SPA 461.  Examination II.  October, 2003



NAME: ______________________________                                  Student Number:________________


Although the University of South Alabama does not have a formal honor code, personal integrity is important.  Your signature indicates that you will work independently on this examination and neither give help to others, nor attempt to receive help from others.





Think carefully, and look for relationships among the concepts we have studied.  Try to ³tie things together.²  I fully realize that this may be difficult.  Letıs see how you do with it.


            Note that this examination has three extra credit questions.  I will scale the exam, if necessary.


Text Box:              GOOD     LUCK.

Text Box:

Look for the clues


Think back to the lectures



Try to remember what we talked about


Come up and ask me questions, if you need to do so.


Section I.  Multiple Choice.         


1.         Which of the following does NOT apply to operant conditioning?


            a.  Reflexive       b.   Behavioral        c.   Instrumental       d.   Skinnerian


2.         Which of the following statements is true


            a.          Learning Theory does a better job explaining the development of stuttering than it does explaining the etiology of stuttering


            b.         Classical Conditioning explains how instrumental responses are used to avoid and escape the moment of stuttering


            c.          Instrumental/Operant conditioning helps explain why some stimulus situations are perceived as more positive or more negative than others


            d.         Brutten and Shoemaker's Two Factor Theory of Stuttering is an attempt to explain both the etiology and development of stuttering in terms of the operant factors of extinction and punishment


            e.          Sheehan's Conflict theory explains why spontaneous recovery in adults occurs more often than spontaneous recovery in children.





3.         According to the Empirical Law of Effect, which of the following statements is true?


            a.          Reinforced Practice increases the probability of learning

            b.         Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior potential

            c.          Practice leads to an increased probability of perfection

            d.         A & B               e.   B & C


4.         Word and situation fears are ______________ cause(s) of a moment of stuttering.


            a.          predisposing       b.   precipitating              c.   sustaining/maintaining

            d.         a and b              e.   b and c


5.         As compared to an exteriorized adult in Stage IV, the child in Stage I would most likely be:


            a.          more fragmented, more covert        b.         less fragmented, more overt

            c.          less fragmented, more covert          d.         more psychotic, less neurotic

            e.          more chronic, less episodic


6.         Which of the following would most likely be spoken fluently, by a teenager who stutters


            a.          The number nine, when counting:   1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10

            b.         The syllable ³Fred² when saying his name ³Frederick²

            c.          The word ³Tom² in the sentence ³Tom hit a home run and won the game²

            d.         The chances of being fluent in any of these three places are just about equal


7.         When the client stutters, the clinician does something.  Soon thereafter, the client decreases the frequency of moments of stuttering behavior.  This is an example of:


            a.          punishment        b.   positive reinforcement             c.   reward           d.  negative reinforcement


8.         According to Sheehan, secondary guilt is associated with:


            a.          stuttering           b.   fluency         c.   false role and denial

            d.         awareness on the part of the stutterer that stuttering is disturbing to the listener

            e.          parental guilt for mishandling psycho-social development


9.         According to Brutten and Shoemaker, part-word repetitions and prolongations are:


            a.          involuntary                     b.   operant         c.   instrumental

            d.         two of the above              e.   all of the above


10.        Which of the following could NOT account for the adaptation effect:


            a.          spontaneous recovery                    b.   experimental extinction

            c.          reduced propositionality                d.   non-reinforcement

            e.          all could account for the adaptation effect


11.        The Quarrington and Douglass hypothesis regarding the change in disfluency type from audible to inaudible is consistent with all of the following EXCEPT:


            a.          frustration theory             b.   learning theory          c.   struggle theory

            d.         genetic break down theory e.    avoidance theory






12.        The client gives himself a treat each time he successfully modifies a moment of stuttering using AVM (Air-Voice-Movement).  This relates to all of the following EXCEPT:


            a.     response contingent reinforcement           b.   successive approximations

            c.     positive reinforcement           d.   behavior modification    e.       a reduction in negative emotion



13.        According to Sheehan, conflict occurs at all of the following levels EXCEPT?


            a.          speech-vs-silence                         b.   primary and secondary guilt

            c.          self as stutterer-vs-self as nonstutterer          d.   role acceptance-vs-role denial


