l. Treatment is based upon a developmental continuum, as stuttering is a progressive disorder. 2. The client-clinician relationship is an important variable built upon trust, confidence and understanding. 3. Children and adolescents typically do not have intrinsic motivation to change their speech: therefore, it is important to make therapy enjoyable and rewarding. 4. Success with fluency is paramount and therapy activities are structured at a level at which the child is able to attain fluent speech. Single word and phrase level tasks are often continued long after the child achieves fluency at that level. Building self- confidence is important and is targeted throughout treatment by providing the child with successful speaking activities. 5. Treatment plans are highly flexible and are designed to meet each child's changing needs. 6. It is important to help the child to express and understand their feelings with regard to their stuttering. The clinician should share other children's experiences and validate embarrassment, pain and/or frustration with understanding and support. Reflect to the child what he/she may have difficulty expressing. 7. During therapy, clinicians use a slow rate of speech with increased pause and response time, and maintain appropriate eye contact during both fluent and dysfluent episodes. In addition to the above fluency enhancing behaviors, the clinician also models appropriate modification techniques, as well as easy stuttering behaviors. 8. Incorporate parental involvement in the therapy process as much as possible.