MinutesPage address: https://www.mnsu.edu/mssa/docs/minutes_years/minutes/2002-2003/minutes_11_20_02.html
70th MSSA Senate
November 20, 2002
Meeting called to order by Speaker Zach Biesanz
Mary Scheider 9-0-0, Joseph Finn 7-0-0, Katie Hjulberg 9-0-0, Andrew Menden 13-0-1, Jessica Giordani 13-0-1, Rajendra K. Penugonda 14-0-0, Jessica Boyd 14-0-0, Katie Garrity 13-0-1, Alex Boyce 14-0-0, C. Rhys Gaffer 13-0-1, Kail Decker 1-0-0, Anand Agarwal 11-3-0, Gordana Copic 12-1-1, Irfan Bangash 14-0-0, Celeste Hollerud 13-0-1, Rebecca Pollack 9-0-0, Ian Radtke 14-0-0, Thomas Handwerk 3-0-0, Jayson Read 9-0-0, Hailey Schmitz 12-2-0, Megan Brandt 9-0-0
Minhaal M. Nathani 10-4-0, Mohammed Suhail 10-3-1, Jared Golde 4-2-0, Taimoor Hussain Bangash 10-4-0
Executive Staff Present
President Joe Muggli, Vice President Ali Raza
Sunshine Hedlund-Graduate student from Eau Claire, WI. I received a degree in Social Work/Women’s Studies. I was involved in student government and United Council-US Student Association. Became a staff member for United Council for a year-lobbied administration, Board of Regents. My perspective on Mandatory Health Insurance. I am married and did not have health insurance last year. Agree students should have health insurance but do not agree that it should be mandatory. Single working moms that are students can not afford to get health insurance. Some students work hard and are therefore not eligible for financial aid. Grad students can not get insurance from their parents and may not have money for insurance. Have heard that if this program were implemented we could not get Minnesota Health Care, our premiums are $8.00 per month. If students get financial aid they will still be paying interest and more over the long run on the insurance cost. I know students have a responsibility to come in and talk to you but senators also have the responsibility to go out and approach students and hear the voices and maybe the voices of the ones you are not hearing. They may not have time to come to you. Has there been anything done to see how this would affect grad students and the number this would affect? Are you guaranteed your award will cover this in addition and how does this work at other campuses?
Would like to know if research has been done that shows how many students did not apply, or how many did not return to school because of the cost of health insurance? Encourage you to talk to more people.
Becky Zacharias-Speaking on challenges of non-traditional students. Identify needs of population; there is a significant non-traditional population on campus. They need to have a voice on campus.
Senator Boyd-Do you know what the population of non-traditional students is?
Senator Gaffer-Is that nationally or on this campus?
Ms. Zacharias-That is on this campus.
Approval of Agenda Approved as amended
Senator Agarwal-What if a senator can not give all his reports?
Speaker-That is up to the Speaker to see if they will remain on Senate
President-Suspend the rules to not give three senator reports.
Speaker-Out of order. Issue is not specific to one meeting, suspending rules is. (This would require an amendment to the Bylaws (Art. II. Sec. 3)
Senator Gaffer/Senator Scheider-Move to put a two minute limit on senator reports.
Senator Garrity-We should not limit our senators to two minutes.
Senator Penugonda-Agree with the previous speaker
Senator Gaffer-withdraw motion
Senator Scheider-Move to remove self from Senator reports.
Presentation-Henry Morris, Director Student Union
Beginning and continuing the student consultation process. Not asking you to vote on this tonight-
vote at next meeting. We are mandated to have this to Minnesota State by Dec. 1. We will miss this by a couple days. Budget is a flat budget. We were asked to phase in required things over two years. This is the
second year. To do all the things mandated by Minnesota State it would take over 4 years. The proposed
budget would increase fees from the current $9.00 a credit to $10.25 per credit. For the HVAC we are banking money so that at the end of the time we will have the money. Have showed the Minnesota State trustees and they approved this. Last mandate-Minnesota State is requiring that we have over 3 months operating expense
in reserve. Reserve is something that we don’t calculate. In terms of flat budget-costs can be driven
up, once they come to us they can not come back to us for unexpected, unplanned situations. Professional Staff Salaries-they have to anticipate what the salaries will be. All represented bargaining units will be negotiating new contract in FY ’04. The proposed budget reflects a 3% salary adjustment and a 10% increase in insurance premiums. When Stompers goes off-line we will have to do something downstairs. We are trying to budget with ½ of commissions when that is off-line. Student Union Revenue is from offices and non M&E spaces such as Barnes & Noble bookstore.
