Course Rationale: Speech-language pathologists can expect to have individuals with fluency problems on their caseload. They will be expected to know how to diagnose and treat this disorder population. This course provides that information.
Course Objectives: The student must demonstrate proficiency in the following areas in order to pass this course:
Test through assessment of stuttering--When we finish this section.
Test over book information re the problem of stuttering--Time determined by class agreement.
Test over therapies for stuttering--This could be the final.
Your course grade will be determined by averaging the test grades. Unless otherwise announced in class, the 90's will be A, the 80's B, the 70's C. There will be no D's. Grades below 70 will be failing. These are the major grades in the course and indicate your mastery of the class material and concepts in stuttering.
Lecture notes and required outside readings are available for you to copy. You are responsible for all material in the lecture notes and assigned articles on the course syllabus, whether the material was discussed in class or not.
You are encouraged to log on to the STUTT-L discussion group on the internet. Instructions for logging on and logging of will be provided. Mail should be checked daily. Grades in the course will not be given until the instructor has proof that you have logged off the discussion group.
All stuttering clinical evaluations this term will be conducted by members of this class. It is a course requirement that you attend all stuttering evaluations. You will be held responsible for information discussed during these evaluations. You are obviously excused from an evaluation if you are scheduled for another evaluation at the same time. The grade for this portion of the course will be part of your clinical grade (5344) for the semester. A less than satisfactory clinical performance will have a negative influence on your course grade as well. Procedures and deadlines for all evaluations are outlined in the CDIS Program Manual.
The class will be required to view a series of 8 video tapes prior to the end of the semester. These tapes are of Charles Van Riper conducting his therapy with an adult client. It will be up to the class to determine when these tapes will be viewed. A schedule will have to be established so the tapes are played in sequence.
In addition, a schedule will have to be developed for training for the summer program for those who wish to participate. Plans are underway for conducting the program this summer and you will be included in the decision making process.
Finally, you will particiate in the gathering and compilation of data for our family stuttering program. Instructions will be provided during the first part of the semester. Clinical folders are not to be removed from the clinic at any time. Failure to adhere to this policy will result in an automatic "F" for the course.
Attendance Policy: You are expected to be present and on time for every class. Excused absences are illness, etc. when accompanied by a written justification that is turned in the first day you return to class. It is the prerogative of the instructor to determine if an absence is excused and/or what type of justification is needed. Your final grade can be lowered one letter for every unexcused absence.
You are also required to attend the Spring Conference, February 20-21. All graduate students are required to attend this professional meeting. You will be held responsible for the material from this conference. The conference will feature Carl Dell this year.
Academic Dishonesty Policy: The School of Health Professions expects students to do their own work on all graded material submitted for all course requirements. Students guilty of knowingly using, or attempting to use, another person's work as though that work were their own, and students guilty of knowingly permitting, or attempting to permit, another student to use their work, will receive a grade of "F" for the course. Such conduct may also constitute grounds for dismissal from the University. Students who are unfamiliar with the University's policy on plagiarism should consult the most recent edition of Hill Hints. Students who are uncertain regarding what actions constitute plagiarism should consult the instructor.
Special Accommodations: Students having special needs/disabilities which require accommodations for the successful completion of this course must notify Disability Services no later than the end of the first week of classes. Written verification from Disability Services will be required for accommodation. Failure to notify Disability Services may result in accommodation not being made as necessary.
Page and chapter indications refer to the text.
I. Introduction (Chapters 1-4)
The purpose of this course is to survey therapies for stuttering so you will know the options when it comes time for you to plan therapy. I want you to gain an interest in treating stuttering problems so that you will want to include stutterers on your caseload. If you leave this course with a desire to treat stutterers, and demonstrate that you have "paid the price" to master sufficient knowledge to be accountable, then the course will be successful for you. The profession, and stutterers, need clinicians like you can become.
There is no one therapy approach applicable for all stutterers. Your job as a professional is to gain experience with stuttering therapies and determine what you can do with most confidence; to find out how you can be most accountable.
Whatever approach to therapy you eventually follow, conduct it as it is intended. Learn the procedures well before trying to make modifications. Give yourself and your client maximum chance for success using a particular therapy model.
Stutterers will be coming to you for help. They expect you to have a plan of therapy based on your philosophy of management. A plan of therapy means that you have specific goals and activities that, if followed, should produce results. You definitely must have reasons for the actions you take.
This course is merely the first step. It will not make you accountable in stuttering therapy. Hopefully, you will take many more steps that will lead to confidence in yourself as a clinician. Confidence comes with experience, and experience comes with time and effort. There are simply no shortcuts to competency with stutterers. You must have the proper attitude, motivation, and desire to be the best at what you do. Do not be afraid to give of yourself, try, come up short, and try again. That is the only way you will progress. Perhaps no other disorder in all of speech pathology will present so many challenges. No other disorder will present so many rewards, either.
The stutterers who seek your help deserve the very best you have to offer. In addition, you are probably in this profession to experience the personal satisfaction that comes from helping someone overcome a serious problem. To this end I wish you success.
