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Minnesota State University, Mankato

Minnesota State University, Mankato

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Page address: http://www.mnsu.edu/urc/conference/post/URC2008proceedings/2008proceedings.html

2008 Proceedings

Undergraduate Research Center

Table of Contents

Art

Civil Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical & Computer Engineering & Technology, Mathematics & Statistics, and Mechanical & Civil Engineering

Business, Economics, Law Enforcement, and Political Science

College of Allied Health and Nursing, College of Education, and College of Social and Behavioral Sciences

Biological Sciences, Chemistry & Geology, and Physics & Astronomy

Women's Studies and Speech Communication

Women's Studies

English, Humanities, Music and Speech Communication

College of Science, Engineering, and Technology

Women's Studies

Theatre and Dance

Psychology

Automotive Engineering Technology

Anthropology, Ethnic Studies, and History

Family and Consumer Science, Human Performance, Nursing, Aviation, and Speech Communication

Speech Communication, Special Education, Sociology & Corrections, and Social Work

Monday, April 21 Presenters

Session 1 8:00 – 9:45 CSU 201

Art

Absence of Presence
Lindsay Roth (Department of Art)
Brian Frink, Faculty Mentor (Department of Art)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Printing Three–Dimensionally: Merging Printmaking and Sculpture
Matthew J. Olson (Department of Art)
Erik Waterkotte, Faculty Mentor (Department of Art)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Impact of Combining Traditional Printmaking with Contemporary Digital Print
Harumi Okoshi (Department of Art)
Erik Waterkotte, Faculty Mentor (Department of Art)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Amer, Al–Ani, and Tuggar: Reconstructing the Construction of Contemporary Islamic Identity
Gina Hunt (Department of Art)
Alisa Eimen, Faculty Mentor (Department of Art)

Pushing the Limits of Clay: Sculpting with Ceramic Glaze
Chad Gunderson (Department of Art)
Todd Shanafelt, Faculty Mentor (Department of Art)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Large Grant

The Tarot: History and Execution
Andrea Brummund (Department of Art)
Eric Waterkotte, Faculty Mentor (Department of Art)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

The Saqqa–khaneh School of the 1960s: Creating a National Iranian Art Identity
Marria Thompson (Department of Art)
Alisa Eimen, Faculty Mentor (Department of Art)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Absence of Presence

Lindsay Roth (Department of Art)
Brian Frink, Faculty Mentor (Department of Art)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Recently, I have explored preventing the little moments in life from becoming lost, forgotten, and insignificant through the use of paint. I am a firm believer that the little things are what make life great and we, as a society, do not appreciate these moments. There seems to be a broken connection between people and reality, an absence of the present, as we move mechanically from one event to the next, often creating an artificial reality. For example, I commute from St. Paul to Mankato and often I cannot remember the actual drive because it has become so routine. When I think about that example, it worries me that I have become a bystander to my own life. Through the grant I received from the Undergraduate Research Center, I was able to use paint to visually describe lost moments in time.

I created a series of paintings, each begun as layers of squares, eventually, they disappear and the viewer is left with a potentially confusing surface. The squares represent the countless events and activities of life. Using a complimentary color, I created a frame within the paintings that capture and freeze the squares. I explored push and pull effects of colors, an idea explored by Post–Painterly Color Field Abstraction in the 1950's and 1960's. The goal of my paintings is to engage the viewer longer than a painting typically would and success is determined by the paint's effectiveness in stopping time for just one moment longer.

View Presentation (broken link)

Impact of Combining Traditional Printmaking with Contemporary Digital Print

Harumi Okoshi (Department of Art)
Erik Waterkotte, Faculty Mentor (Department of Art)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

For this project, I would like to combine the precision of computer–generated graphics with the warm–feel of traditional printmaking as a way to integrate traditional art practices with new technology. Graphic design is regarded as commercial art, such as designing packages or posters, and is separate from fine art. As a graphic designer, my goal is to develop meaningful visual solutions. Through the presentation of my project, I will demonstrate a way to introduce traditional printmaking into contemporary graphic art. There are a lot of preparations involved for traditional printmaking. You have to make several proofs before you actually print the final picture. This seemed like a lot of work but after working with traditional printmaking, I found that there is a strong connection between the paper and myself. I can convey more feeling and emotion through the process of traditional printing. Traditional forms of printmaking also convey the marks that technological processes don't show. I would like to experiment with this hand–made quality by creating traditional prints and layering the digital art using a scanner and a drawing tablet. The drawing tablet is a computer peripheral that allows the artist to draw on a computerized pad with a pen–like tool, simulating the feel of drawing on a paper in a sketchbook. As a graphic designer, I am interested in combining the quality of traditional printmaking with contemporary technology and examining the impact of this combination.

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Session 2 8:00 – 10:00 CSU 284

Civil Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical & Computer Engineering & Technology, Mathematics & Statistics, and Mechanical & Civil Engineering

Swarm Robotics and Java–based Development Tools
J.C. Grooms (Department of Computer Science and Psychology)
Brian McMahon (Department of Philosophy)
Brighton Peterson (Department of Computer Science)
Joshua Vander Hook (Department of Computer Science) Steven Case, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Computer Science)

Aperiodic Tilings: The Relationship between Spectrum and "Bubble"
Ashley Rand (Department of Mathematics and Statistics)
Brian Martensen, Faculty Mentor (Department of Mathematics and Statistics)

Testing the Validity of the Logistic Link Function in Lung Cancer Data
Harrison Quick (Department of Mathematics and Statistics)
Mezbahur Rahman, Faculty Mentor (Department of Mathematics and Statistics)

The Effect of Corrosion and Cracks on the Safety of Steel Bridges
Christopher M. Marr (Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering)
Karen Chou, Faculty Mentor (Department of Civil Engineering)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Develop a Matlab based Mode Solver for Asymmetric Nano–Scale Void Slab Slot Waveguides
Murtaza Hathiwala (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Technology)
Abidhussein Esmail (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Technology
Gayan Wijeratne (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Technology
Qun Zhang, Faculty Mentor (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Technology)

On the Eigenvalues of Bipartite Graphs
Brendon Watts (Department of Mathematics and Statistics)
In–Jae Kim, Faculty Mentor (Department of Mathematics and Statistics)

Instrumentation to Monitor Bridge Foundation on the Crosstown Project
Brian Welch (Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering)
Aaron S. Budge, Faculty Mentor (Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering)

Swarm Robotics and Java–based Development Tools

J.C. Grooms (Department of Computer Science and Psychology)
Brian McMahon (Department of Philosophy)
Brighton Peterson (Department of Computer Science)
Joshua Vander Hook (Department of Computer Science)
Steven Case, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Computer Science)

Robotics has proven itself to be an important emerging technology. While several commercially–available robotics packages provide a place to begin study, none adapt well to the application of Artificial Intelligence or Swarm Robotics. Our focus is on combining and modifying existing off–the–shelf technologies to augment these kits' capabilities. Our goal is to produce a development suite that includes radio communications, an open source software development package, a mobile chassis capable of independent operation, and the capacity for intra–swarm communication. These tools should enable the production of an intelligent robot capable of coordinating its actions with others of its type. The presentation outlined the initial progress and hurdles, and further detailed the goals of the project.

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Testing the Validity of the Logistic Link Function in Lung Cancer Data

Harrison Quick (Department of Mathematics & Statistics)
Mezbahur Rahman, Faculty Mentor (Department of Mathematics & Statistics)

In statistics, logistic regression models are often used when the variable of interest is a dichotomous (success/failure) or categorical value. For example, one could use a logistic regression model to determine whether a person is at risk for lung cancer using predictor variables such as age, smoking status, and family history of lung cancer. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that the logistic link function chosen is correct for the given set of data. Because of this, my project was to verify the validity of the logistic link function in Dr. Mezbahur Rahman and Dr. Larry Pearson's lung cancer study using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test statistic introduced by Qin and Zhang (1997). Also, I compared Qin and Zhang's results from bootstrap estimation to results found using a permutation test.

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The Effect of Corrosion and Cracks on the Safety of Steel Bridges

Christopher M. Marr (Department of Mechanical & Civil Engineering)
Karen Chou, Faculty Mentor (Department of Civil Engineering)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

The motivation behind this research was the recent collapse of the I–35W Bridge in Minneapolis, MN. The purpose of this project was to build models of single–span bridges to examine the change in their deflections due to corrosion and cracks. Four linear variable differential transmitters (LVDTs) were carefully calibrated and used to measure the deflections of the bridge models. The LVDTs were connected to a Vishay scanner and their outputs were recorded using Strain Smart software. All bridge models were tested by hanging known loads from the bridge and then measuring the corresponding deflections. The bridge models were first tested without any simulated corrosion or cracks. The theoretical deflections of the perfect models were calculated using standard beam deflection equations. Experimental deflection results were compared to theoretical values for consistency and to detect any unforeseen problems with the testing setup. Cracks were then introduced into the bridge models by milling away a measured portion of the steel models. Next, corrosion was induced by exposing the bridge models to a mixture of nitric acid and calcium chloride. The defective bridge models were loaded in the same manner as the perfect bridge models to determine the additional deflection caused due to cracking or corrosion. Current bridge inspection is based solely on visual examination. The results of this study suggest that in–situ deflection data should be used in combination with visual inspection to better locate areas of a bridge with potentially tragic structural deficiencies.

