpose verbs more often than CWNS and if CWS tend to produce a lower frequency of verbs than CWNS. GAP verbs are considered to be simpler to produce and are monosyllabic. 15 school-aged CWS and 15 school-aged CWNS participated in this study. A single conversational sample that occurred between the child and parent(s) was collected and analyzed to determine verb usage for the two groups of children. It was hypothesized that a CWS may have a lexicon of less diversity because GAP verbs are over- used to aid in maintaining fluency. The results of this study, however, indicated that GAP verbs were not produced to a greater extent by CWS than CWNS. CWS did, however, produce a fewer number of different verbs as well as a fewer number of total verbs.
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Wahba, H. (2007). Effects of stuttering support groups on the perceived impact of stuttering on adults. JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY AND RESEARCH, 2, 20-25.

This exploratory pilot study focuses on determining the efficacy of stuttering support groups based on the total impact scores of 11 people who stutter. The Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES) is used in the assessment of 5 people who stutter who actively attend a stuttering support group and 6 people who stutter who do not attend stuttering support groups. Results proved significant in that PWS who attend SSGs know more about stuttering and the impact it has on their lives, but have a lower quality of life when compared to those PWS who do not attend stuttering support groups.
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Wall, M. (1982). Language-based therapies for the young child stutterer. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 6, 40-48.

Reasons for using language-based therapy to facilitate fluency for young stutterers are given. Connections between language delay, language acquisition, disfluencies, and language complexities, disfluency and constituent structure, and the disfluencies of stutterers and nonstutterers are mentioned. Knowing how language is structured and in which sequences language is acquired as useful ways to facilitate fluency are discussed. Ryan and Van Kirk's therapy program, Gradual Increase in Length and Complexity of Utterance, a behavioral modification approach is discussed. Stocker's (1980) fluency-shaping program, The Stocker Probe Technique, is used to elicit increasing language creativity from the child, providing criterion levels to be reached. Gregory and Hill's more global approach to therapy is introduced. Finally, Wall and Myer's "three factor approach" where psychosocial, physiological, and psycholinguistic factors are remembered in therapy planning, is presented. All of these programs aim to increase the child's fluency by making them manipulate various linguistic variables.
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Ward, D. (1992). Outlining Semi-Intensive Fluency Therapy. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 4, 243-256

This fluency program, SIFT, is designed to allow more time for the clinician to maintain a normal caseload and for clients to maintain a normal day-to-day life. Clients attend therapy 2 hours, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Follow-up sessions continue 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 2 months, and then monthly for one year. Results of 4 stutters showed improved fluency across 4 tested speech areas, oral reading, monologue, conversation, and telephone conversation. It is important to remember that the results reflect preliminary information.
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Ward, D. (2007) The etiology and treatment of developmental stammering in childhood. ARCH DIS CHILD, 93:68-71.

Past studies have shown stammering to effect 0.75% to 1% of the populations of Great Britain, Australia and the United States, although current research regarding Great Britain suggests stammering is prevalent in as many as 1% to 3% of individuals. This article provides an overview of the etiology of developmental stammering and briefly explains the results of early intervention and spontaneous recovery. The different theories proposed as the origin of stammering are discussed which include genetic components, the faulty auditory feedback processor, linguistic delays, and asymmetric hemispheric activity within the brain. Finally, the different forms of treatment are briefly described for both pre-school and school-aged children.
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Watkins, K.E., Smith, S.M., Davis, S., & Howell, P. (2008). Structural and functional abnormalities of the motor system in developmental stuttering. BRAIN, 131, 50-59.

This study compared twelve subjects with developmental stuttering to ten age and sex-matched controls to determine if people who stutter have functional or structural abnormalities in either motor or language areas of the brain, or both when compared to people who do not stutter. The study also included eight more subjects (5 people who stutter and 3 controls) who were scanned with diffuse imaging. The study indicated that people who stuttered showed over activity in the anterior insula, cerebellum and midbrain bilaterally and under activity in the ventral premotor, Rolandic opercular and sensorimotor cortex bilaterally and Heschl's gyrus on the left during speech production, either during fluency or auditory feedback. Previous suggestions of how there is an abnormal function of the basal ganglia or excessive dopamine in people who stutter was supported by this study_ s findings of the over activity in the midbrain. The under activity that was found in this study of the cortical motor and premotor areas are associated with articulation and speech production. This data found in this study supports the conclusion that stuttering is a disorder related primarily to disruption in the cortical and subcortical neural systems supporting the selection, initiation and execution of motor sequences necessary for fluent speech production.
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Watkins, R.V. & Johnson, B.W. (2004). Language abilities in children who stutter: Toward improved research and clinical applications. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 35 (1), 82-89.

This article states that the differences in the research traditions and methods used in studying child language development and stuttering contributes to the uncertain nature of the literature on the status of language abilities in children who stutter (CWS). The author describes five principles to help gain a clearer picture of the relationship between language and fluency in young children. The five principles include 1) Control variables that are relevant for language development, 2) Use appropriate comparisons, 3) Evaluate language abilities in conjunction with fluency in a longitudinal time frame, 4) Integrate group and individual data in investigating language abilities in young CWS, and 5) Distinguish linguistic influences from language limitations.
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Watkins, R., Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N. (1999). Early childhood stuttering III: Initial status of expressive language abilities. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 42, 1125-1135.

This study examined whether or not expressive language ability during preschool years differed for children whose stuttering would become persistent or would cease. Language samples of 1000 words were collected from 84 children, ages 2-5, who stuttered. The samples were analyzed to measure language proficiency. This study provided little information to differentiate those who will have persistent stuttering or will recover. All children were found at similar skill levels. Precocious language development was found to possibly be a risk factor for stuttering. The results from this study show a possibility of varied associations between language proficiency and stutterers over developmental time periods. This holds important implications for future investigating. The continued analysis of young children's language abilities may be informative. Areas that can be researched further include specific linguistic skills of children and the linguistic ability of children who's stuttering has stopped without intervention.
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Watson, B. C., & Alfonso, P. J. (1987). Physiological bases of acoustic LRT in nonstutterers, mild stutterers, and severe stutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 30, 434- 447.

The purpose of this research study was to investigate the hypothesis that differential physiological deficits underlie mild and severe stutterers' prolonged acoustic laryngeal reaction time (LRT). The study consisted of 2 adult male nonstutterers, 2 adult male mild stutterers, and 2 adult male severe stutterers. Procedures for the study included the collection of respiratory and laryngeal kinematic data during the production of isolated vowels. Results of the study revealed differences in the organization of respiratory and laryngeal events between the mild and severe stutterers. These results suggest that deficits in the respiratory and laryngeal functioning of mild and severe stutterers may be an underlying factor in their prolonged LRT values.
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Watson, B.C., Pool, K.D., Devous, M.D., Freeman, F.J., & Finitzo, T. (1992). Brain blood flow related to acoustic laryngeal reaction time in adult developmental stutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 555-561.

The investigators interpreted the metabolic (rCBF) measures of brain function findings by identifying patterns of impaired acoustic laryngeal reaction time (LRT) as a function of response complexity parallel to rCBF findings. The stutterer subgroups determined by clinical severity ratings were not differentiated by LRT values as a function of response complexity. Stutterers with relative blood flow asymmetry below and above the normal median relative flow values were compared and presented.
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Watson, J.B. (1987). Profiles of stutterers' and nonstutterers' affective, cognitive, and behavioral communication attitudes. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 389-405.

The purpose of this study was to profile the affective, cognitive, and behavioral attitudinal dimensions of stutterers' and nonstutterers' communication attitudes and to describe membership characteristics of each profile. The Inventory of Communication Attitudes was completed by 76 stutterers and 81 nonstutterers. Results indicated the existence of six profiles relating to how a person views his/her communication skills, how he/she thinks others view his/her communication skills, and how he/she views his/her own communication skills. Membership in each of these profiles had no specific pattern. Addressing attitudinal characteristics in therapy was addressed as a means to assist the adult stutterer in therapy. Additional longitudinal study into the area of attitude change affected by fluency enhancement and maintenance is recommended.
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Watson, J.B. (1988). A comparison of stutterers' and nonstutterers' affective, cognitive, and behavioral self-reports. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 31, 377-385.