14.        According to Sheehan, conflict occurs at which of the following levels:


            a.          word                            b.   situation                   c.   role and relationship

            d.         two of the above              e.   all of the above


15.        Hoodıs disfluency analysis allows the measurement of:


a.  molar disfluency frequency        b.  molecular disfluency types        c.   effort/tension/struggle

            d.  Two of the above                    e.  all of the above


16.        "The occurrence of stuttering reduces the fear which elicited it; during the moment of stuttering there is a reduction in fear-motivated avoidance, and therefore the conflict is reduced."  This idea is related to:


            a.    Johnson's Anticipatory-Avoidance Hypothesis       b.     Sheehan's Fear Reduction Hypothesis

            c.    Douglass and Quarringtonıs audibility-Avoidance theory      

            d.    Bloodsteinıs Anticipatory-Struggle hypothesis      e.    Brutten's Two-Factor Theory


17.        In order to establish a behavior, reinforcement should be given on which of the following schedules?


            a.          Variable Interval              b.   Variable Ratio           c.   Fixed Interval

            d.         Fixed Ratio                   e.   It doesnıt really matter, so long as the clinician is objective


18.        The gradual learning of a new behavior is best explained by:


            a.   successive approximation                     b.   intermittent reinforcement        c.   reward         

d.   partial reinforcement                           e.   positive reinforcement


19.        Stuttering is intermittent in stage(s)


            a.          I and II             b.   I and II and III                  c.   III and IV

            d.         IV                     e.   I and II and III and IV


20.        Escape conditioning is the same as:


            a.   Punishment      b.  Negative Reinforcement        c.  Avoidance Conditioning

            d.   Learned negative emotion        e.   Nonreinforcement


21.        Learned behaviors are most difficult to extinguish when they have been maintained by:


            a.   Variable reinforcement b.   Negative reinforcement            c.  Positive reinforcement

            c.   Punishment               e.   Spontaneous Recovery


22.        Reinforcement can be used to increase the ___________ of a behavior.


            a.   Frequency     b.   Magnitude    c.   Intensity       d.   Duration       e.   All of the above        


23.        Which of the following is NOT related to learning theory?


            a.   Genetic predisposition children to stutter            b.  Factors that can precipitate stuttering

            c.   Factors that can serve to maintain stuttering


24.        Tommy speaks 100 meaningful words in 45 seconds.  What is his rate of speech?


 a.         75 words per minute        b.   110 words per minute                        c.    125 words per minute

 d.        133 words per minute       e.   150 words per minute

                        You should be able to do this on your fingers   :-)


25.        In operant conditioning the first event is the response.  The second event could be which of the following:


            a.   consequence              b.  reinforcer       c.  punisher

            d.   Two of the above       e.   All of the above


26-27    Gary is in Van Riperıs third stage of stuttering development.  After several easy repetitions of the initial sound, Gary suddenly engages in an increasingly severe jaw tremor.  It may be concluded that the initial easy repetitions became   (26)_____.  In response to this, the frequency of jaw tremors increased.  The increase in jaw tremors resulted from (27)_________ .


                        26.                                                                 27.

                        a..  aversive/unpleasant                                         a.   punishment

                        b.   associated with guilt                                       b.   negative reinforcement

                        c.   neither A nor B                                              c.   non-reinforcement

                        d.   both A and B                                                            d.   reward


28-29.   The reduction in the frequency of stuttering through repeated readings of the same material is an example of  (28) _____.    After a one day's rest the passage is read again one time and stuttering increased.  One possible reason for the increase in stuttering the second day would be (29). _____.


                        28.                                                        29.

                        a.   consistency effect                                   a.   punishment

                        b.   adaptation effect                                     b.   negative reinforcement

                        c.   episodic variation                                   c.   spontaneous recovery

                        d.   none of the above                                   d.   relapse                            


30.        In order for a reinforcer or punisher to be effective it must be presented:


            a.   contingently              b.   randomly                  c.   immediately

            d.   Two of the above       e.   All of the above




31.        Johnson's concept of normal nonfluency is the same as Brutten and Shoemaker's concept of fluency failure.


32.        Struggle behaviors such as head-jerks are maintained by negative reinforcement.


33.        Negative reinforcement results in a decrease in the frequency of occurrence of a response.


34.        Operant theorists draw conclusions after the fact (a-posteriori) and classical theorists make predictions before the fact (a-priori).