Senator Read-Do you know how long the construction will take?
Mr. Morris-Contractor has said August 03-August 04.
Senator Gaffer- Could you talk about university conference assessment?
Mr. Morris-Two years ago a decision was made to combine scheduling into one office-university.
There is a charge for facilities for non-student groups. Vikings-surcharge-this helps defray costs, they have not yet been authorized to implement this.
Senator Penugonda-blue sheet-#51 and #120. Did you reduce the number of graduate students?
Senator Penugonda-Repairs-huge increase for 2004.
Mr. Morris-That is for remodeling the lower level to get it on-line when Stompers is being renovated?
Senator Penugonda-Is this part of the Master Plan? Are repairs part of the Master Plan, is that
why the fees are being increased?
Mr. Morris-That is specifically for the remodeling of Stompers so they can serve food down there.
The other part is the operating budget. The bottom line is still the same, they are just moving money around. Increase is driven by two things. Increase is because they deferred maintenance for two years
and a projected decrease in commissions.
Vice President Raza-Based on credit hours-the proposed operating budget will not make the $500,000. Will we see an increase the following year? This increase does not make up the deficit.
Mr. Morris-We are hoping it will remain the same or be lower two years out.
Senator Radtke-Is the Electronic Repair expense for on campus repairs?
Mr. Morris-This is for the repairs for all the electronics in the Student Union.
Senator Gaffer-What has happened with the marketing dollars?
Mr. Morris-We are in the process of having discussion with the consultant’s on how to notify people on what options they will have. Second part is letting people know when it is off-line. Working on Web based, posters and flyers. Consultants and school of marketing will have a consorted effort of letting people know what is happening and what will be happening.
Yorgun Marcel, MSUSA State Chair
Purpose of being here today is to present MSUSA issues and how they can better serve our voice.
Have been pushing at the request of Mankato, options for the money received from the increase of soda machines. Will be meeting with the Chancellor and trying to voice that we need to recoup the money and get it back to the students. Part of the reason I was elected, I was very active at St. Cloud State and before that-the system does allow change, we are working on issues. MSUSA is a strong voice for our students on the state and national level.
Senator Gaffer-Would like some kind of idea on how much time you and the MSUSA staff spend working on things on the National level.
Chair Marcel-3 things this year. Alliance of States, Oregon, Alaska-currently NC and Florida have expressed interest in joining. Two levels-develop state associations and we need issues echoed throughout the nation. NC has now put together a system much like ous. Higher Education-reauthorization, looking at programs that need to be increased or decreased. MSUSA will be hosting in early March a conference on Higher Ed reauthorization. We have received encouragement that says this will be a good thing. Lobby effort-will be planning March lobby trip. Two pronged approach-present issues then put the legislators to the wall and finding sponsors for legislation.
Senator Garrity-Since MSU is a larger school and contributes more do we get more benefits?
Chair Marcel-Coming from St. Cloud we hear this all year. All students pay the same amount. We identify which universities attract the most students and keep and nurture them. In California we had the same issues, big and small schools. At MSUSA the Delegate Assembly is a fool-proof system, it is based on population. Delegate Assembly sets the budget, sets agenda for the year. This is a balance to not over power small colleges, the bigger you are the bigger your culture is.
Senator Gaffer-Appreciate what you were talking about on about on the National level-yet do you feel staff time would better be benefited on our state level?
Chair Marcel-No-what happened in Portland made it clear it will benefit our state. If we had a full staff
it would not be a problem,
Approval of Minutes (11-13-02) Minutes stand approved
M #11.20.02 A
Move to reconsider the vote on Motion #10.30.02A, the MSSA support of the Mandatory Health Insurance Pilot Program.
Senator Gaffer-I think this body would do a grave disservice if we did not reconsider this.