This study compares stutterers to nonstutterers using the Inventory of Communication Attitudes-a new procedure used to examine adult stutterers. The Inventory of Communication Attitudes uses 4 response scale. The first is the affective scale, it rates feelings of enjoyment / hate about speaking in certain situations. The second scale rates speech skills in different situations. The third scale obtains ratings of the perceptions of how most people feel about speaking situations. The final scale, requests ratings of perceptions of most peoples speech skills in specific speaking situations. Results did show that stutterers attitudes of various speaking situations were multidimensional. Two situations differed between stutterers and nonstutterers they were telephone conversations, and unknown group conversations. Results of this study indicate that the attitudes of both groups are multidimensional and similarities and differences exist between stutterers and nonstutterers.
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Watson, J.B., Gregory, H.H. & Kistler, D.J. (1987). Development and evaluation of an inventory to assess adult stutterers' communication attitudes. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 12, 429-450.

The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a procedure to assess adult stutterers' communication attitudes. This was undertaken in two phases. Phase I involved the development and administration of an attitude assessment inventory. The inventory was refined following critiquing. This phase was administered to 107 adults who stutter. Phase II involved reassessing the reliability and validity of the inventory and examining the results gathered from the test subjects. This phase was administered to 26 stutterers and 56 non stutterers. Results indicated stutterers' communication attitudes to be more widely scattered over the inventory than nonstutterers' attitudes. This disparity was attributed to differences in severity of stuttering, attitude toward therapy, placement in therapy, perceived communication skills, and perceived effect therapy has on speech production. It was recommended that larger studies use this instrument to test the reliability and validity of this communication attitude inventory.
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Watson, P., & Guitar, B. (1986). Respiratory Stuttering? JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 165- 173.

This article was a case history dealing with a disorder that two brothers encountered. They both were unable to breathe in speaking situations where they felt more stress and pressure was put on them. It is thought that the fear of having an anxiety attack was the cause of the apnea or inability to breathe. Treatment from different psychiatrists was unsuccessful, and no cure was found. It is suggested that this disorder may be a form of respiratory stuttering. These symptoms fit into Van Riper's track III, which is when the speaker has a history of fluent speech but in certain situations tight fixations occur in the area of the speech structures. This is also called "interiorized stuttering." Many treatment approaches are discussed and we are reminded that each person who stutters is different and that there may be many different approaches to treatment.
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Weber, C. & Smith, A. (1990). Autonomic correlates of stuttering and speech assessed in a range of experimental tasks. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 33, 690-706.

Two groups of 19 subjects - stutterers and normal speakers- were assessed for electrodermal activity, peripheral blood flow and heart rate while engaging in 2 speech tasks and 2 non-speech tasks. The authors were attempting to determine if stutterers exhibit abnormally high levels of autonomic arousal for speaking tasks. They were also attempting to determine how autonomic measures during speech compare to measures during other tasks and if extreme increases in sympathetic activity are related to the occurrence and severity of dysfluency in stutterers. Results indicate no difference between the 2 groups in the amount of autonomic activity associated with speech. However, within the stuttering group, more extreme increases in sympathetic arousal were associated with the occurrence and severity of dysflueny speech.
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Weber-Fox, C. (2001). Neural systems for sentence processing in stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 44, 4, 814-825.

This article focused on the neurophysiological aspects of language processing in individuals who stutter. This study used an approach for studying language processing that combined recordings of event- related brain potentials with behavioral measures. This study was primarily trying to find out if people who stutter process visual linguistic stimuli for a sentence differently from their fluent peers, even when no speech production is required. The event-related brain potentials were recorded while 9 people who stutter and 9 normally fluent people read sentences silently. The stimuli consisted of 120 sentences: 60 contained final words that violated semantic expectations, and the remaining 60 were semantically correct. The results of the event-related brain potentials supported the notion that people who stutter display unusual neural functions for visual processing of linguistic material when speech production isn't required. Also, the processing differences between people who stutter and those who do not were similar across word classes and semantics.
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Weber-Fox, C., & Hampton, A. (2008).Stuttering and natural speech processing of semantic and syntactic constraints on verbs. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH. 51, 1058-1071.

This article hypothesizes that neural processes differ in linguistic tasks for a person who stutters compared to a person with normal fluency. The study used a natural speech listening task and focused on verbs for syntactic and semantic processing constraints. The results indicated that a person who stutters performed similarly on the verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies task. The syntactic and semantic processing constraints task showed that neural processing tasks for a person who stutters differ than a person with normal fluency.
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Weber-Fox, C., Spencer, R.M.C., Spruill, J.E., & Smith, A. (2004). Phonologic processing in adults who stutter: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 47, 1244-1258.

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences in the neural functioning of adults who stutter in non- speech tasks by using a visual rhyming paradigm that combines event-related brain potentials and behavioral measures. The study involved 11 adults who stutter and 11 typically-fluent peers, who were matched on the basis of age (17-44 years), gender and education. The adults who stutter described themselves as very mild-very severe on the Stuttering Severity Instrument for Children and Adults, Third Edition (SSI). The participants were presented with 124 rhyming word pairs and 124 non-rhyming word pairs and instructed to make a judgment as to whether or not the words rhymed. The subjects wore an elastic cap with electrodes to measure brain activity. No significant differences were found between adults who stutter and their peers in event-related brain potentials, though the adults who stutter showed more difficulty when demands of the task were highest, as compared to their peers.
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Webster, W. (1989). Sequence reproduction deficits in stutterers tested under nonspeeded response conditions. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 14, 79-86.

This study focuses on the ability of stutterers to motorically reproduce sequences with the same accuracy as nonstutterers, without the pressure of being timed. Previous research has produced evidence that the neural systems that help produce "serially ordered manual behavior," (p. 79) such as finger tapping, overlap with the neural systems that produce speech. This may be an indication that stuttering is the result of frontal cortex involvement. In this study participants were asked to tap telegraphic keys in the sequence indicated on a visual screen. Subjects were told that they could take as long as they wanted to respond. The results showed that the stutterers had fewer correct responses than the nonstutterers. These results suggest that time is not the underlying factor in the differences between the stutterers and the nonstutterers. These findings may be an indicator that sole use of rate control in therapy may not lead to significant improvement.
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Webster, W.G., & Ryan, C.R.L., (1991). Task complexity and manual reaction times in people who stutter. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 708-714.

This study examined the manual reaction time of 24 people who stutter and compared the results to 24 nonstutterers. The study looked at decision complexity in terms of response time. One procedure involved increasing response choices. In the second procedure initiation and response completion times were compared. Results indicated that people who stutter have slower reaction time than nonstutterers. However, with increasing decision complexity, the two groups responses were parallel. This article concludes that whatever planning or response problem there may be in a stutterer, it is independent of decision complexity.
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Weisel, A. & Spektor, G. (1998). Attitudes Toward Own Communication and Toward Stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 23, 3, 157-171

This research study involves investigating attitudes of stutterers of their own stuttering as well as attitudes of stuttering by non-stutterers in an adolescent age group. The study found boys more uncomfortable in attitudes towards stuttering as both stutterers and non-stutterers. Girls were found to be more comfortable in their attitudes toward stuttering, perhaps due to comfort in their own communication attitudes. Girls who stuttered, however, did fit more into the stereotypic view of stuttering, disregarding their own communication attitudes.
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Weiss, AL. (1995). Conversational demands and their effects on fluency and stuttering. TOPICS IN LANGUAGE DISORDERS, 15 (3), 18-31.

In this article, the author discusses the demands placed on children while engaging in conversation. For children who stutter, these demands become more problematic when coupled with the maintenance of fluent speech. The connections between conversational demands and fluent speech are explored. Suggestions for the construction of therapy programs addressing these connections are also included.
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Weiss, A. L. (2002). Recasts in parents' language to their school-age children who stutter: a preliminary study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 243-266.