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Develop a Matlab based Mode Solver for Asymmetric Nano–Scale Void Slab Slot Waveguides

Murtaza Hathiwala, Abidhussein Esmail, and Gayan Wijeratne (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Technology)
Qun Zhang, Faculty Mentor (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Technology)

Silicon photonics is a promising field because it enables the next generation computing by providing high speed optical communications among dozens and even hundreds of computing cores within a single processor. One key device in these micro/nano–scale on–chip communication systems is the waveguide, which must be used to guide and route light on the silicon chip. However, the conventional waveguide cannot be used because of its large size. Fortunately, in 2004 Almeida et. al. from Cornell University proposed a novel nanostructure to guide light through nano–scale void slots or simply air gaps. Recently, Professor Zhang in MSU Mankato and his collaborators from Georgetown University have developed an analytical formulation, and successfully extended the symmetric waveguide structure proposed by Almeida to asymmetric case. This is significant because asymmetric waveguides have better light confinement compared to symmetric waveguides especially when there is bending (bending is essential in routing the light.)

We have implemented a mode solver using Matlab and were able to obtain the effective refractive indices as well as the transversal electrical modal field profile of the guiding TM modes. A Newton Raphson algorithm was used for the calculation so our mode solver has a very high computational efficiency. In this proposed presentation, we describe in detail the waveguide structure and the formulae derived by Zhang et. al. and show step by step, how to find the fundamental guiding mode. Finally, we present the calculated electrical modal field profile using an example of air–silicon–air–silicon–air nanostructure.

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Instrumentation to Monitor Bridge Foundation on the Crosstown Project

Brian Welch (Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering)
Aaron S. Budge, Faculty Mentor (Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering)

The Crosstown Bridge Monitoring Project is located at the intersection of Highway 62 and Interstate 35W a few miles south and west of downtown Minneapolis. The bridge being evaluated is at a railroad overpass located midway along the Crosstown expansion. This research project involved placing instrumentation on the bridge foundation in order to measure the change in the foundation loading during the course of the construction project. For several years there have been questions pertaining to the forces in the pile foundations that support highway embankments. This project placed strain gages on the pile foundations in order to monitor these forces over time. The gages were placed in select locations on the piles prior to being driven into the ground to support the bridge abutments. To protect the gages during driving, steel angles were welded to the piles to cover the gages and the cables. The cables were connected to a data collection system in order to monitor the foundation over time. This portion of the overall project involved testing the strain gages prior to pile driving and after pile driving in order to determine if any damage to the gages occurred during pile driving. Readings taken using a datalogger and a simple multimeter will be provided to show the results of this check, with conclusions relating to the mortality of the gages. Although this project is still in its preliminary stages, the objective of the overall project will be to monitor and record the strains for several years.

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Session 3 8:00 – 10:00 CSU 253/4

Business, Economics, Law Enforcement, and Political Science

A Comparative Approach to Understanding the Determinants of Social Policy Retrenchment in the United Kingdom and Spain
Justin Ludwigson (Department of Political Science)
Tomasz Inglot, Faculty Mentor (Department of Political Science)

Trends and Volatility: Measuring the Housing Market Using the GARCH Model
Jonathon Euerle (Department of Economics)
Ken Park, Faculty Member (Department of Economics)

How Do Individuals Make Investment Decisions?
Amin Abdul–Mohomed (Department of Economics)
Kwang–Woo (Ken) Park Faculty Mentor, (Department of Economics
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Determinants of Traffic Fatalities in the U.S.
Hanna Stapleton (Department of Economics)
Kwang Woo (Ken) Park, Faculty Mentor (Department of Economics)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Personal Use Policies
William Meyer (Department of Management)
Kathy Dale, Faculty Mentor (Department of Management)

Occupational Values
Amber Herbst (Department of Accounting & Business Law)
Jane Baird, Faculty Mentor (Department of Accounting & Business Law)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Institutional Arrangements Make the Difference: A Comparative Study of Health Care Policy and Provision in the Netherlands and France
Nathan J. Madden (Department of Political Science)
Tomasz Inglot, Faculty Mentor (Department of International Relations/Political Science)

Determinants of Traffic Fatalities in the U.S.

Hanna Stapleton (Department of Economics)
Kwang–Woo (Ken) Park, Faculty Mentor (Department of Economics)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

This paper investigated the determinants of motor vehicle fatalities in each of the 50 states in the U.S., and the District of Columbia. Using a panel data set from 1994 to 2005, we analyzed how safety belt laws, speed control, alcohol usage, traffic violation fines, driving conditions and annual vehicle–miles of travel (VMT), affect the incidence of traffic fatalities. Econometric models were developed and the estimates were obtained from a general–to–specific specification search based upon all the diagnostic tests in order to increase the probability of selecting models which are statistically reliable. The empirical results show that number of drivers and vehicles, VMT, speed, and traffic violation fines are statistically significant, whereas safety belt usage and state alcohol policies do not show any significant support for reducing traffic fatalities.

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Poster Session A 10:00 – 12:00 Ballroom South/Center

College of Allied Health and Nursing, College of Education, and College of Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Use of Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Strength Training Behavior
Bethany Anderson (Department of Recreation, Parks, and Leisure Services)
James B. Wise, Faculty Mentor (Department of Recreation, Parks, and Leisure Services)

Qualitative Research of Selected Language Skills of Individuals with Down Syndrome
Natasha B. Agha (Department of Communication Disorders)
Bonnie B. Lund, Faculty Mentor (Department of Communication Disorders)

Qualitative Research of Selected Language Skills of Twin Boys with Autism
Ann Strommer (Communication Disorders Program, Department of SHRS)
Bonnie Lund, Faculty Mentor (Communication Disorders Program, Department of SHRS)

The Effect of Aerobic Conditioning Versus Resistance Training on Resting Metabolic Rate
Rachael L. Quast and Patrick B. Wilson (Department of Family Consumer Science and Department of Human Performance)
Susan B. Fredstrom, Faculty Mentor (Department of Family Consumer Science)
Mary F. Visser, Faculty Mentor (Department of Human Performance)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Large Grant

The Relationship between the strength and fatigability of the back extensors and the flexibility of the hamstrings and hip flexors
David Quammen (Department of Human Performance)
Patrick Sexton, Faculty Mentor (Department of Human Performance)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Practices of Childbirth: Getting What Women Want? Women's Desire for Childbirth and the Realities of Contemporary Care
Fatah Ahmed, Fardosa Ali, Emberly Khoonsrivong, Urgen Tsomo, Mercy Wariari, and Hanna Youssouf (School of Nursing)
Mary Regan, Faculty Mentor, (School of Nursing)

Prevalence, Attitude, and Knowledge of College Students at Minnesota State University, Mankato Regarding Oral Piercings
Kayla Janssen (Department of Dental Hygiene )
Brigette Cooper, Faculty Mentor (Department of Dental Hygiene)

TBI: One Child's Road
Amber Elliott (Department of Communication Disorders)
Bonnie Lund, Faculty Mentor (Department of Communication Disorders)

Impact of Statewide Smoking Ban on College Students' Use of Smokeless Tobacco
Jessica Beaulieu (Department of Dental Hygiene)
Angela Monson, Faculty Member (Department of Dental Hygiene)

Winter Decomposition Rate of Submerged Bodies in Cold Weather Climates
Jason Hamond (Department of Anthropology)
Katherine Blue, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Anthropology)

A Qualitative Study of the Impact of Down Syndrome on Personal and Family Life
Allison Greene (Department of Communication Disorders)
Bonnie Lund, Faculty Mentor (Department of Communication Disorders)

Rates of slope erosion near the new Sears Dormitory on the campus of Minnesota State University, Mankato
Neil Gessner, Dan Krumwiede, and Dan O'Connor (Department of Geography)
Forrest Wilkerson and Ginger Schmid, Faculty Mentors (Department of Geography)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Large Grant

Priming the Bicultural Mind
Miwako Fujikata ( Department of Psychology)
Vinai Norasakkunkit, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Self and Emotional Experience: A Study of Socially Engaging and Disengaging Emotions and Their Relation to the Self Using Explicit and Implicit Measures
Dan Ellis (Department of Psychology)
Vinai Norasakkunkit, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

Cross Cultural Adolescent Reinforcers
Kari Ek (Department of Psychology)
Daniel Houlihan, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

The Significance of Red Ochre Found on Skeletal Remains Excavated at the Helget Site (21BW82), Brown County, MN
Marcy Voelker (Department of Anthropology)
Kathleen Blue, Faculty Mentor (Department of Anthropology)

Asperger's Syndrome Qualitative Study
Alisa Titze (Department of Speech, Hearing, and Rehabilitation Services)
Bonnie Lund, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech, Hearing, and Rehabilitation Services)

The Reliability of Acoustic Measures of Speech Analyzed Using PRAAT
Heidi Berens, Allison Greene, Jennifer Ireland, and Ann Strommer (Department of Speech, Hearing, and Rehabilitation Services)
Patricia Hargrove, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech, Hearing, and Rehabilitation Services)
Rebecca Bates, Faculty Mentor (Department of Computer Science)