I know that if we don’t go forward with the mandatory pilot program we will all be facing an
increase in fees from Health Services. They will come forward in the spring and ask to increase
Revenue-$10 office call. Mandatory Insurance would . This has been very emotional from
Many students. Feel for non-traditional student, as I am, but I know we will face increased
Fees to elevate costs happening there, we are all affected. We can not afford to pay and pay
To have services. Encourage senators to vote this down. We will take a tremendous hit
On our credibility if we back down. We will also shut the door on student consultation. This
Will not go away, it has been ongoing for 30years, it has been on the state level the last two years.
We will lose momentum and whatever we do will be up for scrutiny.
Senator Finn-I think the reason to bring this back is valid.
Senator Read-I rise in favor of this motion, we have received a lot of information good and bad,
directly and indirectly. I don’t agree with the fact that our image would be affected.
Senator Penugonda-Was this not to gather more information so that they are more motivated,
in favor of reconsidering discussion.
Senator Copic-Would like to reconsider because we did not have enough information. We need to
Consider all people
Senator Garrity-While we had a lot of information at the time we made this decision, we now have
new information. Like a new trial-you want to hear new evidence. We should consider that. In
favor of reconsidering.
Vote to reconsider motion-motion passes
Senator Radtke-When we made the vote we made it on good confidence, further information has come
out on the negative side, we should take a serious look at this again.
Senator Garrity-Move to table this motion until our next meeting. Second Senator Menden
Speaker-This motion will stand until we further communicate with them. Mr. O’Sullivan can you give us further information?
Malcolm O’Sullivan-The University President has only received a resolution formally in support, until
the time when he would receive otherwise, that will stand.
Senator Giordani-Is there a formal deadline? Do we know when they will move on this?
President Muggli-Under my opinion-I don’t think anything will move, unless we back it.
Motion Passes- table original motion
President Joe Muggli
Open Forum went great. Thanks for helping out and spreading the word. The event was well attended. If you didn’t attend please talk to someone who did to discuss the issues.
Appointments: Academic Affairs-Kail Decker, Student Union Board-Rebecca Zacharias, Student Technology Roundtable-Katie Guetter, Josh Rising
College of Business senators-Need a student to serve on the student relations coordinator search.
Premier lecture series meetings. If you are interested in coming with me to meetings that would be great I would like another two or three people to come. We help decide who will be speakers, and if you didn’t like Holbrooke this is your opportunity to choose the next speaker. I enjoyed this but he was not student friendly. MSUSA-Dec. 7-9, I guarantee that you will have time to study. It is in St. Cloud.
Meet and Confer Friday at 3:00. Diversity Week-senators have the opportunity to have a table downstairs from 10-2. If you are interested get senators to help you.
I felt it was a good idea to table the motion to get more information.
Senator Boyd-Are we still looking for an MSUSA Campus Rep
President Muggli-Yes, we are still looking for a PR Coordinator.
Vice President Ali Raza
Open Forum went great, we heard both sides, we heard athletes, forensics, non-athletes. On the
issue of class offerings, many students were from the SET Dept. The Administration does now know this is a big problem, major classes are only offered once every year or once every two years. We also need to move on from the 4.00 GPA. There is a 12 point system. This would depict the real student,
it would help the professors. Early registration-athletes are not portraying this in the right way,
most of the student population would not agree to this. Yet it is unfair to them to have to go
on Fridays-many professors will not let them make things up, they need to come up with something realistic-how do they want it-Freshman before everyone else-sophomores before rest of sophomores-they need to come up with a better plan. I support the athletes, they do represent this university, a lot of schools are known by their athletics. At many schools they are given these opportunities.
Richard Holbrook-It is important that we go to these speakers, yet he did not discuss important
issues of things that he has done-like being nominated for 6 Noble prizes.
Senator Penugonda-What criteria do you have for saying a “couple of things-things and going beyond a couple of things”?
Vice President-I will not say a couple of things.
Speaker Zach Biesanz
Recognized Student Organizations
Black Student Union, College of Student Business Organization, Exposed, Men Against Rape,
Sigma Nu Fraternity, Spanish Club, Speech Communication Club
Senator reports-Senators are required to give three reports a semester, if not here a whole semester we can be lenient about that. Recommend you give reports once a month-not all at the end of the semester. Talk about what you are doing as a senator and as a student
Senator Read-Do you know my favorite color is blue?