Communication Disorders 5331
NOTE: There are many references under each of the following topics that could be included in this reading list. The following references represent information from which lecture material is taken, from which therapy principles are presented in class, or which provide additional information on the topic being discussed. This reading list is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather to serve the needs of this course. An * indicates a required reading but what is required can change during the semester (either more or less!).
Bloodstein, O. (1995). A Handbook on Stuttering. San Diego, CA, Singular Publishers.
*Wingate, M. (1964). A standard definition of stuttering. JSHD, 29, 484-488.
*Lutz, K.C. and Mallard, A.R. (1986). Disfluencies and rate of speech in young adult normal talkers. JFD, 11, 307-316. (Note: JFD = Journal of Fluency Disorders)
*Pindzola, R., Jenkins, M., and Lokken, K., (1989). Speaking rates of young children. LSHSS, 20, 133-138. (Note: LSHSS = Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools)
Starkweather, C.W. (1987). Fluency and Stuttering (Fluency Norms and Stuttering Facts handout in readings.) Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall.
Sheehan, J.G. and Martyn, M.M. (1966). Spontaneous recovery from stuttering. JSHR, 9, 121-135.
*Adams, M.R. (1982). Fluency, nonfluency, and stuttering in children. JFD, 7, 171-185.
*Adams, M.R. (1990). The "Demands and Capacities" Model I: Theoretical Elaborations. JFD, 15, 135-142.
*Starkweather, C.W. and Gottwald, S.R. (1990). The Demands and Capacities Model II: Clinical Applications. JFD, 15, 143-158.
Starkweather, C.W. (1990). Stuttering Prevention: A Clinical Method. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Perkins, W.H. (1992) Stuttering Prevented. Singular Publishing Group, San Diego, CA.
*Woolf, G. (1967). The assessment of stuttering as atruggle, avoidance, and expectancy, British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 2, 158-171).
*Erickson, R. (1969). Assessing communication attiudes among stutterers. JSHR, 12, 711-725.
*Cooper, E.B. (1987). The chronic perseverative stuttering syndrome: incurable stuttering. JFD, 12, 381-388.
*Adams, M.R. (1977). A clinical strategy for differentiating the normally nonfluent child and the incipient stutterer. JFD, 2, 141-148.
*Pindzola, R.H. and White, D.T. (1986). A protocol for differentiating the incipient stutterer. LSHSS, 17, 2-15.
*Curlee, R.F. and Yairi, E. (1997). Early intervention with early childhood stuttering: A critical examination of the data. American Journal of Speech-Langauge Pathology, 6, 8-18.
*Zembrowski, P. (1977). Assisting young children who stutter and their families: Defining the role of the speech-language pathologist. American Journal of Speech-Langauge Pathology, 6, 19-28.
*Ratner, N.E.B. (1997). Leaving Las Vegas: Clinical odds and individual outcomes. American Journal of Speech-Langauge Pathology, 6, 29-33.
*Blood, G. and Seider, R. (1981). The concomitant problems of young stutterers. JSHD, 46, 31-33.
St. Louis, K.O., Murray, C.D., and Ashworth, M.S. (1991). Coesisting communication disorders in a random sample of school-aged stutterers. JFD, 16, 13-23. (artic and voice disorders in addition to stuttering)
Riley, G.D. and Riley, J. (1979). A component model for diagnosing and treating children who stutter. JFD, 4, 279-293.
Adams, M.R. and Webster, L.M. (1989). Case selection strategies with children 'At Risk' for stuttering. JFD, 14, 11-16.
Riley, G.D. and Riley, J. (1989). Physician's screening procedure for children who may stutter. JFD, 14, 57-66).
*Roth, C.R., Aronson, A.E., and Davis, Jr., L.J. (1989). Clinical studies in psychogenic stuttering of adult onset. JSHD, 54, 634-646.
Lebrun, Y., Bijleveld, H., and Rosseau, J. (1990). A case of persistent neurogenic stuttering following a missile wound. JFD, 15, 251-258.
*Tippett, D.C. and Siebens, A.A. (1991). Distinguishing psychogenic from neurogenic dysfluency when neurologic and psychologic factors coexist. JFD, 16, 3-12.
Rosenthal, J.H., Nicholson, R., and Collier, E. (1975). The syndrome of Gilles de la Tourette. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 8, 38-40.
*Conture, E.G. and Wolk, L. (1990). Stuttering. In Seminars in Speech and Language (The Efficacy of Speech-Language Pathology Intervention), 11, 200-211.
*Zembrowski, P.M. and Schum, R.L. (1993). Counseling Parents of Children Who Stutter. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 2, 65-73.
*Runyan, C.M. and Runyan, S.E. (1986). A fluency rules therapy program for young children in the public schools. LSHSS, 14, 276-284.
*Mallard, A.R. and Westbrook, J.B. (1988). Variables affecting stuttering therapy in school settings. LSHSS, 19, 362-370.
*Preus, A. (1990). Treatment of mentally retarded stutterers. JFD, 15, 223-234.