Examining the Relationship between Perfection, Control and Anxiety
Katey Scheller (Department of Psychology)
Barry Ries, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

A Cross–Cultural Study Between Japan and the United States Examining How Culture Influences What Categories of Emotions are Valued
Julie Poyzer (Department of Psychology)
Vinai Norasakkunkit, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

Identifying Differences across Computer Users
Casey E. Painter (Department of Psychology)
Barry Ries, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

Coding of Emotions and Logic When Making Decisions
Cassie Nieman (Department of Psychology)
Emily Jax (Department of Psychology)
Emily Stark, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

Effective Motivational Techniques That Successful Leaders Use in an Organization
Justin K. Spio (Department of Psychology)
Andrea Lassiter, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

Nutrition Education for Weight Control Programs for Children 6–12 Years Old
Heather Stueven and Brenna Waack (Department of Family Consumer Science)
Susan Fredstrom, Faculty Mentor (Department of Family Consumer Science)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

The Role of School Nurses Regarding Mental Health for School Aged Children
Angela Herrig (School of Nursing)
Norma Krumwiede, Faculty Mentor (School of Nursing)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Understanding Attitudes Toward Drug Use
Erin Salonek (Department of Psychology)
Emily Stark, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

College Students' Attitudes, Thoughts, and Beliefs towards Marijuana Use
Kaley VanDenBerg (Department of Psychology)
Emily Stark, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

The Relationship Between the Strength and Fatigability of the Back Extensors and the Flexibility of the Hamstrings and Hip Flexors

David Quammen (Department of Human Performance)
Patrick Sexton, Faculty Mentor (Department of Human Performance)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

The hamstrings (biceps femoris, semitendinosis, semimembranosis), hip flexors (iliopsoas, Sartorius, rectus femoris), and lumbar extensors (sacrospinalis) all have muscular origins on the pelvis. This indicates a possible relationship among these structures in that weakness or inflexibility of one structure may necessitate corresponding changes in flexibility, strength, or fatigability of another in order to maintain appropriate lumbar posture. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the hamstrings, hip flexors, flexibility and strength and fatigability of the lumbar extensors of intercollegiate football players. The subjects are current members of the Minnesota State University varsity football team. Static flexibility of the hip flexors and 90/90 hamstrings was measured using a 360° goniometer while the strength and fatigability of the lumbar extensors was assessed using a MedX Lumbar Extension machine. The subjects were also given an injury history questionnaire in order to determine previous or existing conditions of the lumbar spine and specific strength and flexibility deficits that may lead to an increased risk of injuries to the hamstrings, hip flexors, or back extensors. Data is currently being collected and final results and conclusions will be presented.

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Cross Cultural Adolescent Reinforcers

Kari Ek (Department of Psychology)
Daniel Houlihan, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

The study conducted showed how rewarding reinforcers were for adolescents aged 12 to 18, and how they compared with other countries. Countries included were Denmark, the United States, China, Africa, Australia, Honduras, and Iraq. The study looked at several different categories of reinforcers including food, entertainment, sports, interests and hobbies, electronics, excursions, social activities, school activities, and an other category which includes other items such as receiving money and sleeping in which do not fit well into another category. The participants were given a questionnaire that listed several items in each category that could be reinforcing for adolescents and also included an other item where they could list any other reinforcer not included. For each item they could choose a number on a scale from 1 to 5 representing how reinforcing the item was to them, with 1 being the least reinforcing, poor, and 5 being the most reinforcing, excellent. Then the scores were compared and contrasted for each item and category for all of the countries.

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Session 4 10:00 – 12:00 CSU 202

Biological Sciences, Chemistry & Geology, and Physics & Astronomy

The Effects of Potamogeton Crispus Senescence on Zooplankton Populations and Planktivorous Fish Diets in Shallow Southern Minnesota Lakes
Anthony Sindt (Department of Biological Sciences)
Shannon Fisher, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)

The Absolute Magnitude Distribution of F–Turnoff Stars
Jacob Simones (Department of Physics & Astronomy)
Paul Eskridge, Faculty Mentor (Department of Physics & Astronomy)

Effects of Impaired Aldosterone Secretion on Hypertension Development in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR)
Erica Moore (Department of Biological Sciences)
Penny Knoblich, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Testing for an Allelopathic Interaction Between Typha Latifolia and Typha X. Glauca
Kayla Kiecker and Janet Wood (Department of Biological Sciences)
Bradley J. Cook, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Comparison of a:Si and c:Si Photovoltaic Cells in Southern Minnesota
Robert Freiderich (Department of Physics & Astronomy)
Hai–Sheng Wu, Faculty Mentor (Department of Physics & Astronomy)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Bacillus Cereus and Its Resistance to the Antimicrobial, Nisin
Kristy Felske (Department of Biological Sciences)
Dorothy Wrigley, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Characterization of Fall Leaves as a Source of Cellulosic Ethanol
Justin Burum (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
James E Rife, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry & Geology)

RNA Silencing of Novel Gene Required For B Cell Development
Michael Witthaus (Department of Biological Sciences)
John Colgan, (Department of Internal Medicine), University of Iowa Carver Medical College
Marilyn Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)

Protein–Protein Interactions of the β1 and β2 Forms of Actin Capping Protein
Kevin Y. E. Strehler (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Protein–Protein Interactions of the β1 and β2 Forms of Actin Capping Protein

Kevin Y. E. Strehler (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Actin is a component of eukaryotic cells that plays a role in cell structure and motility. Actin Capping Protein (CP) is a protein associated with the regulation of actin microfilament dynamics and stability. CP is composed of two proteins, an alpha (α) and a beta (β) subunit. In vertebrate organisms, three β (β1, β2, β3) forms have been identified. The β1 form is the predominant form in muscle, where as the β2 is the predominant form in non–muscle; β3 functions in germ cells. Previous studies of genetically altered mice have shown that β1 and β2 have different functions in mouse myocardium. We hypothesize that the different functions of β1 and β2 is due to their ability to interact with different proteins. Therefore, we attempted to identify proteins that interact with each form using a yeast two hybrid genetic screen. We generated the necessary β1, β2 and α1 constructs and confirmed their orientation and sequence identity. The constructs were chemically transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AH109 and their presence confirmed through plating on selective dropout media. Protein expression was verified via Western Blot analysis. Small scale screening between α1 and β1 or β2 of the transformed yeast has verified the feasibility of the screen. A large scale screen using a murine heart cDNA library is ongoing.

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Session 5 10:00 – 12:00 CSU 204

Women's Studies and Speech Communication

The Portrayal of Women in Contemporary Alcohol Advertisements
Gail Baker (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Getting Different Global Perspectives through Newspaper
Eva Guthrie (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Sexual Assault Services for People with Disabilities
Angela Losasso (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Women's Studies)

Ms., Mrs., Mr.: Gendered Language in Wedding Invitations
Tavis Riederer (Department of Speech Communication)
Rachel Droogsma, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech Communication)

Deconstructing the Slut: Contemporary Definitions of Female Sexuality Amongst Midwestern College Students
Stacy Huntington Scofield (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

The Man Behind the Dress
Zeke Sorenson (Department of Speech Communication)
Leah White, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech Communication)

Fear of Independence Stereotypes of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Film
Amanda Wilcox (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Women's Studies)

Sexual Assault Services for People with Disabilities

Angela Losasso (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Women's Studies)

People with disabilities are twice as likely to experience sexual assault. Several local agencies claim to offer services for people with disabilities who have been sexually assaulted, but these services are not widely advertised. Therefore, victims of sexual violence do not know where to go or what to do. The research assessed the services for persons with disabilities who have been sexually assaulted in the Mankato area and at Minnesota State University, Mankato. A needs assessment of local agencies that provide services for victims/survivors of sexual assault who have disabilities was conducted through telephone and face–to–face interviews with the agencies' representatives. The research identified which services are available, and areas for improvement. Findings were compiled as resources for the Minnesota State University, Mankato community.