Speaker –Out of order
Parking Advisory Committee-Off-Campus Senator Rhys Gaffer
Public private partnership between MSU and Roger Peters, owner of University Square. Vice President Trauger approached this university committee at the 11th hour with this proposal and said he wanted a yes or no vote from our committee by the end of the meeting. The discussion of that meeting is not currently accurately recorded on the PAC meeting minutes. This will be addressed at the next meeting. The conscenious brought forward during that discussion was: Dr. Davenport was favorable to explore idea of leasing spaces to Mr. Peters. They needed 160 spaces, they are willing to pay for the construction of 240 spaces. Vice President Trauger asked us if we endorsed this. At first I was outraged at lack of student consultation, where were the students consulted on this? We discussed the other things going on with the impact of this development. This is an opportunity for someone else to pay for the 240 spaces. This would cost roughly $350,000. We did not get an estimate of the revenue we would receive. There will be more traffic with apartments on Monks. The university continues to see develop but at what point does mass transit and pedestrian conversation get lost? I proposed to approve this as a revenue concept. We can piggyback on momentum and do different things to become more pedestrian friendly, more mass transit. Not to lose sight of other concerns. Motion passed unanimously.
Vice President Raza-Do you agree with the outcome written in the minutes.
Senator Gaffer-I agree with the outcome, I agreed with the motion.
Senator Finn-Do you thing that piggyback for Mass transit is worth it-this would negate that because of the additional traffic being put on the lot.
Senator Gaffer-I felt at that point it was correct. I see the viewpoint of the argument, I still feel strongly
that we should go forward.
Senator Penugonda-There was nothing that said what Mr. Peters would contribute or gain.
Chair Gaffer-This was endorsed in theory, we need to look at hard numbers.
Senator Schmitz-Would the university get the revenue from the sale of these spaces?
Senator Gaffer-The permit that would be sold would be to University Square.
Off-Campus Senator, Hailey Schmitz
Lots of stress. Against early registration, should go about it a different way. Should have a jury decide about each case for early registration.
Graduate Senator Raj K. Penugonda (see written report)
Last week I met with Dr. Flaherty along with Senator Giordani to discuss the draft of the new graduate assistant (GA) policy. It was good and surprising to know that there are 450 GAs and around 1500 graduate students on this campus. The new policy, if approved, should be able to prevent the Departments from making the GAs’ work more than the required 20 hours per week. Dr. Flaherty also mentioned that there would be a proposal to increase the stipend of the GA’s on a regular basis and also to increase the number of assistantships being offered. There are also some other changes, which, I hope will take care of the interests of the GAs’ in future. On Monday, I went to Planning Sub-Meet & Confer. This time the whole group was discussing the responses that were sent regarding the master plan. Some of the areas that were mentioned in the responses were campus green space, parking/cars/pedestrians, library, CDC , location of disability services, Nelson Hall, Performing arts, housing and some more. An attempt is being made to categorize those issues and then refer those issues to the master planners. There will be another meeting the first week of December and I hope to attend that also. The group liked the idea of having tables to propagate information about MSSA and the master plan too. We can do it and I am open to discussions about this idea. I attended the lecture of Richard Holbrooke. It was good to listen to him but it was not very informative or impressive, apart from the fact that he wasn’t diplomatic in answering questions. This is just my personal opinion. Now the interesting part- who am I? Rajendra Kumar Sreekrishna Penugonda, a name that evolved after a compromise between my Grandma, Mother and Father. I am from India which is about 10,476 miles from Minneapolis, I have a family in India. My family includes my Grandma, Mother, Father and three elder sisters (all of whom are married) and are in different places. I have two nephews and a niece about four months old now, I was fortunate to have been there when she was born. My grandmother is my major source of inspiration. Father, mother, sisters, nephews. I mention all these people because they made me what I am. Being involved starting
in middle school, high school-leader and school captain. Undergrad-student council representing
technology. I was in athletics-track, soccer ball, badminton, also paint, and water colors. As a person you might think that I am very inhibited, I am a Cancerian. I like smiling. Something I would like to share, there
is a girl waiting for me back home. We have a different system back home, You have to get engaged
and have a party. We want to go forward and share our life. I have given a short lecture about marriages in India in a Psychology class at MSU. Another genuine interest of mine is making people aware of the other cultures of the world, especially about the part where I come from. There are. 26 languages and 1500 dialects in India. When I came to Mankato, I was a stranger in a strange place, I like this place, what matters is not being applauded when you arrive, but when you leave. I asked my grandma about the time I was born and I was told that on hearing me cry for the first time, everyone else was very happy and there was actually a big celebration. As I was growing up I decided that I will get back at them and make sure that I will live my life such that when I leave this world, I will be smiling and the ones left behind will have t shed a tear or two! And I hope to achieve that.
