l. Treatment is based upon a developmental continuum, as stuttering is a
   progressive disorder.
2. The client-clinician relationship is an important variable built upon
   trust, confidence and understanding.
3. Children and adolescents typically do not have intrinsic motivation
   to change their speech: therefore, it is important to make therapy
   enjoyable and rewarding.
4. Success with fluency is paramount and therapy activities are 
   structured at a level at which the child is able to attain fluent 
   speech. Single word and phrase level tasks are often continued long 
   after the child achieves fluency at that level. Building self- 
   confidence is important and is targeted throughout treatment by 
   providing the child with successful speaking activities.
5. Treatment plans are highly flexible and are designed to meet each 
   child's changing needs.
6. It is important to help the child to express and understand their 
   feelings with regard to their stuttering. The clinician should share
   other children's experiences and validate embarrassment, pain and/or
   frustration with understanding and support. Reflect to the child what
   he/she may have difficulty expressing.
7. During therapy, clinicians use a slow rate of speech with increased
   pause and response time, and maintain appropriate eye contact during
   both fluent and dysfluent episodes. In addition to the above fluency
   enhancing behaviors, the clinician also models appropriate
   modification techniques, as well as easy stuttering behaviors.
8. Incorporate parental involvement in the therapy process as much as