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Session 6 1:00 – 2:30 CSU 202

Women's Studies

Sex, Gender, and IT: The Lasting Effects of Gender Bias in Information Technology Customer Service
David Domask (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Restroom Politics
Brad Freihoefer (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

MSU Students' Attitudes and Beliefs towards Vaccinating Youth against Human Papillomavirus
Kathryn Kamerud (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Women's Studies)

Self Defense Classes: Teaching Women to Submit
Jessica Soebbing (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Redefining the Victim: Domestic Violence Shelters for Different Genders
Erin Crabtree (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Here Comes the Bride: Analyzing Bridal Magazine Portrayals of American Brides
Erin Trytten (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Portrayals of Masculinity in Contemporary Romantic Vampire Literature
Amanda Miller, (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Session 7 1:00 – 3:30 CSU 204

English, Humanities, Music and Speech Communication

Re–Emerging Pietism: The Emerging Church as Postmodern Pietism
Tysen Dauer (Department of Humanities and German)
Cecilia Pick, Faculty Mentor (Department of Modern Languages)

Parents as Students: Assessing the Childcare Needs of Nontraditional Students at Minnesota State University, Mankato
Nicole Goebel, Benjamin Heath, Andria Monnens, and Nicholas Rice (Speech Communication)
James Dimock, Faculty Mentor (Speech Communication)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

History of the Minnesota State University, Mankato Music Department
Rebecca Unetic, (Department of Music)
John Lindberg, Faculty Mentor (Department of Music)

Political Agendas in the Letters of Hildegard of Bingen
Anne Sweeney (Department of English)
Cecilia Pick, Faculty Mentor (Department of German)

Cigarette Advertisements in the MSU Reporter
Ali Ramsey (Department of Technical Communications)
Gretchen Haas, Faculty Mentor Department of Technical Communications)

Systemic Racism of the UNICEF Germany's Ads Depicting Children in Blackface
April M. Larson (Department of Speech Communication)
Rachel M. Droogsma, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech Communication)

Re–Emerging Pietism: The Emerging Church as Postmodern Pietism

Tysen Dauer (Department of Humanities and German)
Cecilia Pick, Faculty Mentor (Department of Modern Languages)

Germany in the seventeenth century was ripe for religious reform: the Thirty Years War had created doubts about the correctness of contemporary religious institutions, theologians of most denominations were engaged in abstract, scholastic theological controversy, and inter–denominational conflict was increasingly off–putting. It was into this climate which Pietism emerged as an alternative way of doing religion. Its central tenets were: (1) a more extensive use of Scripture, (2) a reinvigorated spiritual priesthood, (3) an emphasis on orthopraxy, (4) irenic conduct in religious controversies, (5) the establishment of seminaries as centers of personal spiritual cultivation, and (6) sermons emphasizing faith and its fruits.

The impact of this historical movement was geographically and theologically far–reaching. A number of religious organizations in the United States including Evangelicalism can trace their roots back to Pietism. As a result, the most contemporary expression of Evangelicalism, the Emerging Church (a sort of postmodern version of Evangelicalism), also shares a historical link with seventeenth–century Pietism.

More important than the historical connection are the theological similarities: the early Pietists and the Emerging Church both deal with the same central questions which are rooted in the six tenets of Spener's Pietism. I have shown how the philosophical movement of postmodernism affected how the Emerging Church deals with the six central tenets of seventeenth–century German Pietism. In the process, the Emerging Church has taken these tenets to the next philosophical level. After providing a cultural–historical background I have shown how the Emerging Church has developed these tenets and have presented implications for the Emerging Church and Christianity in general.

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Parents as Students: Assessing the Childcare Needs of Nontraditional Students at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Nicole Goebel (Speech Communication)
Benjamin Heath (Speech Communication)
Andria Monnens (Speech Communication)
Nicholas Rice (Speech Communication)
James Dimock, Faculty Mentor (Speech Communication)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

As a public institution, Minnesota State University, Mankato offers many services to make the life of a student easier. Severely lacking, however, is a major resource for parents who are returning or attending college for the first time. Concerns regarding childcare can be detrimental to a non–traditional student's completion rate. This paper addresses statistical information given by Minnesota State University, Mankato parents and its implications. It gives recommendations for action including grants from the Child Care Access Means Parents in School Program and constructing a facility specifically for parents on campus. It also looks to the Student Parent HELP Center at the University of Minnesota as a model for implementation on our campus.

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Political Agendas in the Letters of Hildegard of Bingen

Anne Sweeney (Department of English)
Cecilia Pick, Faculty Mentor (Department of German)

Hildegard of Bingen is mentioned only briefly in historical accounts of musicology, religious philosophy, and biographical studies of various monarchs from the twelfth century; however, she played a crucial role in maintaining the Catholic Church's influence as a political institution. In her correspondences, Bingen used enormous amounts of prophetic language to refer to many current events that were happening throughout Western Europe. In her letters to churchmen, bishops, popes, and kings, she counseled against rampant heresies and political behavior contradicting the will of the Church. The sickly tenth daughter of a German aristocratic family, Hildegard was born 44 years after the beginning of the East–West Schism of 1054, and lived through the 1st Lateran Council held in 1123 by the Catholic Church. This ecumenical council brought many changes into the lives of the clergy such as: the ban against priests being able to marry and the abolishment of the emperors' claims that they had the right to interfere with papal elections. Bingen wrote a great deal to notable political figures admonishing their behavior, while at the same time encouraged them to return to the Catholic Church. My analysis of her letters revealed her intensive engagement in the turbulent politics of her time.

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Systemic Racism of the UNICEF Germany's Ads Depicting Children in Blackface

April M. Larson (Department of Speech Communication)
Rachel M. Droogsma, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech Communication)

In the summer of 2007, UNICEF Germany released four ads containing the use of blackface. Neither the German population, nor UNICEF Germany found the use of blackface insulting or racist when in fact Americans, who have the history of blackface theater, were appalled at the display of white German children with mud on their faces portraying Africans. Through the use of Joe R. Feagin's theory of systemic racism, this paper rhetorically analyzed whether the UNICEF ads should be considered racist outside the American experience of blackfacing and blackface theater. The analysis revealed the UNICEF ads are racist under the systemic racism theory.

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Poster Session B 1:00 – 3:00 Ballroom South/Center

College of Science, Engineering, and Technology

Protein–Protein Interactions of the β1 and β2 Forms of Actin Capping Protein
Kevin Y. E. Strehler (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)

Immunolocaization of Actin in Transgenic and Wildtype Murine Myocardium
Meghan Bohland, (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Optimizing the Expression of Foreign Genes in Mycobacterium Smegmatis
Ben Casey (Department of Biological Sciences)
Timothy Secott, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Unstressed Corticosterone Levels of Male Rats with Surgically Induced Low Aldosterone Levels
Jillian Deets (Department of Biological Sciences)
Penny Knoblich, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

A Comparison Among Three Sampling Methods to Calculate Biotic Integrity in the Greater Blue Earth River Basin
James H. Fett (Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Sciences)
Shannon J. Fisher, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Large Grant

Ultraviolet Radiation Screening Effectiveness of Three Coniferous Tree Species During Spring Thaw Events in Southern Minnesota
Christopher M. Gardner and Daniel R. West (Department of Biological Sciences)
Christopher T. Ruhland, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)

Effect of Normal Polyglutamine Polymorphism on Huntington Disease Protein Function
Daniel L. Haus (Department of Biological Sciences)
Geoffrey. M Goellner, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Screening for the Presence of a Transgene in Genetically Altered Mice
Der–How Huang and Brad Skrukrud (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)

Vasculature Regeneration Following Partial Hepatectomy in the Rat
Brittany Frank and Sarah Karalus (Department of Biological Sciences)
Michael Bentley, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Cloning and Initial Functional Characterization of Unknown Gene KIAA1946
Kyle Jensen (Department of Biological Sciences)
Geoffrey M. Goellner, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Histological Analysis of Myocardium of Genetically Altered Mice
Joshua Kamrud (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Generation of Rabbit and Chicken Polyclonal Antibodies
Jenna Kastenschmidt (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)

The Effect of Chronic Exercise on Vascular and Kidney Responses to Angiotensin II in the Wistar Kyoto Rat (WKY)
Brian Lovig (Department of Biological Sciences)
Penny Knoblich, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Formulation of an X–Ray Opaque Polyurethane Material for Vascular Studies
Charalette Mathwig (Department of Chemistry and Geology)
Michael Bentley, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
Brian Groh, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry and Geology)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Immunofluorescent Analysis of Actin Expression in Genetically Modified vs. Wildtype Murine Ocular Muscle
Aaron C. Peck (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)

Characterization of Proteins that Interact with the Alpha Subunit of Actin Capping Protein
Ryan Raver (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Binding of Topical Skin Preparations to Skin
Kassandra Schleis (Department of Biological Sciences)
Michael Bentley, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)

Microvascular Structure of the Rat Heart
Laurie Colson, Charlotte Mathwig, and Cheryl Thompson (Department of Biological Sciences)
Michael Bentley, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Performance Comparison of Two Processing Techniques for New and Used Multiplate Hester–Dendy Macroinvertebrate Samplers
Justin Valenty (Department of Biological Sciences)
Shannon Fisher, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)

Examination of Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis for the Formation of Organic Films in Culture
Cody Waisanen (Department of Biological Sciences)
Timothy Secott and Michael Bentley, Faculty Mentors (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

The Effect of Activated Charcoal on Soil Microbial Communities in Symbiotic Relationships with Invasive Plant Species
Nisajith N.P. Welikadage (Department of Biological Sciences)
Bradley Cook and Timothy Secott, Faculty Mentors (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Large Grant

Characterization of Peripheral Neurovascular Capillary Structure
Adam W. Sudbeck and Michael W. Witthaus (Department of Biological Sciences)
Michael Bentley, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Extraction and Identification of Compounds in Bitter Leaf (Vernonia Amygdalina)
Leonard Che Fru (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Danae Quirk Dorr, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Identification and Stability of Cadmium–Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Complexes in the Presence and Absence of Clay Minerals
Aaron L. Danberry (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Trent P. Vorlicek, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Analysis of Potential Chemical Reactivity's Between Selected O–T–C and Commonly Prescribed Drugs
Lindsey Faulks (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Danae Quirk Dorr, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Isomorphous Replacement Ca by Rare–Earth Elements in Structure of Vanadate Apatite
Susan Gerbensky (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Lyudmyla Ardanova, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry & Geology)

