SPA 461.  Fluency Disorders.     Examination I.    September, 2003


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Section I.  Multiple Choice     



____1.      A child says, "I am sssssssix years old."  This shows disfluencies that are:


        a.   audible-vocalized            b.   audible-nonvocalized              c.   inaudible-nonvocalized

        d.   two of the above            e.   all of the above


____2.      Which of the following involves an audible, nonvocalized, part-word repetition?


        a.     ssssseven                    b.   rrrradio         c.   p-p-p-port     d.   b-b-b-boat     e.   j-j-j-jump


____3.      Which of the following examples of stuttering would be the most severely fragmented for a child in Stage I of stuttering / borderline stuttering?


        a.     "pei-pei-peiper"            (part-word repetition)           b.   "p^ -p^ -peiper"     (part-word repetition)

        c.     "peip-peip-peiper"         (part-word repetition)           d.   "peeiiper"                     (diphthong prolongation

        e.     "umpeiper"                  (interjection of "um")


_____4.    Word and situations fears are ________ causes of a moment of stuttering.


        a.     predisposing        b.  precipitating     c.   sustaining/maintaining        d.  a and c                    e.  b and c


_____5.    An exteriorized stutterer exhibits disfluencies which may be:


        a.   nonvocalized        b.   vocalized         c.   overt         d.   b and c            e.   a and b and c

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_____6.    As compared to an exteriorized adult in Stages III and IV, a child in Stages I and II will be:


        a.   more fragmented, more covert       b.   less fragmented, more covert

        c.   more fragmented, more overt        d.   less fragmented, more overt


_____7.    Who said "stuttering begins not in the child's mouth but in the listener's ear"?


        a.   Bloodstein        b.   Quarrington         c.   Van Riper                       d.   Johnson       e.   Hood




____8.      Quarrington and Douglass deal with all of the following except:


        a.   vocalized-nonvocalized                b.   four stages of development     

        c.   interiorized-exteriorized                d.   they deal with none of the above            e.  they deal with all of the above


_____9.    Stuttering may result from:


        a.   communicative stress                 b.   unrealistic environmental demands

        c.   delayed speech and language development  

        d.    two of the above                       e.   all of the above


_____10.   A circumlocution


        a.   occurs when a person remains silent to postpone the possibility of vocalized stuttering.

        b.   is paraphrasing the intended utterance         c.   is the same as changing a word to avoid stuttering

        d.   is common in Stage III (Van Riper)                       e.   none of the above


____11.    A four year old child is brought to you for an evaluation.  You conclude that he exhibits "Borderline (Stage I)  Stuttering."  Which of the following would NOT be exhibited by the child?


        a.   Disfluencies are rhythmic             b.   unawareness              c.   episodic variation

        d.   susceptibility to communicative stress       e.   increase in pitch and loudness


____12.    Which of the following would NOT be found in Van Riper's fourth stage of stuttering?


        a.   word and sound fears                   b.   situation fears                        c.   Avoidance and postponement

        d.   tremors and struggle                   e.   all of the above would be found in Stage IV


____13.    Which of the following could NOT be an example of avoidance?


        a.   struggle and escape         b.   starters         c.   circumlocutions

        d.   postponement                e.   all of the above are avoidances


____14.    Which of the following does NOT contribute to the severity of stuttering?


        a.   duration     b.   frequency     c.   effort-struggle     d.   self concept    

        e.   all of the above DO contribute to severity


____15.        Which of the following would NOT be found in Van Riper's Stage I? (Borderline - Guitar)


        a.   short, effortless whole word repetitions                   b.   unawareness of speech disfluencies

        c.   episodic variations          d.   undisturbed tempo     e.   all of the above would be found in Stage I


____16.    Johnson has defined stuttering as follows:  "Stuttering is what a person does trying not to stutter again."  Which of the following concepts is NOT included in Johnson's definition?


        a.  avoidance     b.  anticipation     c.  escape      d. apprehension     e. all of the above are part of the definition.