The purpose of this study was to examine the recasts of parents whose children stutter and determine how/if it differs in frequency and type from recasts of parents whose children do not stutter. Comparisons of recasts of parents of children who stutter and parents of children who do not stutter did not reveal any remarkable findings of dissimilarity. The most noteworthy finding of the study was a low percentage of disfluencies that served as platform sentences for parents' recasts, suggesting a child's disfluency did not elicit regular attempts by parents to repair their children's disfluent utterances. The authors speculate that parents of children who stutter choose to recast utterances for reasons other than the presence of disfluency.
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Weiss, Amy. (2004). Why we should consider pragmatics when planning treatment for children who stutter. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 35, 34-45.

This article provides an in depth look at pragmatic language and its importance when considering overall speech and language development for children who speak fluently and especially for children who stutter. SLP's may find treatment in the area of pragmatic language to be a useful addition to fluency activities for children who stutter. The author presents suggestions for several pragmatic activities such as manipulation of conversations and other discourse in ways that can benefit children who stutter. These suggestions follow the traditional therapeutic procedure of gradually increasing the challenge of the tasks presented to the client as treatment progresses. A case description of a 10 year-old child who stutters is also included. The child's therapy program contained a conversational-based focus and included pragmatic language activities.
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Weiss, Amy. (2004). What child language research may contribute to the understanding and treatment of stuttering. LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 35, 90-92.

In this clinical forum, the authors demonstrate that communication context, as well as aspects of language learning, are important when considering children who stutter. The authors agree that the development of fluent speech is tied to development in other areas of communication, such as the development of speech- language abilities involving vocabulary, syntax and morphology, phonology, and the ability of children who stutter to use these aspects successfully with a variety of people in many environments. The authors suggest that collection of evaluation and treatment data from children who stutter should be collected in naturalistic settings in addition to a therapeutic setting.
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Weiss, A. & Zebrowski, P. (1992). Disfluencies in the conversation of young children who stutter: Some answers about questions. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 1230-1238.

The purposes of this study were to determine the amount that questions or request by parents in conversation elicited disfluencies in young stutterers and which utterances made by the children were especially vulnerable to disfluent production. The results showed that answers to questions were significantly less likely to produce 1 or more disfluencies and that the children were more disfluent on longer more complex structures.
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Weiss, A. L., & Zebrowski, P. M. (1994). The narrative productions of children who stutter: A preliminary view. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 19 (1). 39-63.

Story retell tasks (once to naive listeners and once to familiar listeners) and story completion tasks were performed by 16 children involved in this study. Of the 16 subjects, 8 were diagnosed as stutterers, and 8 were nonstutterers. Findings of the study indicate insignificant distinctions between length and complexity of tasks by the stutterers and nonstutterers. Noted differences of stuttering subjects include shorter and slightly lower event recall as opposed to the nonstuttering subjects. It is encouraged to obtain and include discourse information in speech and language evaluations of young children who stutter.
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Wenker, R. B., Wegener, J. G., & Hart, K. J. (1996). The impact of presentation mode and disfluency on judgments about speakers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 21(2), 147-160.

This study investigated ratings on personality traits between fluent and disfluent speakers (i.e. actors) by 158 under-graduate students. Personality traits were rated on fluent and disfluent speakers when they presented "live" and on audiotape. Results found that disfluent speakers were rated more favorable than fluent speakers on traits including sincere, good sense of humor, friendly, and trustworthy. Disfluent speakers were rated less favorable on traits including fluent, understandable, communicates messages, and not impaired. It was determined that the presence of disfluent speakers did not negatively affect personality ratings. Research in various contexts, during job interviews, and in other socials situations is recommended.
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Wertz, R.T. (1993). Adult onset disorders. AMERICAN SPEECH AND HEARING ASSOCIATION, 35, 38-39.

The purpose of this article was to discuss the efficacy of treating adults with aphasia, dysarthria, spasmodic dysphonia, and stuttering. The author suggests three areas that must be addressed when treating adult-onset disorders. The first is methodology: before any treatment is begun, the methods utilized must be researched thoroughly, including critical analysis of all studies. The second is the natural history of the problem; the clinician must know the normal progression of the disorder in order not to provide contradictory treatment. Lastly, the clinician must keep data on the efficacy of their own efforts in order to prevent the reoccurrence of flawed methods & to ensure the recurrence of appropriate methods.
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Wieneke, G.H., Eijken, E., Jassen, P., & Brutten, G.J. (2001). Durational Variability in the Fluent Speech of Stutterers and Nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS. 26:1, 43-53.

This article discussed a study that focused on the relationship between timing variability and dysfluency levels. Two measures of dysfluency levels were used in this study (1) percentage of dysfluent words spoken in conversational speech (2) percentage of dysfluent utterances during physiologic testing as the subject repeated simple speech utterances. The results were inconsistent with the hypothesis that durational variability contributes to speech dysfluency, which led to this present study. This study was done to determine if durational variability is associated with dysfluent speech production. The study involved 3 groups, two consisted of adult stutterers and the third was a control group of 16 nonstutterers. Each group was asked to repeat a series of 2 test sentences which appeared on a computer monitor, a minimum of 10 times. A F-J Electronics EG 830 was used to determine the beginning and ending of the voiced segments in each sentence repetition. The speech signal was used to determine the phonemes in each voiced and voiceless segment. The findings indicated: (1) There was only one stuttering group who was able to produce 10 fluent productions, as well as the control group of nonstutterers. (2) This study does not coincide with the hypothesis that variability in speech motor systems is a source factor that contributes to speech dysfluency. (3) It is believed that there continues to be an undetermined mechanism that is responsible for the occurrence of stuttering. (4) It is believed that an increase in speech rate from beginning speech of children to adult speech may require automatization which would involve less sensory motor feedback and focus more on new control strategies that enhance fluency.
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Wieneke, G., Janssen, P., Brutten, G. J. (1995). Variance of central timing of voiced and voiceless periods among stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 20(2), 191-203.

This study tested the hypothesis that speech production is dis- rupted when the variability in the speech motor system is relatively excessive. By using electroglottography (EGG), the speech of 24 adult stutterers was assessed in two conditions, at 20% faster and then 20% slower than their normal reading rate. Results indicate that the stutterers did not differ from nonstutterers on three measures of variability; rate, segment transition, and variance related to the timing of the segment. With the hypothesis unsupported, the authors conclude that a slower speech rate has a normalizing effect on the variability in speech production.
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Wijnen, F., & Boers, I. (1994). Phonological primary effects in stutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 19 (1), 1-20.

Nine stutterers and nine nonstutters were involved in this study. A phonological priming experiment was conducted involving subjects uttering one word from sets of 5 words as fast as possible once presented with a visual cue word. Homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions were applied to trials. Results denote reduction of speech onset in stuttering subjects.
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Wilkenfeld, J.R. & Curlee, R.F. (1997). The relative effects of questions and comments on children's stuttering. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 6, 79-88.

There is a long standing belief, held by many, that parental interactions with their children contribute to stuttering. This study was designed to determine if adults questions, requests, and comments affect stuttering in children. Three preschool-age boys participated in the study and the results do not support the long standing belief. None of the children's stuttering varied across each condition.
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Williams, D. (1982). Coping with attitudes and beliefs about stuttering. JOURNAL OF CHILDHOOD COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 6, 60-66.