The Effect of Maternal Aldosterone Levels On The Expression Of 11B–HSD Isoenzymes In Normal and Hypertensive Rat Placentae
Nicole L. Jorissen (Department of Chemistry – Geology)
Theresa Salerno and James Rife, Faculty Mentors (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Penny Knoblich, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Development of a Quick SSCP Method to Detect the Common O Variant Alleles
Kul Karanjeet and Casey Malone (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Theresa Salerno, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Examination and Comparison of Modern Teaching Methods
Megan Munneke (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Mary Hadley and Danae R. Quirk Dorr, Faculty Mentors (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Identification of SNPs in the Coding Region of Human mtDNA
Cassidy Punt (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Elizabeth Smalley (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Theresa Salerno, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry & Geology)

The Comparison of Placental mRNA Expression of 11β–Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
Chihiro Yagi and Saadia Ranginwala (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Theresa Salerno and James Rife, Faculty Mentors (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Penny Knoblich, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)

Discovering the Structural Interactions Between Potential Anti–Cancer Agent NSC 652287 and Guanine
Mark Thompson (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Danaè Quirk Dorr, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

How Guided Inquiry Classes Affect Student's Learning Chemistry
Brendan Roggow, (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Jeffrey R. Pribyl, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Mary Hadley, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Chemistry & Geology)

A Study of Raster Graphics and Image Manipulation Algorithms
Adam J. Bavier (Department of Computer Science)
Rebecca A. Bates, Faculty Mentor (Department of Computer Science)

Analysis of an Electronic Valve Diesel Engine
Jeremy Brandt (Department of Electrical Engineering Technology)
Vincent Winstead, Faculty Mentor (Department of Electrical Engineering Technology)

Automatic Analysis of Speech Prosody of Adolescents with Williams Syndrome and their Typically Developing Peers
Isaiah Houdek and Tatyana Mamchuk (Electrical & Computer Engineering & Technology)
Rebecca Bates, Faculty Mentor (Computer Science)
Patricia Hargrove, Faculty Mentor (Speech, Hearing, and Rehabilitation Services)

Improved Storm Data Processing through Parallel Computing Approaches
Shauna Smith (Department of Computer Science)
Rebecca Bates, Faculty Mentor (Department of Computer Science)
Deborah Nykanen, Faculty Mentor (Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering)

Bringing a Van de Graaff Accelerator to Life
Olivia Rose Oliver (Department of Mechanical Engineering)
Scott Alexander Clarke (Department of Physics and Astronomy)
Arbin Timilsina (Department of Physics and Astronomy)
John Clymer (Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering & Technology) Andrew D Roberts, Faculty Mentor (Department of Physics and Astronomy)

Protein–Protein Interactions of the β1 and β2 Forms of Actin Capping Protein

Kevin Y. E. Strehler (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Actin is a component of eukaryotic cells that plays a role in cell structure and motility. Actin Capping Protein (CP) is a protein associated with the regulation of actin microfilament dynamics and stability. CP is composed of two proteins, an alpha (α) and a beta (β) subunit. In vertebrate organisms, three β (β1, β2, β3) forms have been identified. The β1 form is the predominant form in muscle, where as the β2 is the predominant form in non–muscle; β3 functions in germ cells. Previous studies of genetically altered mice have shown that β1 and β2 have different functions in mouse myocardium. We hypothesize that the different functions of β1 and β2 is due to their ability to interact with different proteins. Therefore, we attempted to identify proteins that interact with each form using a yeast two hybrid genetic screen. We generated the necessary β1, β2 and α1 constructs and confirmed their orientation and sequence identity. The constructs were chemically transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AH109 and their presence confirmed through plating on selective dropout media. Protein expression was verified via Western Blot analysis. Small scale screening between α1 and β1 or β2 of the transformed yeast has verified the feasibility of the screen. A large scale screen using a murine heart cDNA library is ongoing.

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Formulation of an X–Ray Opaque Polyurethane Material for Vascular Studies

Charalette Mathwig (Department of Chemistry and Geology)
Michael Bentley, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
Brian Groh, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry and Geology)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

The focus of this research is to find an x–ray opaque polyurethane material for vascular studies. Polyurethane is an adequate polymer for obtaining vasculature corrosion casts. To formulate one, we need to find a contrast agent such as lead or barium compound that will not react with the polyurethane resin or hardener. Finding a contrast agent that does not affect the polyurethane is needed to allow contrast between tissue and structure when viewing under micro computerized tomography (micro CT). Fine powders of different heavy metal compounds were mixed with the polyurethane resin. The heavy metal compounds were created by forming an insoluble heavy metal salt that precipitated from aqueous solution as a fine powder. Washing of the heavy metal salt was preformed to remove any that was formed. Once the fine heavy metal powder is created, mixing becomes an issue. When the heavy metals were mixed with the resin first, this allowed the heavy metals to stay in suspension. Methyl ethyl ketone is used in this mixture to decrease the viscosity of mixture. Mixing the heavy metal first with methyl ethyl ketone before mixing with the resin caused particles to separate from the solution. The particle sizes in the resulting mixture must be no greater than 1 micron to insure proper infusion into the vasculature tissue. After the resin polymerized, the particle size of the heavy metal compounds were evaluated by light microscopy. Continuing research will involve optimizing the polyurethane formulation and examining the casting of tissue microvasculature.

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Characterization of Proteins that Interact with the Alpha Subunit of Actin Capping Protein

Ryan Raver (Department of Biological Sciences)
Marilyn C. Hart, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Actin plays an important role in many cellular functions including muscle contraction, cytokinesis, cell motility, maintenance of size and shape and cell signaling. Actin is regulated by various accessory proteins including actin capping protein (CP). The heterodimeric CP, which is composed of both an alpha (α) and beta (β) subunit, regulates actin by binding tightly to the barbed end of the actin filament. Higher organisms contain three α and three β subunits. I hypothesized that the α isoforms have unique cellular and biochemical roles and therefore interact with different cellular proteins. A yeast two hybrid screen was employed using a murine embryonic cDNA as the prey and either α1 or α2 as the bait. The objective of the screen was to identify protein interactions between α1 or α2 and other structural or regulatory proteins. Five interacting clones were identified from the α1 screen and seven interacting clones were identified from the α2 screen. Sequence analysis confirmed the identity of four of the α2 clones. To characterize the remaining clones, I isolated the plasmid DNA from the yeast cells by growing the yeast on selective drop out media and utilizing the Clontech Yeast Plasmid Isolation kit, and have confirmed the integrity of the DNA. The plasmid DNA was transformed into KC8 chemically competent cells. The QIAGEN miniprep protocol was utilized to isolate the plasmid DNA from KC8 cells. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the plasmid insert, characterizing insert size. DNA sequence analysis confirmed the identity of interacting clones.

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Microvascular Structure of the Rat Heart

Laurie Colson (Department of Biological Sciences)
Charalette Mathwig (Department of Biological Sciences)
Cheryl Thompson (Department of Biological Sciences)
Michael Bentley, Faculty Mentor (Department of Biological Sciences)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Although the capillaries associated with the heart are critical in providing the heart with oxygen and nutrients, there has been little research visualizing the three–dimensional structure of these capillary beds. This research is being conducted to visualize the vasculature and three–dimensional structure of the capillary beds in rat hearts. In this study, hearts from both WKY (Wistar–Kyoto) rats and SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats) were examined using scanning electron microscopy. To prepare the tissue, rats were anesthetized with inaction, and a polyurethane resin was infused via an aortic catheter. Once the plastic resin polymerized, the heart was removed and placed into a concentrated potassium hydroxide solution to digest the tissue around the plastic cast. The remaining structure was critical point dried and sputter coated with gold palladium. Our results show that the capillaries of the heart appear to parallel the muscle fibers in arrangement, and are highly interconnected. This pattern may change during hypertensive conditions.

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Identification of SNPs in the Coding Region of Human mtDNA

Cassidy Punt (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Elizabeth Smalley (Department of Chemistry & Geology)
Theresa Salerno, Faculty Mentor (Department of Chemistry & Geology)

Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered in separate coding regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). mtDNA is of particular importance in forensic analysis as well as in the study of the origin and dispersal of humans. Two segments of the coding region of human mtDNA, as well as the hyper–variable region 2 (HV2) were selected and sequenced in order to determine if any previously unknown SNPs were present in our test subjects. Target regions were designed to include known SNPs; appropriate primers were developed using the OLIGO 6 Primer Analysis Software. The DNA was isolated using the Gentra column kit and target regions were amplified via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Once the fragment sizes were verified using acrylamide gel electrophoresis, the template DNA was prepared for sequencing by PCR using forward primers and IRDyeTM labeled dideoxy–terminators. Sequencing–PCR products were then purified to remove primers and sequenced with the LICOR NEN model 4300 slab–gel DNA sequencer. The SNP analyses developed in this research were used in two biochemistry laboratory classes. Four novel SNPs identified were: C4198A, found in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene; T4586C, T4644G, T4688C inside the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene. Each of these occurred in only one of our test subjects. No novel SNPs were found in the HV2 region, however, sequencing was successful for only one of our test subjects. Two previously known SNPs were also found: G3010A and C3116T which are both contained in the 16S rRNA coding region.

