This is the beginning of a bibliography on Cluttering (1946 to present). If anyone has additional articles to suggest or is willing to submit a FAQ or tutorial on this fluency disorder, please contact

ASHA Convention miniseminar audio-tape. Cluttering: A pathology lost but found, Tape #1150 (1-800-747-8069)

Bakker, Klaas (1996) Cluttering: Current scientific status and emerging research and clinical needs. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 359-366.

Bakker, K., Bos, C., St. Louis, K. O., Myers, F. L., & Raphael, L. J.(1999). Articulation rates and spectrographic characteristics of cluttered speech. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, San Francisco, CA.

Bakker, K., Bos, C., & Finn, P. (1999). Counting syllables or words: Implications for speech rate determination. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, San Francisco, CA.

Bakker, K., Raphael, L. J., Myers, F. L., & St. Louis, K. O. (2000). Acoustic and perceptual-phonetic analyses of cluttered and noncluttered speech. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Washington, DC.

Bauer, H. (1980). Speech and voice disorders seen in the orl clinic (author's transl). HNO, 28, 171-174.

Becker, K.P. & Grundmann, K. (1970). Investigation on incidence and symptomatology of cluttering. Folia Phoniatrica 22, 261-271.

Blood I, Tellis G; (Apr. 2000) Auditory processing and cluttering in young children.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90, 631-639

Boehme, G., (1976) Angewandte Phoniatrie. III. Stotter-Syndrom. Polter-Syndrom. (Applied phoniatrics: III. Stuttering. Cluttering), HNO, Wegweiser fuer die fachaerztliche Praxis 24(12), 431-438

Bradford, D. (1963) Studies in Tachyphemia: A framework of therapeusis for articulation therapy with tachyphemia and/or general language disability. Logo, 6, 59-65.

Bradford, D. (1970). Cluttering. Folia Phoniatrica 22, 272-279.

Brady, John P. (1993) Treatment of Cluttering, New England Journal of Medicine, v. 329 (11) 813-814.

Bubenickova, Milena. (1981) Speech reeducation in cluttering, Psycholgia a Patopsychologia Dieta, v. 16(1) 57-61.

Cabanas, R., (1978) Diagnostico diferential temprano entre tartamudez y tartaleo. Importancia clinica (Early Differential Diagnosis of Stuttering and Cluttering. Clinical Significance), Revista Cubana Pediatrica 50(1), 65-71

Chalokwu C.I.; Ghazi M.A.; Foord E.E.; Lebrun Y. (1997). Subcortical structures and non-volitional verbal behaviour. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 10, 313-323

Chmelova, A. et al., Neurohumorale Reaktionen bei Stotterern und Polterern (Neurohumoral reactions in stutterers and clutterers), Folia Phoniatrica 27(4), 1975, 283-286

Curlee, Richard (1996) Cluttering: Data in search of understanding. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 367-372.

Craig, Ashley (1996) Long-term effects of intensive treatment for a client with both a cluttering and stuttering disorder. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 329-336.

Dalton, P. & Hardcastle, W. (1989). Disorders of fluency and their effects on communication. London: Elsevier North Holland.

Daly, D. A. (1988). The freedom of fluency. East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.

Daly, D. Cluttering: A language-based syndrome. Audio-tape. Order through the Clinical Connection, 708 Pendleton Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. (703-683-0991, fax: 703-548-5563)

Daly, D.A. (1993), Cluttering: Another Fluency Syndrome. In R. Curlee (ed) Stuttering and Related Disorders of Fluency, New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Daly, David, (1993), Cluttering: A Language-Based Syndrome, The Clinical Connection, p. 4-7

Daly, David, (1993) Cluttering: the Orphan of Speech-Language Pathology, American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 2(2), pp. 6-8).

Daly, David, (1993) Daly's Checklist for Possible Cluttering: Some Clarification, The Clinical Connection, 8-9.

Daly, David, (1992) Helping the clutterer: Therapy considerations, in F. Myers and K St. Louis (eds) Cluttering: A Clinical Perspective, Leicester, England: FAR Communications. pp. 107-124) (Reissued in 1996 by Singular, San Diego, CA.)