A child's view about his or her talking results not only because of the ways he or she talks, but also because of the reactions of listeners toward the child. Ways the clinician can deal with the classroom teachers, parents, and other key listeners in the child's environment are introduced. This article states that the major goal is to help the listeners see the problem of stuttering from a normal perspective, so that a child will not try to hide his flaws due to being told his speech is ''wrong". It suggests that teachers be calm and direct when working with stutterers. Reasons teachers do not feel comfortable talking with children who stutter are given. Also, means the clinician can use to help the child develop a realistic attitude toward stuttering is included. The importance of a child not "fighting" mistakes is discussed. This behavior should help place him in a more respected position in the verbal communication world.
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Williams, D., F. (2006). Using essays in therapy. THE JOURNAL OF STUTTERING THERAPY, ADVOCACY AND RESEARCH, 1, 7-15 http://journalofstuttering.com/ListofArticles.html

This article lists five main ideas which are believed to be essential in the stuttering treatment process. These being: It's OK to feel bad about stuttering, it's OK to feel better about it, too, it's OK to speak (and to stutter), it's OK to modify your speech, and it's OK-no, it's a must-to go elsewhere with new skills. A brief overview of the main ideas is provided, along with a list of available essays to read. The essays included can provide readers with a starting point in the journey of stuttering therapy.
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Williams, D. F., & Brutten, G. J. (1994). Physiologic and aerodynamic events prior to the speech of stutterers and nonstutterers. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 19(2), 83-111.

Fourteen male stutterers and nonstutterers participated in this study of respiratory-laryngeal-supralaryngeal behavior just prior to voice onset in fluent speech to see if there exists differences between the two groups. Respiratory bellows for abdominal and ribcage movement, EGG, and airflow signals were used to measure 5 dependent variables; respiratory onset locus, peak airflow, the area under the peak airflow curve, a latency period between respiratory onset and laryngeal initiation and a second latency period between peak airflow and the onset of a repetitive EGG wave. The speech task included six CVC and one VC words. The results suggest that stutterers present abnormal coordination among their respiratory structures. Various explanations for these findings and their significance and limitations are discussed.
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Williams, D., & Dungan, P. (2002). Administering stuttering modification therapy in school settings. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 23, 187-194.

Stuttering modification is a treatment approach that is used to treat the speech, emotional, and behavioral aspects of stuttering. It includes the identification of stuttering, desensitization to emotions associated with stuttering, modification of speech, and stabilization of speech skills. This approach is appropriate for the school- aged population due to the disorders involvement in more than just observable speech breakdowns. Stuttering modification goals and techniques are outlined as well as how to implement the program to achieve the highest level of effectiveness through the use of a group setting, involvement of those individuals in the child's life, and measuring progress.
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Williams, D.F., and Wener, D.L. (1996). Cluttering and stuttering exhibited in a young professional. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS 21, 261-269.

This purpose of this article demonstrates the effectiveness of techniques used by clutterers and how success may or may not occur with unstable motivation, changing of clinicians and lapses in therapy time. This article discusses the case of an 18-year old male. Assessment and treatment procedures are discussed about this individual.
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Williams, HG., & Bishop, JH. (1992). Speech consistency of manual movements of stutterers, articulation-disordered children, and children with normal speech. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 17, 191-203.

This study examined the speech and consistency of manual movements of eighteen children from three groups; children who stutter, articulation-disordered children, and children with normal speech. An analysis of average movement time, variability of movement time, and ratios of movement time/total response time were conducted. Results indicated that children with speech disorders at all three ages were significantly slower at executing simple manual movements than children with normal speech. Furthermore, normal and articulatory-disordered children were less variable than children who stuttered in executing simple manual movements.
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Wilson, L., Onslow, M., & Lincoln, M. (2004). Telehealth adaptation of the Lidcombe program of early stuttering intervention: five case studies. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 13, 81-93.

This therapy adapted the Lidcombe program to be used via telehealth. Five participants were involved in the case studies. Adaptations made to the Lidcombe program consisted of (1) replacing the clinic visits with scheduled telephone consultations, (2) Omitting real-time measures of percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS), (3) establishing an agreement on severity rating between parents and clinicians, (4) recording parent attempts at implementing verbal contingencies during structured speech, and (6) limited interaction between the clinician and the child. The age range of the participants was 3;5(years;months) to 5;7. All five participants completed stage one of the program. Data for four of the five children is available for stage two. Two of the children scored a mean %SS of less than 1.0 and two of the children scored a mean of below 2.0 at 12 months posttreatment. The number of consultations during this therapy was considerably more than is usually seen in the traditional Lidcombe program suggesting that it is less effective.
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Wingate, ME. (1986). Adaptation, consistency and beyond: I. limitations and contradictions. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 1-36.

This article attempts to identify and discuss issues with consistency and adaptation. Nine adult males with a mild to moderately-severe stutter were asked to read a 205-word passage five times in succession. Two judges recorded their frequency of stuttering and found that no individual consistencies were significant. The results also indicated that the participants manifested adaptation individually, which fails to support the learning theory of stuttering.
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Wingate, ME. (1986). Adaptation, consistency and beyond: II. an integral account. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 36-54.

This is the second article concerning adaptation and consistency. The focus is on the loci of stuttering occurrence and what influencing factors are present. Loci, for the purpose of this study, refer to stuttered words. The study further analyzed the previous 205-word reading for frequency of stuttered words in the initial reading of the passage, the relationship between frequency of stuttering and the grammatical complexity. The results discredit the longstanding belief that adaptation and consistency are in support of the learning theory of stuttering.
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Wingate, ME. (1987). Fluency and Disfluency; Illusion and Identification. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 79-101.

The focus of this article is the idea that the full understanding of the nature of stuttering depends upon the more fundamental understanding of the nature of fluency and the characteristics of disfluency in normal speech. This article identifies and discusses basic contributions of research in the areas of normal speech disfluencies and the disfluencies characteristic of disfluent speech and their relative significance for understanding stuttering, disfluency, and fluency.
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Winslow, M., & Guitar, B. (1994). The effects of structured turn- taking on disfluencies: A case study. LANGUAGE, SPEECH AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 25(4), 251-257.

This study examined the effects of structured conversational turn- taking on the amount and types of disfluencies as well as the speech rate of a 5 year old boy who stuttered. A single subject research design was used. The subject was seen in his home for 15 experimental sessions. Results indicate that the total number of disfluencies decreased during structured turn-taking conditions. The results also show that turn-taking during his family's dinner time resulted in a lower rate of dysfluency for the subject during conversation.
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Wittke-Thompson, J.K., Ambrose, N., Yairi, E., Roe, C., Cook, E.H., Ober, C., & Cox, N.J. (2007). Genetic studies of stuttering in a founder population. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32, 33-50.

Several genetic models have been suggested for the inheritance of stuttering within families. This study was conducted using genome-wide linkage and association analyses to determine if genetics played a role in the cause of stuttering. Forty-eight individuals who stuttered and were related to a 232-member pedigree comprised of nine generations were explored in the Hutterite communities of South Dakota. The results did not find a major locus contributing to stuttering and suggest that stuttering is a polygenic disorder, in which several genes of varying effect may increase susceptibility to stuttering.
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Wolk, L., Edwards, M.L., & Conture, E.G. (1993). Coexistence of stuttering and disordered phonology in young children. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 36, 906-917.

The purpose of this study was to compare the stuttering, phonological and diadochokinetic behaviors of children with both stuttering and disorders phonology and those children who displayed only one of the disorders. Twenty-one males participated in the study and fell into one of three groups: stuttering with normal phonology (S+NP), stuttering with disordered phonology (S+DP), and normal fluency with disordered phonology (NF+DP). The children were taped during a 30 minute conversation task and also given a 162 word picture naming task to detect phonological errors, and given a diadochokinetic task for sequencing the sounds. Results indicated that the S+DP group had more sound prolongation than the S+NP group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the other stuttering areas, phonological behaviors or diadochokinetic rates. Implications of the study suggest two types of stuttering: one with and one without disordered phonology.
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Wollock, J. (1990) Communication disorder in renaissance Italy: An unreported case analysis by Hieronymus Mercurialis (1530-1606). JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 23, 1-30.

The author of this article contends that the science of speech and language (the physiology, psychology, and pathology) were comprehensively studied in the ancient past. A case report from the 1580's of a young nobleman who suffered from a speech impediment which in modern day would be termed a fluency disorder is discussed. The views, interpretations and general assessment, by the then renowned physician Hieronymus Mercurialis are discussed and an overview of the medical knowledge and beliefs of the times are given. Mercurialis' views on the etiology, prognosis, and treatment of this particular case are discussed and compared to modern day beliefs.
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Woods, D., Fuqua, RW, & Waltz, TJ. (1997). Evaluation and elimination of an avoidance response in a child who stutters: a case study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 287-297.