35.        An increase in response strength occurs when an aversive/unpleasant stimulus is removed contingent upon a response.


36.        In a reflex, the first event is the response, the second event is the stimulus.  This is the basis of operant conditioning.


37.        The double approach-avoidance theory of stuttering does more to explain the etiology of stuttering than it does to explain what precipitates and maintains the moment of stuttering.


38.        If a client engages in a behaviors that reduce anxiety, this new behavior  receives strong internal reinforcement.


39.        In the development of stuttering, struggle/escape behaviors are learned before avoidance behaviors are learned.


40.        According to Brutten and Shoemaker, stuttering is a form of fluency failure which is learned through operantly conditioned negative emotion to antecedent stimuli.


41.        The tendency to approach is greater than the tendency to avoid.


42.        The processes of negative reinforcement and non-reinforcement are nearly identical.


43.        The clinician should reward avoidance behaviors only when they result in fluency.


44.        Behaviors maintained by intermittent reinforcement are harder to extinguish than behaviors maintained by fixed ratio reinforcement.


45.        Reinforcement schedules based on time are referred to as interval schedules.  Schedules based on behaviors are referred to as ratio schedules.


46.        The threat of punishment and the promise of reward are equally as effective as the contingent application of punishment and reward.


47.        The principles of operant conditioning can be used for both acquisition and extinction.


48.        Even though the speech rates of persons who stutterer tend to be slow, the articulation rates of persons who stutter tend to be within normal limits for the personıs age, gender and dialectical region of the country.


49.        The hope of winning at gambling in Biloxi, like the hope that stuttering avoidance will be successful, is based on a similar assumption that intermittent positive reinforcement is a powerful factor in the maintenance in behavior. 


50.        Hoods disfluency analysis is a good example of an evaluation technique designed to measure the covert/emotional aspects of intermediate and severe stuttering.






                           IMPORTANT   !!!!!!










Extra Credit:


Johnny is six years old.  He has been "stuttering since the age of three."  The parents believe that his stuttering was caused by a bad scare he had when an angry dog bit him.  Currently, he is afraid of all furry animals.  For his birthday, the father plans to buy him a pet dog so he will lose all his fear of animals.  With respect to disfluency, Johnny is disfluent on approximately 8% of the words he speaks.  These disfluencies are mostly in the form of rhythmic word and phrase repetitions, with occasional revisions and infrequent audible-vocalized part-word repetitions.  The clinician sees Johnny twice a week for 30 minutes after school.  Johnny resents therapy because it interferes with baseball; he is an excellent baseball player and wants to be on the Little League team this summer.


  Based on the above  description, answer the following three questions:


_____    1.         The concept that best explains Johnny's fear of furry animals is:


                        a.          carry-over from the dog

                        b.         response generalization related to furry animals

                        c.          stimulus generalization related to furry animals

                        d.         Attention-getting behavior consequent to disfluency

                        e.          the definite cause of his stuttering


_____    2.         The clinician is uncertain as to whether or not she should work with Johnny.  Which of the following is the best course for her to take, based on the "limited" information presented above.


                        a.          She should not work directly with his stuttering because his disfluencies are infrequent and not highly fragmented.

                        b.         She should work with him at a different time during the day so he can attend baseball.  Therapy should be aimed at helping him to better control his stuttering.

                        c.          The pet dog will probably be instrumental in reducing his fear of animals, particularly if he is given total responsibility for its care.

                        d.         Instrumental conditioning is responsible for Johnny's fear of animals.

                        e.          Classical conditioning is responsible for his desire to play baseball.


_____    3.         It is probable that Johnny is highly aware of his disfluency and is reacting adversely to it.


                        a.          This statement is true because nearly all six-year-old children who are 8% disfluent react adversely to their speech.

                        b.         This statement is probably true because most six-year-old children who are 8% disfluent are aware of their speech.

                        c.          This statement is probably true because the negative emotion that has been attached to the furry animals has generalized to his speech more than the positive emotion attached to his baseball skill.

                        d.         We don't know the answer to the above statement based on the information given.