____17.    Which of the following would NOT be found in Van Riper's third stage of stuttering?


        a.   avoidance is the major overt feature            b.    frustration is the major covert feature   

        c.   struggle behaviors are common                 d.   stuttering tremors occur                      

        e.   all of the above are found in Stage III



____18.    If the author of your textbook were a musician, he would most likely play the:


        a.   guitar   b.   trumpet        c.   piano           d.   clarinet         d.   saxophone 


____19.    Stuttering is intermittent in:


        a.   Stages I and II                b.   Stage II, III and IV                 c.   Stage III and IV

        d.   Stage IV                       e.   All four stages


____20.    In stages I and II, stuttering is best described as:               


        a.  episodic          b.  intermittent          c.   chronic           d.   acute       e.   psycho-emotional


____21.    Nonvocalized secondary stutterers:


        a.   try to avoid stuttering out loud; try to avoid being heard stuttering     

        b.   try to avoid stuttering at all costs; try to hide, conceal and cover up their stuttering

        c.   use avoidances primarily for the purpose of helping them communicate with vocalized stuttering

        d.   two of the above

        e.   all of the above


_____22.   Which of the following is arranged from least to most severe?


        a.   repeating, blocking, fixating                     b.   repeating, blocking, prolonging

        c.   fixating, repeating, prolonging                  d.   repeating, prolonging, blocking

        e.   repeating, avoiding, struggling


____23.      Postural fixations (and prolongations) are similar to blockages and closures, but differ in that:


        a.  the fixation is not complete                                   b.   the fixation is totally complete

        c.  the fixation is audible and vocalized            d.         d.   the fixation is found on vowels rather than consonants


____24.    Which of the following is NOT portrayed in Sheehanıs ³Iceberg of Stuttering diagram?²


        a.  genetic predisposition       b.  core features      c.  secondary features        d.  attitudes and feelings


____25.      Developmentally, which of the following core features is last to occur?


        a.   prolongations         b.   blocks       c.   tension         d.   struggle        e.   avoidance






____26.    By using a ³descriptive language framework² we try to get clients to describe what they are ³DOING² rather than to label what is ³HAPPENING


____27.    Kids who have a hard time being understood, especially in a demanding environment, are vulnerable for a potential stuttering problem.


____28.    According to Van Riper, age is the major factor in the assessment of severity, and a major determiner of the stage of stuttering development.


____29.    Head jerks and eye-blinks are good examples of avoidance behavior in the Stage IV stutterer.


____30.    Stuttering is more common is boys than girls, and more common in men than women.


____31.    Covert features of stuttering are easier to identify and measure than overt features.


____32.    As a general rule of thumb, most people think of the incidence of stuttering as being roughly 5%, and the prevalence of stuttering as being about 1%. 


____33.    Whereas Johnson emphasized the struggle/escape components of stuttering, Van Riper emphasized anticipation and expectancy followed by avoidance.

____34.    Increased inaudibility in the Stage III stutterer is a sign of a favorable prognosis.


____35.    Struggle and escape behaviors are easier to distinguish than avoidance behaviors.


____36.    Whereas the major goal of the nonvocalized secondary stutterer is to avoid stuttering out loud, a major goal of the interiorized stutterer is not to stutter at all.


____37.    Exteriorized stutterers reveal less physical tension and struggle than interiorized stutterers.


____38.    Changing a word to avoid an anticipated moment of stuttering is an example of escape behavior.


____39.    Non-vocalized stutterers tend to have a higher proportion of part-word repetitions and sound prolongations; vocalized stutterers tend to have more fixations of articulatory posture.


____40.    According to Van Riper, word substitutions are common in Stage III.


____41.    The frequency of moments of stuttering should be the major determinant of stuttering severity.


____42.    Prolongations and fixations may be either voiced or voiceless.


____43.    As stuttering gets more severe, it also gets more fragmented


____44.    ³Normal Nonfluencies² occur on approximately 12% of words spoken


____45.    ³Core Features² of  stuttering include repetitions, prolongations, blocks and escape behaviors, but do not include  postponement and avoidance behaviors.


____46.    There is reason to believe that even though there probably is no single gene that can cause stuttering,  stuttering can be caused to by a genetic predisposition,


____47.    In the development of stuttering, escape behaviors are developed (learned) before avoidance behaviors.


____48.    Children who become increasingly inaudible and nonvocalized have a positive prognosis for recovery.


____49.    Developmental stuttering usually occurs between the ages of four and seven.


____50.    Although the speech rates of teens and adults who stutter tends to be slower than average, many of these people have articulation rates that are within normal limits, and in some cases, much faster than the articulation rates of persons with normal fluency.


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