This case study's focus is on a 6-year-old male with cerebral palsy. Efforts were undertaken to treat his stuttering by reducing the avoidance response "I don't know" he commonly used in response to conversational questions. Simplified Habit Reversal (SHR) techniques were added to the previous phase of reduction treatment. Expectations included seeing a decrease in stuttering and a low level of the avoidance response. Baseline conditions were implemented and then movement toward treatment progressed. Reliability was assessed with replication of these conditions. Extinguishing with differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) was followed. The result was that "I don't know" was decreased. Speech rate and stuttering both increased. Stuttering was reduced and low rates of avoidance were maintained when SHR techniques were implemented. Initially, when baseline was reversed, the 6-year-old avoided stuttering at high levels, thus stuttering less. Those occurrences reversed, however, as stuttering continued. When the SHR method was used once again, the boy stuttered less and used fewer avoidance measures. Concerns with the study are included as are future issues to address with research.
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Yairi, E. (1993). Epidemiologic and other considerations in treatment efficacy research with preschool age children who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 18, 197-219.

This articles purpose is to highlight several factors to be considered in treatment efficacy research with preschool-aged children who stutter. The author reviews recent research findings that present the onset and characteristics of early childhood stuttering as more complex than has been previously thought. The article also focused on epidemiologic data with reference to recent genetic and longitudinal findings as well as possibilities for subgrouping. The authors conclusion is that the fast rate of recovery dictates rigid control of the recovery factor in studies of treatment efficacy and that all research of preschool-aged children who stutter should control age and post-onset interval.
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Yairi, E. (1996). Letters to the editor: Applications of disfluencies in measurements of stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 39, 402-403.

In Yairi's letter to the editor, he discusses an issue regarding the use of disfluency schemes in definitions and measures of stuttering. He reports that Cordes and Ingham's Research Note (1995) posed an important argument that not all within-word disfluencies are necessarily "stuttering" and that sometimes between-word utterances are perceived as stuttering. Yairi discusses the semantic implications of this as it pertains to normal speakers as well as his reservations regarding the "content" of this category. He states that if within-word disfluencies continue to be labeled as "stuttering", investigators may find themselves having to report the frequency of stuttering in the speech of their normally speaking subjects and that studies which do not specify monosyllabic word repetition patterns of its subjects may influence the credibility and generalizability of the outcomes. Yairi concludes by persuading the reader that not all disfluencies of persons who stutter are necessarily "stuttering" and that developing proper taxonomy for disfluent phenomena for both normal and disordered would be advantageous.
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Yairi, E. (1998). Is the basis of stuttering genetic? ASHA, 29-32.

This article provides an overview of previous studies conducted to determine the relationship between stuttering, genetics, and the environment. Yairi concludes that at least a part of stuttering is genetic. By looking at genetics, Yairi hopes to find more specific data to establish criteria for early prognosis to determine if a child will become a chronic person who stutters or if the child will recover without intervention. The goal of current research is to find a specific gene which is linked to stuttering; however, Yairi points out that once a gene is discovered, the work is just beginning. The actual roles that a gene plays are still unknown. Yairi contends that once genetics are determined some of the questions concerning stuttering will be answered.
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Yairi, E. (2004). The formative years of stuttering: A changing portrait. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCES AND DISORDERS,31, 92-104.

This article discussed a longitudinal study that was done at the University of Illinois Stuttering Research Program, which focused on pre-school children. From their research they found out a lot about stuttering that contradicted previous beliefs. The study found that the age in which stuttering begins is younger than previously thought, with the average age being 33 months. The study also showed that onset was sudden, between a day or two, which also contradicted previous theory that stuttering is gradual. The condition in which stuttering begins was also addressed, and it was found that about 50% of the time it came after uneventful situations, but 50% started after stresses. This study also looked at awareness of dysfluency, secondary characteristics, language, cognitive abilities, phonology, motor speech, and genetics. The study found a lot of useful information in regards to childhood stuttering.
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Yairi., E. (2007). Subtyping stuttering I: A review. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 32, 3, 165-196.

"The objectives of the current article are to (a) highlight the motivation for identifying sub-types of stuttering, (b) outline the issues involved in researching subtypes, and (c) address the question of whether or not subtyping is plausible for this disorder." To review past ideas of subtyping, the article concentrates on seven categories that reflect the author's theoretical or experimental approaches. These categories are: general etiology, prominent stuttering phenomena, reactions to drugs, biological characteristics, concomitant disorders, developmental course, and multiple variables. The seven categories also serve the purpose to present the research problems and challenges. This article concluded that there is a potential lead for distinguishing subtypes for early childhood stuttering, but research is still lacking evidence that is important to the nature of stuttering. It is recommended in the future studies to include multiple factors in the information collecting process, especially with young children.
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Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N. (1992). A longitudinal study of stuttering in children: A preliminary report. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 755-760.

The purpose of this paper was to report preliminary information about general longitudinal trends and individual longitudinal information of disfuency for preschool children who stutter. Twenty-seven children who stutter were involved in the longitudinal study. The children were divided into treated and untreated groups. The results indicated that there were no differences between the two groups in the amount of disfluency. The untreated group had decrease of disfluencies. The data of individual's showed that stuttering is not uniform, 1/3 of the subjects continued to stutter after the first two years of the study.
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Yairi, E. & Ambrose, N. (1992). Onset of stuttering in preschool children: Selected factors. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 35, 782-788.

The purpose of this study was to examine the onset of stuttering in relation to gender, age, genetic background, stress, type of onset and stuttering severity. Eighty-seven children who stutter were the subjects of the study. The results showed a 2:1 male to female ratio and the greatest risk for beginning stuttering is under age 3 (75% of the risk is before 3 1/2 years old).
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Yairi, E. Ambrose, N., & Niermann, R. (1993). The early months of stuttering: A developmental study. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 36, 521-528.

This study was done in an attempt to follow the progression of stuttering in 16 preschoolers whose stuttering was discovered several weeks after onset. The authors considered the study quite valuable due to the relatively few studies available in the literature dealing with the early months of stuttering due to parent's tendency to postpone evaluation until later in the course of the disorder. Results indicated that early stuttering is much more severe than previously thought. The authors discovered secondary behaviors accompanying stuttering behaviors such as facial and head movements. The children were discovered to be in the moderate to severe severity rating, but the authors recognized that parents of these children may be more apt to have their child evaluated. In follow-up studies, it was determined that none of the children involved in early treatment were in need of therapy at any time after Tx, providing impetus for early identification.
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Yairi, E., & N. Ambrose (1999). Spontaneous recovery and clinical trials research in early childhood stuttering: a response to Onslow and Packman. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 42, 402-409.

Yairi and Ambrose replied to a critique by Onslow and Packman (see under Onslow and Packman). They claim that Onslow and Packman failed to look at critical aspects of treatment. Instead the two focused on whether or not a complete cure has been obtained instead of whether or not it is their treatment that brought about the change rather than subject characteristics, spontaneous recovery, or other factors. Yairi and Ambrose defend their previous research and state that Onslow and Packman jump to some incorrect conclusions. The authors agree that many environmental factors may play a role in recovery without treatment, however they have yet to be identified. They claim that Onslow and Packman made an unfair comparison between two different research methods, misread previous findings, applied double standards in evaluation of research, and set up their own rules as to what constitutes appropriate research.
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Yairi, E., and Hall, K.D. (1993). Temporal relations within repetitions of preschool children near the onset of stuttering: A preliminary report. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS 26, 231-244.

This study involved 15 children who stutter and 18 children who do not stutter. All subjects were under the age of five. This study was done to compare duration characteristics of single repetitions of single-syllable words. The results showed that very early stutterers have an inclination for faster repetitions than the repetitions in nonstuttering children.
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Yaruss, S. (1997). Utterance timing and childhood stuttering, JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22, 263-286.