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Improved Storm Data Processing through Parallel Computing Approaches

Shauna Smith (Department of Computer Science)
Rebecca Bates, Faculty Mentor (Department of Computer Science)
Deborah Nykanen, Faculty Mentor (Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering)

A previous research study conducted at Michigan Technological University by Dr. Deborah Nykanen and her colleague Dr. Daniel Harris analyzed storm data in order to develop algorithms that will allow coarse resolution rainfall forecasted by weather models to be optimally used in high resolution hydrology models with the goal of improving stream flow predictions and early detection algorithms that can be used to warn communities about potential flash floods. This research was performed by analyzing a series of independent radar images derived from Weather Surveillance Radar–1988 Doppler (WSR–88D) data obtained from Dr. James A. Smith at Princeton University using a series of computer programs written by the original researcher and her colleagues. The program was run using a sequential algorithm that takes up to 16 hours to execute. Because of the structure of the problem, there was an opportunity for applying parallel programming techniques to the program code. In order to speed up the program execution time, several different parallel programming approaches have been applied to the code including data and task parallelism. Speedup analysis has been conducted for each different type of parallel programming approach. The parallel programming assessment results show how different parallel approaches affect the speedup of code. The faster code will aid in analyzing future storm data, allowing more data to be analyzed in a shorter amount of time, and will eventually be used in improving lead time on high resolution stream flow predictions and flash flood warnings. The speedup provided by the different parallel programming approaches has been verified on previously analyzed data and applied to new data.

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Session 8 3:00 – 4:30 CSU 201

Women's Studies

College Women's Sexual Fantasies
Elizabeth Harders (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Betty Crocker and the Changing Role of the Homemaker
Britt Katuin (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Assessment of Women's Presence in International Relations Discourse
Laura Pinilla (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Masculinity In Maxim Magazine
Nicole Smith (Department of Women's Studies, Mass Communications)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

College Binge Drinking Advertisements and the Perpetuation of Gender Stereotypes
Stephanie Wager (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

Betty Crocker and the Changing Role of the Homemaker

Britt Katuin (Department of Women's Studies)
Cheryl Radeloff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Women's Studies)

The changing role of the American homemaker has evolved throughout the years as evidenced through cookbooks. Betty Crocker, the trademark for General Mills, represents one of the most recognizable icons. This research examined the evolution of the American woman as portrayed by Betty Crocker. Through content analysis of Betty Crocker cookbooks, this research showed the shift of the Betty Crocker image from the role of homemaker to working woman by examining within these cookbooks the introduction of technology, the time necessary for preparation and cooking, and the de–emphasis on entertaining.

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URC Performance Presentation 3:30 – 4:30 Ostrander Auditorium

Theatre and Dance

Paper to Floor: Linking Space to Movement Through Printmaking and Dance
Staci Lipps (Department of Theatre and Dance)
Dancers: Nicole Curry, Danielle Friedman, Kaitlin Johnson, Kelsey McGowan, Alyssa Townsend, Staci Lipps
Brad Garner, Faculty Mentor (Department of Theatre and Dance)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Tuesday, April 22 Presenters

Session 9 8:15 – 10:30 CSU 202

Psychology

Attitudes, Feelings, and Thoughts: Burning Questions About Nicotine Use Among College Populations
Jessica C. Appel (Department of Psychology)
Dawn N. Albertson, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)
Emily Stark, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

The Effect of On–line Training in Teams
Ariel B. Becker (Department of Psychology)
Andrea Lassiter, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

Emotional Context Between Certified Nurses Assistants and Residents with Dementia
Jaimie Elizabeth Bell, (Department of Psychology)
Jeffrey Buchanan, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Psychology)

Individual Experiences and Subjective Effects of Salvia Divinorum among Recreational Users
Laura E. Grubbs (Department of Psychology)
Dawn N. Albertson, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Personality and Attitude Measures: The Differences (and Lack Thereof) Between Marijuana Users, Psychedelic Users and Abstainers
Rachel D. Hanson (Department of Psychology)
Dawn N. Albertson, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

The Effects of Positive Peer Pressure Among Adolescent Girls: Academic Achievement Motivation and School Engagement
Megan Lynn Moran (Department of Psychology)
Sarah Sifers, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

Comparison of the Efficacy of Verbal and Pictorial Priming in the United States and Japan
Whitney Mone't Schmidt, (Department of Psychology)
Vinai Norasakkunkit, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Psychology)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Cortical Evidence of Misperception
Samuel Hickman (Department of Psychology)
Jonathan Page, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Personality and Attitude Measures: The Differences (and Lack Thereof) Between Marijuana Users, Psychedelic Users and Abstainers

Rachel D. Hanson (Department of Psychology)
Dawn N. Albertson, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

Prior research indicates significant differences between drug users and abstainers on such things as personality and their attitudes and feelings toward drug use (Brook et al, 2001; Walton et al, 2004). In the current study, participants were surveyed regarding their drug use history and general beliefs, feelings, and thoughts toward the use of psychedelics. A short form of the Big 5 personality inventory was also used to measure subjects' levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness. Of the 120 students surveyed, 38% of participants had used marijuana and 20% reported having used other psychedelic drugs (poly–psychedelic users) including one or more of the following: Salvia, mushrooms, LSD, ketamine, ayahuasca and peyote. Significant differences were seen in both the personality and attitudes of all groups tested. The findings indicate that individuals who only use marijuana are much more similar in personality and attitudes to non–psychedelic users than they are to their poly–psychedelic counterparts. Detailed results and study implications will be discussed.

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The Effects of Positive Peer Pressure Among Adolescent Girls: Academic Achievement Motivation and School Engagement

Megan Lynn Moran (Department of Psychology)
Sarah Sifers, Faculty Mentor (Department of Psychology)

The transfer from elementary school to junior high or middle school can be difficult for many adolescents because of the changes in environment and the increased responsibilities both at school and at home. It is expected that during this period positive peer pressure, such as a friend inviting you to do charity work or join a school athletic team, will increase academic achievement motivation and school engagement in adolescent girls even more than boys. The study, consisting of 200 adolescents from public secondary schools, used the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behaviors questionnaire (Search Institute, 1996). For academic achievement motivation, positive peer pressure was found to be a significant predictor, though neither gender alone nor the interaction of gender and positive peer pressure were significant. The results for school engagement showed that the interaction between gender and positive peer pressure were not a significant predictor, but independently gender and positive peer pressure significantly affect school engagement. All significant correlations were positive. Implications will be discussed.

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Session 10 8:30 – 10:15 CSU 204

Automotive Engineering Technology

Analysis of Emissions Using E85 on a Two–Stroke Snowmobile for the 2008 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge
Dylan Brandt and Andrew Pickle (Automotive Engineering Technology)
Bruce Jones, Faculty Mentor (Automotive Engineering Technology)

E20 Materials Compatibility on Elastomers
Chris Connors (Automotive Engineering Technology)
Gary Mead and Paul Steevens, Faculty Mentors (Automotive Engineering Technology)

Small Engine Dynamometer and E85 conversion
Brian Hovey, Ethan Schauer, Matt Schmidt, and Jon Slater (Department of Automotive Engineering Technology)
Bruce Jones, Faculty Mentor (Department of Automotive Engineering Technology)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Design, Construction, and Testing of the 2008 FSAE Car Chassis
Adam Barber and Michael Hubert (Automotive Engineering Technology)
Bruce Jones and Gary Mead, Faculty Mentors (Automotive Engineering Technology)

High Mileage Commuter Vehicle Project
Reed Brown, Quinten Kovanen, William Wegner, and Dan Willeart (Automotive Engineering Technology)
Craig Evers, Faculty Mentor (Automotive Engineering Technology)

Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Plug–in Hybrid
Christopher Henney, Garett Soukup and Sean Wimer (Department of Automotive Engineering and Technology)
Bruce Jones Faculty Mentor (Department of Automotive Engineering and Technology)
Vincent Winstead, Faculty Mentor, (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Turbocharged E85 Engine Project
Tadd Swanlund, Thad Olson, and Tim Welch (Automotive Engineering Technology)
Bruce Jones, Faculty Mentor (Automotive Engineering Technology)

Design, Construction, and Testing of the 2008 FSAE Cars Engine
Dustin Wayne and Charles Meyers (Department of Automotive Enginee
Bruce Jones and Gary Mead, Faculty Mentors (Department of Automotive Engineering Technology)

Session 11 8:30 – 10:30 CSU 253/4

Anthropology, Ethnic Studies, and History

Assessing the Campus Climate at Minnesota State University, Mankato (MSU)
Alicia Brush (Department of Ethnic Studies)
Kebba Darboe, Faculty Mentor (Department of Ethnic Studies)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Reconciling the Past in Minnesota: The Mankato Hanging Monument and the Duluth Clayton Jackson McGhie Memorial
Jay C. Busby (Department of History)
Melodie Andrews, Faculty Mentor (Department of History)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Applied Cultural Anthropology and Economic Examination of Potential Mankato Area Marathon
Michael William Luoma (Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences)
Paul Brown, Faculty Mentor (Department of Anthropology)