Senator Finn-Do you play cricket? Did you see the World Cup?
Senator Penugonda-I watched them on the web. They are having some bad luck now.
Senator Agarwal-Did you know you are a very good cook?
Science Engineering & Technology Senator Jessica Boyd
I e-mailed Dr Davenport about grade inflation and the 10 point scale.
I gave a presentation with Vice President Raza to First Year Experience class a few weeks ago.
I will be giving another presentation to another First Year Experience class. This is great way
to get people involved.
Friday-SET Student Advisory Board. I have had a lot of luck using MARS-do it over the phone.
Science Engineering & Technology Senator Katie Garrity
Attended Washington DC Lobby trip. Before trip was concerned about what was going to happen.
My recommendation for anyone going on future DC trips is to try to stay in contact with MSUSA. Was in a car accident with 11 people in a rented van. Had some conflicts at the subway. We met with all staffers. Discussed issues-reauthorization-financial aid, we were lobbying for financial aid, Pell Grant. Wanted them to keep funding the Pell Grant. Wanted student input. Pell pass through-expected cost-deducted from State Grant. We are the only state that deducts dollar for dollar. Federal money is taken away from State money MSUSA supports not considering Pell Grant when figuring State money. Minnesota students are the most affected by this. We want more money for Pell Grants. Drug offenders are not eligible for financial aid, even if it was a small charge years ago. We do not feel this is right..
Congressman Oberstar supports the bill if it said, if while receiving financial aid you have a drug offense then your financial aid would be cut off. In receiving independent student aid-24 years old , veteran, married, probably a misconception that parents contribute more than they actually do. We got a lot of feedback on this issue. Also had meetings where they told us information-did not feel they were as productive. The reason I asked the State Chair the question on the benefits we receive from MSUSA-it seems like we pay for other small schools. Also, maybe they did not need to have 11 people lobbying. We were done on Friday, stayed until Sunday. Appreciated this but we should be aware of this. Networking-is very strange. I think we did the right thing today when we tabled the insurance. It is good to wait until we get more information.
President Muggli-Did you think your MSUSA money and our money was well spent?
Senator Garrity-I don’t know-it seemed like Frank wanted the same people to go in the Fall
and Spring. People that had gone before had met with the same guy. It is good they hear
What MSUSA thinks, I don’t know if our school would feel the same. This does not seem like the best time to do lobbying.
Senator Gaffer-What kind of recommendations would you give to have you better prepared?
Senator Garrity-The information was available on line, we had a packet of information. I did not
know what it meant to lobby. It was good they heard what we had to say, but I don’t think we
needed all the people.
Graduate Senator Jessica Giordani
A little bit about me-I am a 2nd year Women Studies Graduate Student, I am a feminist, activist, Queer. I am a 1st generation college student, Italian-American, atheist from CT. I will be graduating in May, my thesis topic is Women as Freaks in the American Sideshow. Other academic interests I have are women & poverty, disability rights, sex-radical culture, women’s oral history and the lgbt community.
Sex radical community.
Employment-teacher for private reading institute (4 year olds to adult speed reading courses)
taught Women’s Studies at MSU. Currently Program .Advisor. for the LGBT Center. Name change this year-it is a beautiful thing to represent the student body. In the future I would like
to have a small business in Minneapolis . In the College of Graduate Studies, there are 1500 grads and only 450 GA positions. 2/3rds of graduate students do not have jobs or access to work experience. This is problematic, when you are recruiting as we do not have Ph.D. You work 20 hours a week for $8,000 per year and no benefits, no union, this is exploitation of labor and choice, work in three different jobs.
on campus. A lot of institutions can unionize graduate students. that will not happen here. I hear students say students choose to not have insurance, you can not choose if you don’t have access because of financial obligations. This would give students no choice. Accessible and affordability-higher ed
is not accessible and affordable unless you have a financial background to help. Many students do not have the privilege of going to graduate schools.
.Senator Gaffer-How do the kids like your tattoos?