In this article, speaking rate and response time latency were discussed at length as they are believed to be crucial components to determine whether stuttering will occur in an utterance. Little empirical evidence is available at the time to suggest that these methods of timing are correlated to stuttering. Twelve boys who stutter (mean = 55.2 months) were considered in this study based on their conversational speech. The relationship between articulatory speaking rate and response time latency was examined in the 30- minute conversational interactions these boys had with their mothers. Seventy-five utterances were selected from each child's speech sample and discriminant function analyses were completed on them. From this information, it was determined if the articulatory speaking rate or response time latency of a certain utterance made it more likely for the child to stutter on that utterance. Findings for each of the subjects showed no significant relationships between these utterance timings and stuttering. Also, no significant difference between both means of utterance timing was discovered. Thus, these findings do not support the speculation that articulatory speaking rate and response time latency help determine if stuttering will happen in a certain statement. Future such studies should be done taking into account linguistic complexity and its relationship to utterance timing and childhood stuttering.
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Yaruss, J.S. (1997). Clinical implications of situational variability in preschool children who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 22(3): p187-203.

This is a study that examines variability in the number of disfluencies produced by 45 preschool children who stutter. Five different speaking situations were used. The situations used were; parent-child interaction, play with clinician, play with pressures imposed, story retell, and picture description. The results of the study indicated that significant differences were found between the five different speaking situations. Variability was greater between the speaking situations then with in a single speaking situation. The play with pressure situation yielded the highest number of disfluencies though subjects patterns of variability were highly individualized. Children who had a higher number of "less typical" disfluencies also had a significantly higher degree of variability. This study shows the importance of evaluating a child's speech in different speaking situations. In doing this the clinician can gain a better understanding of the child's stuttering and the true extent of the stuttering will not be overlooked.
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Yaruss, J.S. (1998). Describing the consequence of disorders: Stuttering and the international classification of impairments, disabilities, and handicap. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 41, 249-257.

The International Classification of Impairments, Disorders, and Handicaps (ICIDH) could be used effectively to describe stuttering; however, the current definitions of impairment, disorders, and handicaps do not accurately apply to stuttering. This article presented three definitions which apply specifically to stuttering and are more consistent with ICIDH. The new definitions presented could improve understanding about stuttering, help evaluate treatment outcomes, and help other clinicians, researchers, and professionals communicate more effectively. If the ICIDH would adopt these definitions as proposed in this article, the author argues that stuttering would benefit from the improved clarity of terms and consistency across professions.
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Yaruss, J.S., (1998). Real-Time Analysis of Speech Fluency: Procedures and Reliability Training. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 7, 2, 25-37.

This article explained the procedures for using real-time analysis (collecting data about clients actual speech in real time) for assessing a client's progress. Two items that it measures are the frequency of dysfluencies and the types of dysfluencies. The reliability and consistency of such measures are of great concern to clinicians and researchers. It reviews important issues to remember while conducting real-time analysis such as ensuring that the speech sample obtained is representative of the client's speech and also that it is acceptable for the clinician to "miss" some words. There are two primary dysfluency count sheets discussed: the Vanderbuilt Form and the Northwestern Form. Specific issues and concerns are presented such as how to code: dysfluencies containing multiple iterations, dysfluencies that may include several words, multiple types of dysfluencies on a single word or phrase, lexicalizes phrases (two words produced as a single unit), repeated utterances that may not be dysfluent, "toy noises", nonrepresentative utterances, and how to use other symbols. Also discussed were the topics of intrajudge and interjudge reliability.
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Yaruss, J. Scott (1999). Current Status of Academic and Clinical Education in Fluency Disorders at ASHA-Accredited Training Programs. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 24, 3, 169-183

This article addresses concerns regarding graduate training programs and the limited or lacking requirements of coursework in fluency disorders (i.e. stuttering). Previous research has indicated the attitude by many speech pathologists that they feel unprepared in treating fluency disorders. This study provides information further supporting the attitude that graduate students may not be adequately prepared, which is reflected both academically and professionally, suggesting this as an area of coursework that needs more, not less, attention.
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Yaruss, S. (1999). Utterance Length, Syntactic Complexity, and Childhood Stuttering. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE, AND HEARING RESEARCH, 2. 329-344.

The purpose of the study was to determine whether utterance length and syntactic complexity are related to the likelihood of stuttering in the conversational speech of children who stutter. Twelve male subjects who stuttered, ranging in age from 40 to 66 months, served as subjects. The subjects and their mothers were video and audio taped during free play and a 75- utterance conversational speech sample was extracted for assessment of fluency, utterance length, and syntactic complexity. Utterances that were disfluent but not stuttered, nonsensical, elliptical, formulatic, or fragmented were not used. Results concluded stuttered utterances are likely to be longer and more syntactically complicated than fluent utterances. The study also sought to determine which factor (utterance length or syntactic complexity) had the greatest influence on stuttering. Results showed utterance length was the more important factor in determining whether an utterance would be stuttered.
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Yaruss, J.S. (2000). Converting between word and syllable counts in children's conversational speech samples. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 305-316.

Discussion among researchers and clinicians has been raised regarding whether clinical measurements, such as frequency of disfluencies, should be made in terms of words or syllables. It can be difficult to compare results when different measures are implemented. As a child's language becomes more complex and vocabulary expands, a reliable means of converting between word and syllable measures may be increasingly difficult. The subjects in the study engaged in a thirty-minute conversational speech task. A ratio for converting between length of utterance in syllables and words was established. Results indicate a ratio of 1.15 syllables per word can yield a more accurate conversion between length of utterance in words and syllables of young children.
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Yaruss, J. (2002). Facing the challenge of treating stuttering in the schools. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 23, 153-157.

The fears and incompetencies felt by school-based clinicians are addressed in this article. It offers the school-based clinician advice on identifying some of the challenges of treating a child who stutters and how to address these challenges effectively. Stuttering treatment can be provided to a child in a school setting with complete confidence. This article offers information to ease the clinicians fears and tips to help her get started in assessing and treating the child who stutters.
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Yaruss, Scott J. (2003). One size does not fit all: special topics in stuttering therapy. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 24, 3-6.

One of the most apparent challenges clinicians confront when working with a child who stutters in the schools are the many differences the child displays in regards to behaviors and reactions to the stuttering. Individuals stutter in their own ways. Because of this, different treatment strategies work for different people. The purpose of this article is to provide adequate information regarding topics about locating resources directed toward meeting the needs of children, especially those with special needs. It also provides beneficial information for clinicians for developing plans for working with parents and teachers.
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Yaruss, JS. (2004). Documenting individual treatment outcomes in stuttering therapy.CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCE AND DISORDERS, 31, 49-57.

This article is about the measurement and evaluation of treatment outcomes. In recent research on stuttering, this has been one of the most talked about aspects. Recently, more people, including clients and clinicians, have begun to question whether or not stuttering therapy is valuable. Yaruss lists some factors to take into consideration when trying to determine whether or not treatment is effective, some factors that complicate the process of determining whether or not treatment is working and some less tangible factors to consider when looking at the effectiveness of therapy with people who stutter. Yaruss concludes the article with some suggestions to help clinicians and researchers remember that it is important to take into consideration individual differences when developing and evaluating treatment outcomes for people who stutter.
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Yaruss, J.S., Coleman, C., & Hammer, D. (2006). Treating preschool children who stutter: Description and preliminary evaluation of a family-focused treatment approach. LANGUAGE, SPEECH & HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS, 37, 118-136.