Does it Matter that Sleeping Beauty Waited for the Prince to Come? Virtues Highlighted in French Fairy Tales
Elisha I. Peterson (Department of History)
Christopher Corley, Faculty Mentor (Department of History)

Considering Democracy "An ‘Unrealistic’ Alternative": The Results of The 1954 American Intervention In Guatemala
Mark Viskocil (Department of Psychology)
Matthew Loayza, Faculty Mentor (Department of History)

Breaking Social Confinement: An Analysis of Eighteenth–Century Women in the French Economy
Meghan B. Turok (Department of History)
Christopher Corley, Faculty Mentor (Department of History)

When I Grow Up to Be a Man: Masculinity and the Education of French Aristocratic Boys during the Early Modern Period
Amy Waller (Department of History)
Christopher Corley, Faculty Mentor (Department of History)

Assessing the Campus Climate at Minnesota State University, Mankato (MSU)

Alicia Brush (Department of Ethnic Studies)
Kebba Darboe, Faculty Mentor (Department of Ethnic Studies)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Since 2003, the student population at Minnesota State University, Mankato (MSU) has increased by 4.1%, resulting in more non–white students. Consequently, the researcher felt a need to assess the campus climate to determine whether the educational and social climate is welcoming to a diverse student body. Therefore, the increase in the racial/ethnic diversity of the student population is the impetus of this study. MSU has a total population of approximately 14,000 and a sample size of 255 students was used for this study. The data was collected using a questionnaire consisting of 31 questions. The questions focus on demographics as well as attempting to determine how welcoming the campus is to a diverse student body. Data for the questionnaire was analyzed using the computer software program, SPSS. A non–parametric statistical test called chi–squared was used to test seven hypotheses and determine whether there is a significant difference between student diversity and the welcoming environment of the university. Additionally, a focus group consisting of students from freshman through senior years was used to provide more in–depth responses to questions which the researcher felt had not been thoroughly answered in the quantitative data obtained from the questionnaires. The findings from the hypothesis testing were also strengthened by the findings from the focus group. Results indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship between the number of friends of a different ethnicity and racial campus climate. There is also a statistically significant relationship between stereotyping and racial campus climate. There is also a statistically significant relationship between free speech and racial campus climate. In summary, the researcher recommends a continuing dialogue between students, faculty and staff to address race relations issues.

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Considering Democracy "An 'Unrealistic' Alternative": The Results of the 1954 American Intervention In Guatemala

Mark Viskocil (Department of Psychology)
Matthew Loayza, Faculty Mentor (Department of History)

Guatemalan political elites have traditionally resorted to violence and repression in order to suppress social reform movements. In 1944, a group of middle–class reformers, including army captain Jacobo Arbenz, spearheaded a revolution that replaced dictator Jorge Ubico and began instituting genuine democratic reforms. The new civilian president, Juan Arevalo, sponsored new economic and political reforms intended to benefit the rural poor that constituted two–thirds of the Guatemalan population. Six years later, the revolution continued with the election of Arbenz, who promised to continue the efforts of his predecessor. However, U.S. officials, viewing developments in Guatemala through a Cold War prism, came to see Arbenz as a communist subjugating Guatemala and turning it into a Soviet proxy state. In 1954, President Dwight D. Eisenhower and his advisors responded by approving and implementing a Central Intelligence Agency plan to overthrow Arbenz and replace him with a counter–revolutionary leader, Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas. This paper examines the results of the 1954 American intervention, why it ultimately failed and why historians have come to view it as a mistake. It is based on relevant secondary literature and original U.S. government sources, including Department of State and Central Intelligence Agency telegrams, correspondence and National Intelligence Estimates.

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Breaking Social Confinement: An Analysis of Eighteenth–Century Women in the French Economy

Meghan B. Turok (Department of History)
Christopher Corley, Faculty Mentor (Department of History)

The study of single women in early modern Europe (1500–1800) has become a focus of scholarly examination during the past ten years. In order to make a contribution to the research, I examined 1795 census records from the Archives Départementals de la Côte d'Or in Dijon, France that I translated from French to English. The census I examined covered one section of the city and included 2,605 entries. With the records I created an Excel database that included specific information about Dijon's citizens that included their first and last name, age, occupation, the street they lived on, how long they lived in Dijon, and additional comments stating other children that were too young to be included in the census or the present state of affairs of the individual or family. Through analysis, my data reveals important characteristics specific to single women's living arrangements and labor. First, single women comprised an important part of Dijon's population. Second, they relied on female peers more frequently than men for survival. Female clustering, or two or more single women living in the same household, is seen repeatedly in these records and provides further detail into the ways in which single women survived without a husband or family. Finally, the occupations of single women compared to male and married women's occupations, met an economic need that was crucial for the development of Dijon's economy. Their manual labor provided the basic materials and services needed for the success of Dijon's leading industries.

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Session 12 10:30 – 12:15 CSU 201

Family and Consumer Science, Human Performance, Nursing, Aviation, and Speech Communication

Confidence in College Athletes
Kimberly Halpin (Department of Speech Communication)
Warren Sandmann, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech Communication)

The Role of School Nurses Regarding Mental Health for School Aged Children
Angela Herrig (School of Nursing)
Norma Krumwiede, Faculty Mentor (School of Nursing)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Relationship Between Athletes and Role Models
Kaytlin M. LeMier (Department of Speech Communication)
Warren Sandmann, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech Communication)

Does Chronic Dieting Lower Resting Energy Expenditure Below That Estimated By Predictive Equations Thereby Increasing An Individuals Risk For Becoming Overweight Or Obese
Elizabeth Retzlaff and Lynsey Wetzler (Department of Human Performance)
David Bissonnette and Mary Visser, Faculty Mentors (Department of Family Consumer Science)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Health Behaviors of Somali Families
Amina Salim (School of Nursing)
Norma Krumwiede, Faculty Mentor (School of Nursing)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Airplane Landing Performance on Contaminated Runways and Adverse Conditions
Saroj Pradhan (Department of Mechanical Engineering)
Rajeev Shakya (Department of Manufacturing Engineering Technology)
Juna Shrestha (Department of Mathematics)
Nihad E. Daidzic, Faculty Mentor (Department of Aviation Department)

Explosive and Rapid Decompression in Aircraft Cabins
Matthew Simones (Department of Mechanical Engineering)
Nihad E. Daidzic, Faculty Mentor (Department of Aviation, Mechanical Engineering)

Athletic Directors' Perceptions of Title IX
Rusty Allison and Klarissa Swenson (Department of Human Performance)
Cindra S. Kamphoff, Faculty Mentor (Department of Human Performance)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Relationship Between Athletes and Role Models

Kaytlin M. LeMier (Department of Speech Communication)
Warren Sandmann, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech Communication)

This study examined the relationship between athletes and their role as role models to youth. The research was conducted through the use of a simple survey to participants that voluntarily and anonymously expressed their views. The study was conducted towards a targeted audience of college students to test the debatable question of the expected roles of professional athletes. The research question was: Do these professional athletes have an obligation or a choice to acknowledge the youth that aspires to be like them and to then act accordingly? The following study focused on the moral development of youth, the potential influence by athletes on the behavior of youth, and athletes seen through media as exceptions to the rules.

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Does Chronic Dieting Lower Resting Energy Expenditure Below That Estimated By Predictive Equations Thereby Increasing An Individuals Risk For Becoming Overweight Or Obese

Elizabeth Retzlaff (Department of Human Performance)
Lynsey Wetzler (Department of Family Consumer Science)
David Bissonnette, Faculty Mentor (Department of Family Consumer Science)
Mary F. Visser, Faculty Mentor (Department of Human Performance)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Although Americans are chronic dieters, more than two thirds of the US population is considered overweight or obese Dieting alone may not be the answer to maintaining weight loss, and chronic dieting appears to lead to future weight gain. It was hypothesized that, in individuals who chronically diet, Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)is significantly lower than what predictive equations estimate.

Fifteen women, between the ages of 21 and 24, were classified into one of three groups—Controls (CN) with BMIs<25, Chronic Dieters (CD) and non–chronic dieters (NCD) with BMIs>30—using a newly developed non–validated screening questionnaire. Weight changes were measured over seven days while documenting daily dietary intakes using a web–based program [Diet Analysis Plus version 8]. The average daily caloric intakes were calculated and corrected for daily weight loss or gain. These values were then compared to those of the known predictive equations.

The CN group consumed a mean 30± 6.6 Kcal/Kg, whereas the obese subjects, as a whole, consumed a mean 16.94± 5.1 kcal/Kg representing 43.5% less calories per Kg body weight compared to CN. No statistical difference was observed between CDs and NCDs. Also, there was no statistical difference between predicted total calorie expenditures derived from the Mifflin, Harris–Benedict and Schofield equations. Caloric needs, expressed per Kg, appear to be significantly lower in obese individuals compared to non–obese or overweight individuals.