Daly DA, (1994) Speech cluttering. JAMA, Aug 17; 272 (7): 565

Daly, David, (1986) The Clutterer. In K. St. Louis (ed) The Atypical Stutterer: Principles and Practice of Rehabilitation. New York: Academic Press. (pp 155-192)

Daly, David, (1993) Treatment Strategies for the Cluttering Syndrome: Planning Your Work and Working Your Plan, The Clinical Connection, p. 6-9

Daly, D. A. (1996). The source for stuttering and cluttering. East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.

Daly, David and Burnett, Michelle (1996) Cluttering: Assessment, Treatment planning, and case study illustration. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 239-244.

Daly, D.A., & Burnett-Stolnack, M. (1995). Identification of and treatment planning for cluttering clients: Two practical tools. The Clinical Connection 8, 1-5.

Daly, D.A., & Burnett-Stolnack, M. (1995). Cluttering: A language based syndrome (audio cassette tape). Alexandria, VA: The Clinical Connection.

Daly, D. A., & Burnett, M. L., Cluttering: Traditional views and new perspectives. In R. F. Curlee (Ed). Stuttering and Disorders of Fluency, 2nd ed. Thieme: New York, 1999. (pp. 222-254).

DeFusco, Elizabeth M.; Menken, Matthew. (1979) Symptomatic cluttering in adults, Brain and Language, v. 8(1) 25-33.

de Hirsch, K (1961) Studies in Tachyphemia: Diagnosis of developmental language disorders. Logos, 4, 3-9.

DeHirsch, K. (1970). Stuttering and cluttering: Developmental aspects of dysrhythmic speech. Folia Phoniatrica 22, 311-324.

de Hirsch, Katerina; (1975) Cluttering and stuttering, Bulletin of the Orton Society, v. 25 57-68.

de Hirsch, Katerina; Jansky, Jeanette J. (1980) Patterning and organizational deficits in children with language and learning disabilities, Bulletin of the Orton Society, v. 30 227-239.

Dewar, Ann; Dewar, A.D.; Barnes, H.E. (1976) Automatic triggering of auditory feedback masking in stammering and cluttering, British Journal of Disorders of Communication, v. 11 (1) 19-26.

Diedrich, W.M. (1984) Cluttering: Its Diagnosis. In H. Winitz (ed) Treating Articulation Disorders: For Clinicians by Clinicians. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Eisenson, J. (1986). Dysfluency disorders: Cluttering and stuttering. In A. Goldstein, L. Krasner, & S. Garfield (Eds.), Language and Speech Disorders in Children. New York: Pergamon Press, pp 57-75.

Filatova, Y.O. (2007).Bringing cluttering into the 21st century. Defectology, Number 5, pp. 91-94.

Freund, H. (1970). Observations on tachylalia. Folia Phoniatrica 22, 280-288.

Froeschels, E. (1946) Cluttering. Journal of Speech Disorders, 11,31-36.

Froeschels, E. (1955) Contribution to the relationship between stuttering and cluttering. Logopaedic en Phoniatrie, 4, 1-6

Georgieva, Dobrinka and Miliev, Dimitar (1996) Differential diagnosis of cluttering and stuttering in Bulgaria. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 249-260.

Gregory, H. H. (1995). Analysis and commentary, Language Speech And Hearing Services In The Schools, 26 (2), 196-200.

Green, T. (1999). The Cluttering problem. A short review and a critical comment. Logopedics Phonology Vocology, 24: 145-153.

Grewel, F. (1970). Cluttering and its problems. Folia Phoniatrica 22, 301-310.

Hanson DM; Jackson AW 3d; Hagerman RJ (1986) Speech disturbances (cluttering) in mildly impaired males with the Martin-Bell/fragile X syndrome. Am J Med Genet (3L4); 23 (1-2): 195-206

Hartinger, Mariam and Pape, Daniel, (2003) An articulatory and acoustic study of cluttering 15th ICPhS, Barcelona, 3245-3248. (PDF file).