This article focuses on family-centered treatment for preschoolers who stutter and discusses attitudes and reactions that both children and parents have in response to stuttering. Seventeen children who stutter and their families attended six to eight sessions, 45 minutes in length either once per week or every other week. The program can be divided into three sections: education and counseling, communication modification training, and review and re-assessment. Education and counseling consisted of 2 to 4 sessions and encouraged and prepared parents to be active participants in the therapy process. Communication modification consisted of 3 sessions with the purpose of helping parents learn how to facilitate fluent speech from their child. Review and re-assessment consisted of the clinician reviewing treatment strategies so that parents appropriately use their newly learned techniques. Assessments were achieved through direct speech fluency evaluations, a parent questionnaire, and long-term follow-up. Results indicate that the program enabled families to learn more about fluency facilitating strategies and that all participants achieved measurable success during the long-term follow-up. The conclusion of this study is that this treatment approach promoted improved fluency, more effective communication abilities, and more positive communication attitudes.
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Yaruss, J.S., & Conture, E.G. (1993). F2 transitions during sound syllable repetitions of children who stutter and predictions of stuttering chronicity. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 36, 883-896.

The purpose of this study was to assess whether there are acoustic differences in F2 transitions that are associated with the speech disfluencies of children who stutter and are at a low risk of continuing to stutter vs. those children at a high risk of continuing to stutter into adulthood without intervention. Thirteen children participated in the study and were placed in either at low risk / high risk groups. Each child was audio/video taped for 30 minutes in conversation. Ten of the sound/syllable repetitions (SSR) were acoustically analyzed to determine if differences of F2 transitions were present. The results found that children who stutter produce F2 transitions that are absent or unmeasurable. In the low risk children, stuttered F2's were shorter than fluency transitions.
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Yaruss, J S., & Conture, E.G. (1995). Mother and child speaking rates and utterance lengths in adjacent fluent utterances: Preliminary observations. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 3, 257-278

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between naturally occurring variations in parent and child speaking rates and utterance lengths in adjacent fluent utterances. The authors wanted to determine if changes in parents' speech characteristics were followed immediately by similar changes in the children's speech characteristics. One of the most interesting findings in this study was that the greater the difference between mother and child speaking rates in adjacent fluent utterances, the greater the child's stuttering severity. The authors suggest that helping parents Improve the "synchrony" between their child's and their own speaking rates may help reduce the severity of their child's stuttering. Furthermore, they suggest that examiners may take into consideration the speaking rate of a child's conversational partner when measuring the child's stuttering severity and, perhaps, base stuttering severity judgments on samples of children speaking with conversational partners using various speaking rates.
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Yaruss, J. S. & Conture, E.G. (1996). Stuttering and phonological disorders in children: Examination of the Covert Repair Hypothesis. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 39, 349-364.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the Covert Repair Hypothesis, a theory designed to account for the occurrence of speech disfluencies in adults who stutter, can also account for selected speech characteristics of children who stutter who also demonstrate disordered phonology. The Covert Repair Hypothesis is reported to be based on the assumption that disfluencies occur as a by-product of the speakers internal detection and repair process of thoughts prior to being spoken. Disfluencies occur when these covertly repaired errors are overtly produced. It is thought that this theory can be applied to children and it is suggested that children who stutter may demonstrate an impairment in their phonological encoding mechanism that, when combined with a tendency to use rapid articulatory rates or short response time latencies, might not permit sufficient time for their phonological encoding mechanisms to make appropriate selections of target phonemes. Children's speech production during picture naming and conversational speech was evaluated and it was determined that, although speech disfluencies may not represent by-products of self-repairs or systematic speech errors produced during conversational speech, self-repairs of nonsystematic speech errors may be related to children's production of speech disfluencies.
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Yaruss, JS.; LaSalle, LR.; Conture, EG. (1998). Evaluating Stuttering in Young Children: Diagnostic Data. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 7: 4, 62-73.

This is a study of 100 children, ranging in age from 2 years old to 6 years old looking at relationships between speech, language, and related behaviors that are exhibited during an initial evaluation. The children were referred by their parents who were concerned that their child was at risk for stuttering. Results showed that the children recommended for treatment had significantly higher scores on all fluency diagnostic measures, than the children recommended for reevaluation or for neither treatment or reevaluation. It was also noted that a proportion of the children evaluated had other difficulties with language, phonology, and/or oral motor skills. The authors also provide some benchmarks from their study to provide clinicians with something to compare their own treatment recommendations to.
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Yaruss, S., Max, M., Newman, R., and Campbell, J., (1998). Comparing Real-Time and Transcription Techniques for Measuring Stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 137-151.

The purpose of this study was to compare the results from two different speech disfluency counting techniques. The first involved a transcript based technique called "Systematic Disfluency Analysis" (SDA), in which the clinician prepares a detailed orthographic transcription and notes the occurrence of all speech disfluencies. The second method was a real-time technique in which the clinician marks all fluent words spoken with a dash or dot and all disfluent words with an abbreviation indicating the type of disfluency. For this study, fifty audio/video taped recorded speech samples were analyzed. The results suggested the frequency of more typical and less typical disfluencies obtained during the transcript-based method were very similar, but not identical, to those obtained from the real-time analysis. Substantially different severity ratings were evident in 2 of the fifty speech sample analyses.
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Yaruss, J.S., Newman, R., & Flora, T. (1999). Language and disfluency in nonstuttering children's conversational speech. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 24, 185-207.

This study examined the relationship between syntactic complexity, utterance length, and disfluency in spontaneous speech. The purpose of the study was to determine if there was a relationship between language formulation and the production of speech disfluencies. The study consisted of 12 normally fluent children. The children were videotaped during 30 minutes of spontaneous speech, which consisted of 50 consecutive, completely intelligible utterances. The utterances were evaluated for speech fluency, utterance length, and syntactic complexity. It was found that disfluent utterances were longer and more complex than fluent utterances. There are current theories of stuttering that correlated with the findings of this study. It can be hypothesized from this study that utterance timing or other aspects such as pragmatics may influence whether or not an utterance will contain a disfluency.
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Yaruss, J., S., Quesal, R., W. (2004). Partnership between clinicians, researchers, and people who stutter in the evaluation of stuttering treatment outcomes. STAMMERING RESEARCH, 1, 1- 15. Retrieved from http://www.stamres.psychol.ucl.ac.uk

It has been emphasized that there is a need to better understand the results of stuttering treatment by numerous authors. This paper includes key questions about stuttering treatment outcomes and research and attempts to explain each. There is need for more research and collaboration between people who stutter, scientists, and clinicians working together to share their ideas and opinions of stuttering therapy. This paper serves as a starting point for others to begin a discussion about the future of treatment outcomes.
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Yaruss, J. Scott, & Quesal, Robert W. (2006). Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES): Documenting Multiple Outcomes in stuttering Treatment. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, Volume 31, issue 2, 90-115

The purpose of this article was to develop a new assessment tool that would look at the intrinsic factions of the stuttering disorder. It gives the rationale behind the assessment design and the validity and reliability of the assessment tool. The OASES is to assess the overall impact of stuttering as it relates to the speaker's self perception of fluency, stuttering, and speech naturalness as well as the speakers knowledge and overall attitude of stuttering. The assessment has four parts: Section 1: Overall Information, Section II: Your Reactions to Stuttering, Section III: Communication in Daily Situations and Section IV: Quality of Life. It is hoped that this tool will help continue the data collection of the affective component of stuttering and outcomes of the therapy process.
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Yaruss, J. S., Quesal, R. W., Murphy B. (2002) National Stuttering Association members' opinions about stuttering treatment. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 27, 227-242.

Two-hundred members of the National Stuttering Association completed a brief questionnaire covering topics such as self-referral practices, resources for people who stutter, early intervention, and opinions about treatment for children and adults. Survey results are useful for SLPs, physicians, employers, and anyone else wanting to gain a better understanding of people who stutter.
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Yaruss, J.S., Quesal, R.W., Reeves, L., Molt, L.F., Klutz, B., Caruso, A.J., McClure, J.A., & Lewis, F. (2002) Speech treatment and support group experiences of people who participate in the National Stuttering Association. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 27, 115-134

This study surveyed 71 people who are members of the National Stuttering Association (NSA). The survey questions included therapy experiences as well as participation in group activities.
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Yaruss, Scott J., Reardon, Nina A., (2003). Fostering generalization and maintenance in school settings. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 24, 33-40.

