NAME: ___________________________________



                                                            SPA 561.  Examination I.  Spring, 2003


Section I.        Short answer Explanations. (10 points each:  60 points total). Spend about ten minutes on each question.


Define, Describe, Give Examples or Compare and Contrast the following terms and six concepts in order to show how they pertain to stuttering: 


A.           Speech Rate -versus- Articulation Rate


B.           Exteriorized -versus- interiorized stuttering


C.           Avoidance -versus- Escape Behaviors


D.           ³Normal Nonfluencies -versus- ³Stutter-Like Disfluencies


E.            Negative Reinforcement -versus- Punishment


F.            Overt Behavioral Features -versus- Covert Emotional Features



Section II.      Objective Questions.   Multiple Choice and True False.   Answer the following 20 questions.  Each question is worth 2 points.  Spend about 15 minutes on this section.




____1.    Which of the following behaviors would best be explained by the influence of negative reinforcement?


               a.   Escape Behaviors                          b.   Secondary characteristics: effort-struggle

               c.   Avoidance Behaviors                    d.   Core Features

               e.   Negative Emotion/worry/dead/anxiety, etc.


___2.      Exteriorized stutterers exhibit disfluencies which may be:


               a.   nonvocalized                   b.   vocalized         c.   overt

               d.   b and c                            e.   a and b and c


____3.    Which of the following would NOT be an example of avoidance(s)


               a.   tension and struggle        b.   starters             c.   circumlocutions

               d.   postponement  e.   any and all of the above are examples of avoidance(s)


____4.    Which of the following is arranged from least to most severe?


               a.            repeating, blocking, fixating

               b.            repeating, blocking, prolonging

               c.            fixating, repeating, prolonging

               d.            repeating, prolonging, blocking

               e.            repeating, avoiding, struggling


___5.      Billy says, "I am ffffour years old.  His disfluency is:


               a.   audible and nonvocalized                              b.   audible and vocalized                    c.   probably a sign of stuttering

               d.   probably not a sign of stuttering                   e.   impossible to say based on the information given




___6.      In the very early stages of stuttering development, the problem can best be described as:


               a.   episodic                          b.   chronic            c.   psycho-emotional

               d.   intermittent                     e.   highly fragmented


___7.      Which of the following would not be a major overt feature of stuttering?


               a.   Duration                         b.   Frequency                      c.   Anxiety/emotion

               d.   Intensity/Struggle           e.   Disfluency Type             f.   All of the above are major overt dimensions


___8.      According to Brutten and Shoemaker, part-word repetitions and prolongations are:


               a.  involuntary                      b.  operant             c.  instrumental

               d.  two of the above              e.  all of the above


____9.    In addition to the actual stuttering that is produced, we need to be alert to the things that go on before and after the actually stuttering disruptions.  Which of the following would NOT be an example of a ³Pre-Disruption Behavior² that could occur prior to a stuttering moment?


               a.  Anticipation                     b.  Postponement                  c.  Circumlocution   

               d.  Two of the above            e.   All of the above 


____10.  Our NSA Workshop this weekend will be facilitated by:


               a.   Russ Hicks      b.  Barry Guitar        c.  Douglass Quarrington     d.  Brutten Shoemaker



TRUE-FALSE.  Indicate your answer to whether the following questions are true or false.


____       11.  Charlie speaks 90 words in 45 seconds.  Therefore, his speech rate is 120 words per minute.


____       12.  Avoidance behaviors, when successful, are thought to be maintained by negative reinforcement.  Escape behaviors, when successful, are thought to be positively reinforced.


____       13.  Disfluencies that are inaudible and nonvocalized are usually associated with the normal nonfluencies of children.  Disfluencies that are vocalized and not highly fragmented are usually associated with the early stages of stuttering.


___         14.  The easiest way to compute articulate rate in syllables per second is to divide the number of meaningful syllables spoken per minute by 60.


___         15.  In the case of RECOIL behaviors, there is ALWAYS some degree of "backing up and starting over."


___         16.  With respect to the covert dimensions of fear and avoidance, avoidance is nearly always learned before fear.  This way, the stutterer knows what to be afraid of.


___         17.  In the development of stuttering, frustration and behavioral struggle are learned before fear and avoidance.


___         18.  Head jerks and eye blinks are good examples of avoidance behaviors in the Stage IV stutterer.


___         19.   The average normally developing child is approximately 10% disfluent.


__           20.  Children who are normally fluent are apt to exhibit normal nonfluencies when they are attempting to speak in long and complex utterances.