Hashimoto, R., Taguchi, T., Kano, M., Hanyu, S., Tanaka, Y., Nishizawa, M., & Nakano I. (1999). A case report of dementia with cluttering-like speech disorder and apraxia. Rinsho Shinkeigaku, 39, 520-526.

Heitmann R, Asbjørnsen A, Helland T (2004) Attentional functions in speech fluency disorders Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology

Helm, K. (1997). A perceptual, acoustic-phonetic, and linguistic analysis of cluttering. Unpublished master's thesis. Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, MO.

Hutchinson, J.M. & Burke, K.W. (1973) An investigation of the effects of temporal alterations in auditory feedback upon stutterers and clutterers. Journal of Communication Disorders 6, 193-205.

Katz-Bernstein, N. Poltern - Therapieeinsatz f¸r Kinder. Vierteljahresschrift f¸r Heilp”dagogik und ihre Nachbargebiete, 55, 1986, 413-426.

Katz-Bernstein, N. Arbeit mit Eltern polternder Kinder. Der Sprachheilp”dagoge, 20, 1988, 32-40.

Langevin, Marilyn and Boberg, Einer (1996) Results of intensive stuttering therapy with adults who clutter and stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 315-328.

Langova, J., & Moravek, M. (1970). Some problems of cluttering. Folia Phoniatrica 22, 325-326.

Lastovka, M., (1976) Tetanicka pohotovost u koktavych a brebtavych (Tetanic susceptibility in stutterers and clutterers), Ceskolovenska Otolaryngologie 25(1), 36-40

Lebrun, Yvan (1996) Cluttering after brain damage. Journal of Fluency Disorder, 21, 289-296.

Lees, RM, Boyle, BE, and Woolfson (1996) Is cluttering a motor disorder? Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 281-288.

Luchsinger, R., & Arnold, G.E. (1965). Cluttering: Tachyphemia. In Voice-Speech-Language (Clinical Communicology: Its Physiology and Pathology). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, pp. 598-618.

Marks, C.J., (1978) Identification of Cluttering Behavior among Children Who Stutter, Dissertation, Lehigh University

Marriner, N.A., & Sanson-Fisher, R.W. (1977). A behavioral approach to cluttering: A case study. Australian Journal of Human Communication Disorders 5, 134-141.

Meixner, F. (1992). Poltern aus entwicklungsspychologischer Sicht. In Grohnfeldt, M. (Hrsg.), St–rungen der Redef”higkeit (Handbuch der Sprachtherapie, Bd. 5, S. 468-490). Berlin: Spiess

Molt, Lawrence (1996) An examination of various aspects of auditory processing in clutterers. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 215-226.

Mowrer, D. (1987). Reported use of a Japanese accent to promote fluency. Journal Of Fluency Disorders, 1, 19-39.

Mussafia, M. (1970). Various aspects of cluttering. Folia Phoniatrica 22, 337-346.

Myers, Florence (1996). Annotations of research and clinical perspectives on cluttering since 1964. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 187-200.

Myers, Florence (1996) Cluttering: A matter of perspective. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 175-186.

Myers, F. L., & Bradley, C. L. (1992). Clinical management of cluttering from a synergistic framework. In F. L. Myers & K. O. St. Louis (Eds.). Cluttering: A clinical perspective (pp. 85-105). Kibworth, Great Britain: Far Communications. (Reissued in 1996 by Singular, San Diego, CA.)

Myers, F. and K. St. Louis, (1992) Cluttering: A Clinical Perspective, Leicester, England: Far Communications, (pp. 85-105), also published by Wurr Publications and distributed by Singular Publishing Group, Inc. in 1996. (This book is out of print, but libraries may be able to get it through inter-library loan.)

Myers, Florence and St. Louis, Kenneth (1996) Two youths who clutter, but is that the only similarity? Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 297-304.

Myers, F. L., and St. Louis, K. O., (2006). Disfluency and speaking rate in cluttering: Perceptual judgements versus counts. Bulgarian Journal Of Communication Disorders, 1, 28-34.