Adams, M.R. (1991). The assessment and treatment of the school-age stutterer. Seminars in Speech and Language, 12, 291-300.
Peters, T.J. (1991). An integration of contemporary therapies with school-age children. Seminars in Speech and Language, 12, 301-308.
Gregory, H. (1991). Therapy for elementary school-age children. Seminars in Speech and Language, 12, 323-335.
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 26, April, 1995. This entire issue is devoted to stuttering therapy for children. The following articles are included:
Fosnot, Susan Meyers. Some contemporary approaches in treating fluency disorders in preschool, school-age, and adolescent children, p. 115.
Gottwald, Sheryl and Starkweather, C.W. Fluency intervention for preschoolers and their families in the public schools, p. 117.
Rustin, Lena and Cook, Francis. Parental Involvement in the treatment of stuttering, p. 127.
Ramig, Peter and Bennett, Ellen. Working with 7- to 12- year-old children who stutter: Ideas for intervention in the public schools, p. 138.
Healey, E. Charles and Scott, Lisa. Strategies for treating elementary school-age children who stutter: An integrative approach, p. 151.
Daly, David, Simon, Candace, and Burnett-Stolnack, Michelle. Helping adolescents who stutter focus on fluency, p. 162.
Blood, Gordon. POWER 2: Replase management with adolescents who stutter, p. 169.
Ratner, Nan. Treating the child who stutters with concomitant language or phonological impairment, p. 180.
St. Louis, Kenneth and Myers, Florence. Clinical management of cluttering, p. 187.
Gregory, Hugo. Analysis and commentary, p. 196.
*Schwartz, H.D. (1993). Adolescents who stutter. JFD, 18, 289-302.
Rustin, L., Cook, F., and Spence, R. (1995). The Management of Stuttering in Adolescence: A Communication Skills Approach. London, England. Whurr Publishers Ltd. Singular no. 1-56593-277-3.
*Mallard, A.R. and Kelley, J.S. (1982). The Precision Fluency Shaping Program: replication and evaluation. JFD, 7, 287-294.
Webster, L.M. and Brutten, G.J., "The Modification of Stuttering and Associated Behaviors." In Dickson, S. (ed.), Communication Disorders: Remedial Principles and Practices. Scott, Foresman, and Co., 1974, 195-237.
*Kelly, G.A. (1963). A Theory of Personality: The Psychology of Personal Constructs. New York, W. W. Norton & Company. (An abstract of this book is available from the instructor.)
*Botterill, W. and Cook, F. (1987). Personal construct theory and the treatment of adolescent dysfluency. In Rustin, L., Purser, H., and Rowley, D. (eds.). Progress in the Treatment of Fluency Disorders. New York: Taylor and Francis.
*Rustin, L. (1987). The treatment of childhood dysfluency through active parental involvement. In Rustin, L., Purser, H., and Rowley, D. (eds.). Progress in the Treatment of Fluency Disorders. New York: Taylor and Francis.
*Mallard, A.R. (1991). Family intervention in stuttering therapy. Seminars in Speech and Language, 12, 265-278.
*Mallard, A.R. (1998). Encouraging a broader perspective in judging the effectiveness of stuttering therapy. JFD, in press.
*Mallard, A.R. (1998). Using problem solving procedures in family management of stuttering. JFD, in press.
Kelly, E.M. and Conture, E.G. (1991). Intervention with school-age stutterers: A parent-child fluency group approach. Seminars in Speech and Language, 12, 309-322.
Maintenance and Follow-Up
Boberg, E., Howie, P., and Woods, L. (1979). Maintenance of fluency: a review. JFD, 4, 93-116.
Manning, W.H. (1991). Making progress during and after treatment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 12, 349-354. Issues in Stuttering Therapy
*Cooper, E.B. (1977). Controversies about stuttering therapy. JFD, 2, 75-86.
*Gregory, H. (1980). Contemporary issues in stuttering therapy. JFD, 5, 291-302.
*Sheehan, J.G. (1980). Problems in the evaluation of progress and outcome. In Seminars in Speech, Language, and Hearing, 1, 389-401.
Perkins, W.H. (1981). Implications of scientific research for treatment of stuttering--a lecture. JFD, 6, 155-162.
Perkins, W.H. (Publication No. 18). Stuttering vs fluency. In Counseling Stutterers. Speech Foundation of America, Memphis, Tennessee.
*Perkins, W.H. (1992). Fluency Controls and Automatic Fluency. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 1, 9-10.
*Kuhr, Armin (1993). The rise and fall of operant programmes for the treatment of stammering. Paper presented at the Third Oxford Dysfluency Conference, Oxford, England.
*Perkins, W.H. (1994). Solving Unsolvable Stuttering. American Journal of Speech-Language-Pathology, 3, 32-33.
Dick Mallard, Ph.D.
Professor and Chair
Dept. of Communication Disorders
Southwest Texas State University
San Marcos, Texas 78666-4616
Phone: (512) 245-2330
Fax: (512) 245-2029