Senator Giordani-They don’t seem to be bothered by them.
Senator Handwerk-Where are you from in CT?
Senator Giordani-New London CT
Senator Boyd –Is the new name LGBT Center?
Senator Giordani-Yes, we have been working on that for a while.
Senator Read-What kind of small business.
Senator Giordani-Women’s radical sex.
Off-Campus Senator Tom Handwerk
Most important person in my life is my fiancé-getting married in August-also from CT. A big part of my life is my fraternity-stereotypes are not true on this campus. We help out a lot and are underappreciated.
One good thing about small chapters. They stick to what the fraternity is all about. It is not what you
think-a frat is a negative term. It is disgraceful. My fraternity is 150 years old.
I live in the chapter house, but on campus most of the time. Guys are the best buddies in the world.
I am President of Men Against Rape, meetings every Tuesday. Also working on Dance Marathon-supports Gillette Children’s Hospital. .I don’t know how I feel about early registration, I don’t think
Senator Penugonda-When did you decide to partake of the senate?
their opinion out as well as that of off-campus people. I will vote with what I hear my constituents want.
Senator Garrity-Is there something that causes you to believe we perceive Greeks negatively.
Senator Hjulberg-Have you lived in the cities-where I come from in the cities, it is very diverse.
Off-Campus Senator Celeste Hollerud
“The fiasco that was registering my mom for classes”. Recap-Mom going to MSU next spring for Early Childhood. I volunteered to help her register because I understood how to. The first time we tried we found that her birthday was not on file-called Admissions they helped with that. 2nd time-not admitted to program yet so unable to take upper level courses.
detriments for non-traditional students.
I am going home during winter break. I have talked to people about health insurance, most of them do not like it.
RHA meeting, I told them I was their representative.
Senator Read-where is home.
I am from St. Paul. I am a 1st year college student. I am on SAGE, want to help create awareness to campus, also do martial arts, captain and president of Fencing Club, Amnesty International, English major and
Anthropology-Communications Board-this deals with Newspaper and River Review. I have been involved on Student Events Team, SLD&SL, wrote for Reporter. I have heard a concern from fine arts students with lack of
renovation of Nelson Hall. Want all students to be aware that if we have no renovation in future it will be only arts and not fine arts. Attended conference for English majors regarding careers. I have been talking to students concerned with tech fees. E-mailed Dean of College to set up rapport with the college.
Senator Handwerk-When does fencing club meet?
We had our first ECDC meeting. Yesterday met with Dean of Social & Behavioral Sciences. Have very limited classroom facilities, small rooms and labs. Anthropology Lab-we have every broken chair there is.
Senator Finn-What is the E museum?
Senator Boyce-Museum on-line.
Senator Finn-What is the big secret about that?
Senator Boyce-If I told you, I would have to kill you.
Speaker-Chair will not tolerate murder.
Senator Read-Chairs for Anthropology Lab?
Senator Boyce-We just have very old, different chairs.
Senator Gaffer-Student Union Board tomorrow-voting on budget. Tuesday I will be hosting a forum on Mandatory Health insurance.
Senator Finn-Jamnesty International-tomorrow at 7:00-$5.00. Money goes to refugees. Need students on Communication Board.
Senator Bangash-Friendship Night Dec 9. $4.00
Senator Hjulberg-Festival of Trees-next week.
Senator Garrity-Salsa Dancing, Tip Off Classic-Friday and Saturday Go Mavs
President Muggli-No senate next week. Potluck at Joe’s
Senator Gaffer-Looking for activities for birthday tomorrow
Speaker-Senator Nathani has resigned. Aikido Club. Homeland Security Act passed-welcome to 1984.
Mary Scheider, Joseph Finn, Minhaal Nathani, Katie Hjulberg, Andrew Menden, Jessica Giordani, Rajendra Penugonda,
Jessica Boyd, Katie Garrity-proxy Eric O’Conner, Mohammad Suhail, Alex Boyce, Rhys Gaffer, Gordana Copic, Irfan Bangash, Celeste Hollerud, Thomas Handwerk, Rebecca Pollack, Ian Radtke, Jayson Read, Hailey Schmitz, Megan Brandt
Anand Agarwal, Jared Golde, Taimoor Bangash
Executive Staff Present
President Joe Muggli, Vice President Ali Raza
Adjournment 7:28 PM