Myers, F. L., St. Louis, K. O., Bakker, K., Raphael, L. J., Wiig, E. K., Katz, J., Daly, D. A., & Kent, R. D.(2002a). Putting cluttering on the map: Looking ahead. Seminar presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Atlanta, GA.

Myers, F. L., St. Louis, K. O., Bakker, K., Raphael, L. J., Wiig, E. K., Katz, J., Daly, D. A., & Kent, R. D.(2002b). Putting cluttering on the map: Looking back. Seminar presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Atlanta, GA.

Myers, F. L., Stueber, K. A., & St. Louis, K. O.(1997). Clustering of disfluencies in cluttering. Poster presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Boston, MA.

Nelson, Lois (1996) Critical review of the special edition on cluttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 345-348.

Opít Hof, J., & Uys, I. (1974). A clinical delineation of tachyphemia (cluttering): A case of dominant inheritance. South African Medical Journal 48, 1624-1628.

Parks, G.R. (1993). (Interview with David A. Daly). Cluttering: A language-based syndrome. The Clinical Connection 6, 4-7.

Pitluk, N. (1982). Aspects of the expressive language of cluttering and stuttering school children. South African Journal of Communication Disorders 29, 77-84.

Preus, A. (1981). Identifying Subgroups of Stuttering. Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget.

Preus, A. (1987). The cluttering type of stutterer. Nordisk tidsskrft for logopedi og foniatr 12, 3-19.

Preus, Alf (1996) Cluttering upgraded. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 349-358.

Raphael, L. J., Bakker, K., Myers, F. L., St. Louis, K. O., & Mac Roy, M. (2001). Articulatory/acoustic features of DDKs in cluttered, tachylalic, and normal speech. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, New Orleans, LA.

Rieber, R.W., Breskin, S., & Jaffe, J. (1972). Pause time and phonation time in stuttering and cluttering. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 1, 149-154.

Rieder, K. & Rumler, A. (1990). Poltern. In Aschenbrenner, H. & Rieder, K. (Hrsg.) Sprachheilp”dagogische Praxis (2. ¸berarb. und erw. Aufl., S 129 ). Wien: Jugend und Volk.

Seeman, M. (1970). Relation between motorics of speech and general motor ability in clutterers. Folia Phoniartrica, 22, Vol. 4, 376-380

Silverman, FH (1996) Cluttering (Tachyphemia), in Stuttering and Other Fluency Disorders Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, pp. 211-219

Simkins, L. (1973). Cluttering. In B.B. Lahey (Ed.), The Modification of Language Behavior. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, pp. 178-217.

St. Louis, K. O. (1992). On defining cluttering. In F. L. Myers & K. O. St Louis (Eds.). Cluttering: A clinical perspective (pp. 37⤳53). Kibworth, Great Britain: Far Communications. (Reissued in 1996 by Singular, San Diego, CA.)

St. Louis, KO (ed) (1986) The Atypical Stutterer: Principles And Practices Of Rehabilitation. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

St. Louis, Kenneth (1996) A tabular summary of cluttering subjects in the special edition. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 337-344.

St. Louis, Kenneth (1996) Purpose and Organization of the Special Edition on Cluttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 171-174.

St. Louis, K. O. (1991). A successful approach to cluttering. In L. Rustin, (Guest Ed.), Clinical Focus: Dysfluency. Human Communication, 1, 20-21. (British Newsletter).

St. Louis, K. O. (Guest Ed.) (1996). Research and opinion on cluttering: State of the Art and Science. (special edition). Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 171-371.

St. Louis, K. O. (1998). Cluttering: Some guidelines. Memphis, TN: Stuttering Foundation of America. ((Brochure: On-line at

St. Louis, K. O. (2000). Cluttering. C. R. Reynolds & E. Fletcher-Jantzen (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Special Education. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

St. Louis, K.O. & Daly, D. (1995). Cluttering: Past, present and future. In C.W., Starkweather and H.F.M., Peters (Eds.), Stuttering: Proceedings of the first world congress on fluency disorders. The International Fluency Association, p. 659-662.