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Health Behaviors of Somali Families

Amina Salim (School of Nursing)
Norma Krumwiede, Faculty Mentor (School of Nursing)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to gain an understanding of how Somali individuals and families exhibit health promotion and disease prevention behaviors. The aim of the study was to discover what social processes families use to make decisions relating to the health of individual members. Since Somali people are very private, individual interviews were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of their health behaviors. The research questions focused on what behaviors were used to stay healthy while in Somalia, what health behaviors Somali are using here in the United States, and how Somali people exhibit health promotion and disease prevention behaviors. After completing an extensive literature review and obtaining IRB approval, the researcher conducted fifteen individual interviews. A demographic questionnaire and a nine question interview guide were utilized to obtain the research data. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for themes. Data analysis identified various health problems and health behaviors as described by the participants. Themes included increased stress related to roles and responsibilities, sad memories, and no health insurance. Overall findings were that Somali families use social support, practice religion by praying and reading the Quran or Holy Book of Islam, and eat healthy foods to maintain health and reduce the risk of illness. The nursing profession must be aware of the fatalistic worldview of the Somali people. Specifically, most Somali people believe that whenever they face a difficult time the problem has come from God and the individual must deal with the situation. This cultural belief can greatly impact health care.

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Airplane Landing Performance on Contaminated Runways and Adverse Conditions

Saroj Pradhan (Department of Mechanical Engineering)
Rajeev Shakya (Department of Manufacturing Engineering Technology)
Juna Shrestha (Department of Mathematics)
Nihad E. Daidzic, Faculty Mentor (Department of Aviation Department)

In this research, we investigated operational landing and stopping phase of large–transport category airplanes on contaminated runways and under adverse conditions. Introduction of Heaviside step functions in the mathematical model ensures realistic time–delayed modeling of spoiler, brakes, and thrust reverse deployment. The model also accounts or variations in pilot performance and techniques. A simulation model consists of several distinct systems of simultaneous nonlinear ordinary differential equations, semi–empirical expressions, and many accompanied algebraic relationships for aerodynamic coefficients, friction data and relevant parameters. The full non–linear differential model was solved using Heun's predictor–corrector method. Different landing scenarios including dry, icy, and wet runways were simulated to obtain realistic stopping distance, speed, and deceleration histories. The model accounts for different contaminated runways scenarios, hydroplaning, wind effect and other advanced features. This mathematical model and the accompanied in house designed MATLAB® program were used as a reliable operational landing distance calculator and as an educational demonstrator to simulate the operation with limited budget. The simulation analysis showed that FAA, wet–runways correction, is not sufficient calculating safe landing distances. Parametric analysis was performed to estimate contributions or significances of various effects. Due to many uncertainties, especially in aircraft aerodynamic data, we estimated the total uncertainty of the prediction to be approximately 1% or 100 feet landing distance whichever is higher.

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Explosive and Rapid Decompression in Aircraft Cabins

Matthew Simones (Department of Mechanical Engineering)
Nihad E. Daidzic, Faculty Mentor (Department of Aviation, Mechanical Engineering)

A simple lumped parameter model for cockpit and cabin decompression of large transport–category and corporate size jet–powered airplanes has been created. The model is zero–dimensional based on the conservation of mass and energy, assumes isentropic expansion of the air, and accounts for both sonic and sub–sonic flows. Simulations through MatLab® have provided numerical results for pressure and temperature variations over time, which have been compared for various cabin sizes, discharge coefficients, opening cross–sectional areas, and pressure and cabin altitudes. Cockpit decompression, along with its effects on cabin decompression and forces on the cockpit security door, has also been simulated. Results showed that relatively small pressure vessels of corporate jets and its passengers are much more likely to suffer from hypoxia, extreme cold conditions, and possibly the pilot's incapacitation. In addition, if the cockpit decompresses first, the forces applied to the newly installed security door may reach unsafe levels and become hazardous to the flight crew. Under certain conditions the simulations showed that these events could happen on timescales below human response times. Therefore it is important for pilots to understand this process and learn how to react in case of such an event. Lastly, cabin decompression is attracting interest due to the future high–altitude and sub–orbital aircraft which will need new solutions to this issue to ensure flight safety.

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Session 13 10:30 – 12:00 CSU 255

Speech Communication, Special Education, Sociology & Corrections, and Social Work

Support of Alums within the Forensics Community
Grant Anderson (Department of Speech Communication)
Leah White, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech Communication)

A Lover's Spat: Utilizing Richard Weaver's Topics to Analyze the Debate in Book IX of Paradise Lost
Nicole Goebel (Department of Speech Communication)
James Dimock, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech Communication)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

Future Teacher's Perceptions of Treatment for Challenging Behavior in Autism
Renee Lee (Department of Special Education)
Ockjean Kim, Faculty Mentor (Department of Special Education)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

Narratives from the Former Soviet Union to the United States
Kimberly Maas (Department of Sociology & Corrections)
Emily Boyd, Faculty Mentor (Department of Sociology & Corrections)

Camper Council: A Meaningful Involvement Initiative
Amanda Penning (Department of Social Work)
Annelies Hagemeister, Faculty Mentor (Department of Social Work)

A Lover's Spat: Utilizing Richard Weaver's Topics to Analyze the Debate in Book IX of Paradise Lost

Nicole Goebel (Department of Speech Communication)
James Dimock, Faculty Mentor (Department of Speech Communication)
*Recipient of Undergraduate Research Center Small Grant

The separation scene between Adam and Eve in Book IX of Paradise Lost has been studied extensively to determine the cause of their parting and the resulting fall. However, no one has specifically examined Adam and Eve's morning conversation from a rhetorical standpoint. Richard M. Weaver's Topics, a series of guidelines that establish a value to types of arguments, is used to evaluate the efficacy of the arguments made by the couple. Adam and Eve's arguments are counted and summarized. Then they are categorized and given a score based on the type of argument that is used. The score is divided by the number of arguments to give one the best use of reasoning. The paper concludes that although Eve makes fewer arguments, but they are of higher value.

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Future Teacher's Perceptions of Treatment for Challenging Behavior in Autism

Renee Lee (Department of Special Education)
Ockjean Kim, Faculty Mentor (Department of Special Education)
*Recipient of Minnesota State University, Mankato Foundation Grant

With the dramatic increase in incidence of autism nationwide, it is highly likely that pre–service teachers will have one or more students with autism who exhibit serious challenging behaviors in their future classrooms. The purpose of this study is to find out future teachers' opinions about various treatment procedures proposed for dealing with difficult behaviors often observed in autism. The information obtained will be used to educate teacher educators in their development of teaching future teachers how to educate children with autism. Participants were pre–service teachers from Minnesota State University, Mankato, attending special education and elementary education classes. Participants completed the Treatment Evaluation Inventory, a questionnaire consisting of three case studies, each followed by three different interventions. Following each intervention were nine statements for pre–service teachers to rate their perceptions. I investigated whether there were differences in treatment acceptability across different majors (special education vs. general education) and across different behavior problems (aggressive, self–injurious, vs. disruptive). Preliminary examinations of responses from special education student teachers indicated that a segment of pre–service special education teachers reject the use of aversive interventions under any circumstances, while some may be open to the conditional use of aversive interventions.

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Narratives from the Former Soviet Union to the United States

Kimberly Maas (Department of Sociology & Corrections)
Emily Boyd, Faculty Mentor (Department of Sociology & Corrections)

This paper examined the consequences of the Soviet Fall on the experiences of East European Immigrants and American Tourists. Five semi–structured interviews were conducted with individuals who were from the United States and had traveled to the former USSR or were natives of Eastern Europe. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed inductively with the goal of understanding (a) differences in life experiences across cultures, (b) how change in regime effects a person's life story and (c) the importance of social traditions. My findings focused on the transformation of economic conditions after the fall and on the social traditions surrounding alcohol consumption. Particularly, I showed that the fall of the Soviet Union opened a doorway for economic and technological expansion. It allowed an increase in availability and acceptance of foreign products such as cell phones and cars. I also detail the traditions and customs surrounding alcohol use both before and after the fall. My analysis focused on the social pressures to consume alcohol and also on how rates of consumption were impacted by economic and working conditions.

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Camper Council: A Meaningful Involvement Initiative

Amanda Penning (Department of Social Work)
Annelies Hagemeister, Faculty Mentor (Department of Social Work)

An increase in interest from youth and family practitioners, policy makers and researchers has given positive youth development the spotlight in this past decade. The focus for many of these individuals has been to develop a wide range of approaches to prevent youth problems and promote healthy youth development. Studies have shown success in prevention programs for youth that are focused on increasing community involvement and include four major components; safety, skill building, supportive relationships and meaningful involvement.

Meaningful involvement has been identified as the most difficult component to achieve in programs for youth, specifically in resident and day camps. My paper addresses a program developed to increase meaningful involvement of campers in the camp programming at a resident all–girls camp in northern Wisconsin. The program also sought to observe leadership qualities, decision–making and feelings of belonging in the youth involved with the program.

Camper and staff surveys were collected at the end of the camp sessions to provide feedback and explore how the camper council worked as a tool to empower youth through meaningful involvement. The anonymous surveys consisted of a Likert–Type Scale and a series of open–ended and semi close–ended questions and examined the youth's sense of empowerment and their satisfaction of involvement in the camp programming.

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Research News GSR - Graduate Studies and Research The 2010 URC:
April 5-6, 2010
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