Speech language pathologists in school systems encounter challenges in helping children generalize skills learned in the therapy room to other settings. The article summarizes four areas: goals of therapy, treatment strategies that insist upon generalization, scheduling/implementing of generalized activities within the overall therapy process and the child's understanding of the treatment goals and strategies that should be used. This article focuses on the broad based viewpoint of stuttering to help children improve their communication skills in a variety of settings and over time.
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Yaruss, J. & Reardon, N. (2002). Successful communication for children who stutter: finding the balance. SEMINARS IN SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, 23, 195-203.

The ultimate goal of speech therapy is communication, or the process of conveying a speaker's intent to the listener. This paper's purpose is to present an approach to stuttering therapy that is based on the view that the foremost purpose of therapeutic intervention with children who stutter is not just to improve fluency or change stuttering, but to support and enhance a child's ability to communicate by achieving a balance between a variety of approaches and goals. It aids the clinician in forming an approach uniquely balanced for each individual child to increase fluency, reduce negative consequences of stuttering, and improve pragmatic skills for the child to communicate with complete confidence.
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Yeakle, M.K. & Cooper, E.B. (1986). Teacher perceptions of stuttering. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 11, 345-359.

Children who stutter are greatly affected by the attitudes of significant people in their lives, including their teachers. The Teachers' Perceptions of Stuttering Inventory (TPSI) was given to public school teachers to assess their attitudes toward stuttering. 521 teachers responded to ten different statements by expressing how strongly they agreed with each statement. A significant amount of the teachers demonstrated inaccurate beliefs concerning the etiology of stuttering and also the personality characteristics of people who stutter. These beliefs are seen less often in teachers who have either had classroom experience with people who stutter or have completed coursework in the area of communication disorders. The results illustrate the need for teachers to receive education and information regarding stuttering.
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Yovetich, W., Leschied, A., & Flicht J. (2000). Self-esteem of school- age children who stutter. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 25, 143-153.

The researchers assessed the self-esteem (SE) of 25 elementary school children who stuttered (CWS). 5 dimensions of SE were measured to include: total SE, general SE, social SE, academic SE and parent-related SE. As compared to normative data, from Battle's 2nd edition of the 1992 Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventory, this study showed no differences on these five SE dimensions.
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Young, M.A. (1994). Evaluating differences between stuttering and nonstuttering speakers: The group difference design. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37, 522-534.

The author of this paper describes the limitations of group difference studies and details alternate measures that can be used as a supplement. The main limitation of group difference design's include: 1) difficulty matching subjects, 2) emphasis on differences rather than strengths, and 3) a lack of random sampling. The alternative measures described by the author are variation accounted for, confidence interval for the difference between groups means, and proportion misclassified.
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Zackheim, C. T., & Conture, E. G. (2003). Childhood stuttering and speech disfluencies in relation to children's mean length of utterance: a preliminary study. JOURNAL OF FLUENCY DISORDERS, 2, 116-142.

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of utterance length and complexity relative to children's mean length of utterance (MLU) on stuttering-like disfluencies for children who stutter (CWS) and nonstuttering-like disfluencies for children who do not stutter (CWNS). Participants were 12 children 6 CWS and 6 age- matched CWNS, with equal numbers in each talker group exhibiting MLU from the lower to the upper end of normal limits. Data were based on audio-video recordings of each child conversational interactions and analyzed in terms of each participant's utterance length, MLU, frequency and type of speech disfluency. Results indicated that utterances above children's MLU are more apt to be stuttered of disfluent and that both stuttering-like as well as nonstuttering-like disfluencies are most apt to occur on utterances that are both long and complex. These findings were taken to support the hypothesis that the relative "match" or "mismatch" between linguistic components of an utterance and a child's language proficiency influences the frequency of the child's stuttering/speech disfluency.
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Zebrowski, P. (1991). Duration of the speech disfluencies of beginning stutterers. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 34, 483-491.

The subjects consisted of 10 children who stuttered, and 10 controls, matched for age and sex. There were 9 boys and 1 girl in each group, with a mean age of 4.1 years. The children were both audio and video taped during an informal 45 minute interaction with their mothers. Similarities between the two groups within 12 months of stuttering onset included: average duration of sound/syllable repetitions, and sound prolongation. In addition, the average number of repeated units of sound/ syllable and whole- word repetitions were not significantly different between the two groups. Differences included: overall frequency, and proportion of disfluency types.
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Zebrowski, P.M. (1994). Duration of sound prolongation and sound/ syllable repetition in children who stutter: Preliminary observations. JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 37, 254-263.

The purpose of this study was to measure the duration of sound prolongations and sound/syllable repetitions produced in the conversational speech of school-aged children who stutter. Also of interest was the number of repeated units per repetition and the rate of each repetition. Fourteen children with a mean age of 8:2 were included in the study. A 300 word conversational speech sample was recorded and analyzed for each subject. The average rate of speech was 107 wpm and the average duration of prolongations was .75 seconds. Forty-six percent of all disfluencies were sound prolongations with a 4:1 ratio of prolongations to repetitions. The author concluded that the duration of sound prolongation and the duration and rate of repetitions can provide important diagnostic information.
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Zebrowski, P. M. (1995). The topography of beginning stuttering. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, 28, 75-91.

The need for tools to assist in early identification of stutters is increasing as clinicians work to prevent the development of long term stuttering. This paper reviews research that investigates the salient features of early stuttering. Recommendations and cautions are provided. The seven features discussed include: 1) frequency, 2) type and proportion of speech disfluencies, 3) changes in frequency and distribution of disfluencies over time, 4) the absolute duration of instances of stuttering, 5) the number of repeated units, 6) temporal aspects of repetitions, 7) and associated nonspeech behaviors. Findings suggest that there is considerable overlap of features in young stutters and nonstutters, but careful analysis of frequency, proportion and duration, and associated behaviors can reveal between group and within group differences.
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Zebrowski, PM. (1995). Temporal aspects of the conversations between children who stutter and their parents. TOPICS IN LANGUAGE DISORDERS, 15 (3), 1-17.

This article looks at several different studies which focus on either turn taking or timing in conversations between children who stutter and their parents. The research revealed that parents of children who stutter do not differ from parents of non-stuttering children in the temporal aspects of communication. However, for some children who stutter, slowed speech rate and/or an increased response latency time (RTL) from parents may help the child develop fluent speech. When considering whether to use therapeutic strategies addressing response latency time and/or the speech rate of parents it is important to consider other factors. These factors include the age of the child, the most common type of disfluencies, severity of stuttering, overall speech and language abilities of the child, and the differences between parent and child speech rate, RTL, and turn taking.
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Zebrowski, P.M. (1997). Assisting young children who stutter and their families: Defining the role of the speech-language pathologist. AMERICAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY, 6, 19-28.

This report further investigates the controversy surrounding early intervention for all children who begin to stutter. The author provides a preliminary structure for clinical decision-making when dealing with early childhood stuttering. The framework of decision making is based on a collection of a variety of information from the child and his/her parents. This information then places the child in 1 of 4 "streams". These "streams" are categories to aid SLP's in defining their relationship and plans of treatment with the young child who stutters.
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Zimmerman, S., Kalinowski, J., Stuart, A., and Rastatter, M., (1997). Effect of altered auditory feedback on people who stutter during scripted telephone conversations. JOURNAL OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING RESEARCH 40, 1130-1135.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not altered auditory feedback (AAF) conditions decreased the amount of stuttering during scripted telephone conversations. Subjects used in this study included six men and three women that were randomly picked from the files of the Total Immersion Fluency Training Program in New York and were asked to participate. Each subject made five phone calls to randomly selected businesses under each experimental condition and were given scripts to follow. The conditions included NAF, DAF (50 msec. delay), and FAF (shift in fequency 1/2 an octave down). Results indicated that by using AAF devices, the subjects demonstrated a reduced frequency of stuttering.
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last modified January November 28, 2008