St. Louis, KO and Hinzman, AR (1986) Studies of cluttering: Perceptions of cluttering by speech-language pathologists and educators. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 11, 131-149.

St. Louis, KO, Hinzman, AR, and Hull, FM (1985) Studies of cluttering: Disfluency and language measures in young possible clutterers and stutterers. Journal of Fluency Disorders 10, 151-172

St. Louis, K.O. & Myers, F.L. (1995). Clinical management of cluttering. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in the Schools, 26, 187-194.

St. Louis, K.O., & Myers, F.L. (1997). Management of cluttering and related fluency disorders. In R. Curlee and G. Siegel (Eds.), Nature and Treatment of Stuttering: New Directions. New York: Allyn and Bacon, pp. 313-332.

St. Louis, K. O., & Myers, F. L. (1998). A synopsis of cluttering and its treatment. Paper presented at the International Stuttering Awareness Day On-Line Conference.

St. Louis, Kenneth, Florence Myers, Lauren Cassidy, Amy Michael, Shannon Penrod, Barbara Litton, Jennifer Olivera, Evy Brodsky (1996). Efficacy of delayed auditory feedback for treating cluttering: Two case studies. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 305-314.

St. Louis, K. O., Myers F. L., Faragasso K., Townsend, P. S., & Gallaher, A. J. (2004). Perceptual aspects of cluttered speech. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 29, 213-235.

St. Louis, K. O., Raphael, L. J., Myers, F. L., & Bakker, K. (2003, Nov. 18). Cluttering Updated - The ASHA Leader, pp. 4-5, 20-22.

Stang, H. M–glichkeiten der Behandlung polternder Kinder. Die Sprachheilarbeit, 29, 1984, 255-264.

Stansfield J, (1990) Prevalence of stuttering and cluttering in adults with mental handicaps.J Ment Defic Res, 34 ( Pt 4) 287-307

Starkweather, C.W. (1994). First world congress on fluency disorders: Abstracts Munich, Germany, August, 1994. Journal Of Fluency Disorders, 19(3) 147-225.

Sunohara, N., Kamei, N., Ando, K., Satoyoshi, E. (1985). Gait apraxia with cluttering-like speech disturbance. Rinsho Shinkeigaku, 25, 543-552.

Teigland, Anne (1996) A study of pragmatic skills of clutterers and normal speakers. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 201-214.

Thacker A, Austen S; (1996) Cluttered Communication in a Deafened Adult with Autistic Features Journal of Fluency Disorders

Thacker, Ronald and De Nil, Luc (1996) Neurogenic cluttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 227-238.

Tiger, R.J., Irvine, T.L., and Reis, RP (1980) Cluttering as a complex of learning disabilities. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 11, 3-14.

Thacker, Alice and Austen, Sally (1996) Cluttered communication in a deafened adult with autistic features. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 271-280.

Van Riper, C. (1970). Stuttering and cluttering. Folia Phoniartrica 22, 347-353.

Van Borsel J, Goethals L, Vanryckeghem M; (2004 Nov-Dec.) Disfluency in Tourette syndrome: observational study in three cases Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica Journal of Communication Disorders, 33, 227-240.

Ward, David, (2006) Stuttering and Cluttering: Frameworks for Understanding and Treatment, East Sussex: Psychology Press. (especially Chapter 8, pps 139-154 - The nature of cluttering and Chapter 17, pps 351-377 - The assessment, diagnosis and treatment of cluttering).

Weiss, D.A. (1964) Cluttering, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Weiss, DA (1967) Similarities and differences between stuttering and cluttering. Folia Phoniatrica, 19, 98-104

Weiss, DA (1968) Cluttering: Central language imbalance. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 15, 705-720.

Williams, Dale and Wener, Deena Louise (1996) Cluttering and stuttering exhibited in a young professional. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 21, 261-270.

Wolk L (1986) Cluttering: a diagnostic case report. Br J Disord Commun, (2): 199-207)

last modified March 17, 2008
Judy Kuster